Phased-array optics

Phased array optics (PAO) is the technology of controlling the phase of light waves transmitting or reflecting from a two-dimensional surface by means of adjustable surface elements. It is the optical analogue of phased array radar. By dynamically controlling the optical properties of a surface on a microscopic scale, it is possible to steer the direction of light beams, or the view direction of sensors, without any moving parts. Hardware associated with beam steering applications is commonly called an optical phased array (OPA).[1] Phased array beam steering is used for optical switching and multiplexing in optoelectronic devices, and for aiming laser beams on a macroscopic scale.

Complicated patterns of phase variation can be used to produce diffractive optical elements, such as dynamic virtual lenses, for beam focusing or splitting in addition to aiming. Dynamic phase variation can also produce real-time holograms. Devices permitting detailed addressable phase control over two dimensions are a type of spatial light modulator (SLM).

In nanotechnology, phased array optics refers to arrays of lasers or SLMs with addressable phase and amplitude elements smaller than a wavelength of light.[2] While still theoretical, such high resolution arrays would permit extremely realistic three-dimensional image display by dynamic holography with no unwanted orders of diffraction. Applications for weapons, space communications, and invisibility by optical camouflage have also been suggested.[2]

DARPA's Excalibur program aims to provide realtime correction of atmospheric turbulence for a laser weapon.[3]

See also


  1. McManamon P.F.; et al. (May 15, 1996). "Optical phased array technology". Proceedings of the IEEE, Laser radar applications. IEEE. 84 (2): 99–320. Retrieved 2007-02-18.
  2. 1 2 Wowk B (1996). "Phased Array Optics". In BC Crandall. Molecular Speculations on Global Abundance. MIT Press. pp. 147–160. ISBN 0-262-03237-6. Retrieved 2007-02-18.
  3. Eshel, Tamir (7 March 2014). "Successful EXCALIBUR Test Brings DARPA Closer to Compact High Energy Lasers". Defense Update. Retrieved 9 March 2014.

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