Peru–United States relations

Peruvian–American relations


United States

Peru–United States relations are the bilateral relations between the Republic of Peru and the United States of America. The independence of Peru from Spain was recognized by the United States on May 2, 1826.

Relations reached their lowest point during the United States invasion of Panama of 1989, when Peru recalled its ambassador in protest of American military actions. However, relations were restored and have recovered and vastly expanded in the decades since.

According to various global opinion polls, Peruvian public perceptions of the United States itself seem to be fairly positive, with 61% of Peruvians viewing the U.S. favorably in 2007,[1] and 55% of Peruvians viewing American influence positively in 2013.[2] According to the 2012 U.S. Global Leadership Report, 34% of Peruvians approve of U.S. leadership, with 27% disapproving and 39% uncertain.[3]

Country comparison

Republic of Peru United States of America
Population 30,814,175 (40th) (0.43% of the world population) 325,660,000 (3rd) (4.5% of the world population)
Area (total area) (according to Encyclopædia Britannica) 1,285,216 km2 (20th) 9,629,029 km2 (4th)
Population Density 23/km² (57/sq mi) 33.7/km² (87.4/sq mi)
Capital Lima Washington, D.C.
Largest City Lima – 9.735.587 (Estimated 2014 population (INEI)) New York City – 8,405,837 (19,949,502 Metro) (2013 United States Census estimates[4])
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic Federal presidential constitutional republic
First Leader José de San Martín George Washington
Current Leader Martín Vizcarra Donald Trump
Official languages Spanish, Quechua and Aymara None, English (de facto)
Main religions 81.3% Roman Catholic, 12.5% Evangelical, 3.3% other denominations, 2.9% non-religious 78.4% Christianity, 16.1% non-Religious, 1.7% Judaism, 0.7% Buddhism, 0.6% Islam, 0.4% Hinduism[5]
Ethnic groups 59.5% Mestizo, 22.7% Quechua, Others 6.7%, 4.9 White, 2.7% Aymara, 1.8% Amazonian, 1.6% Black/Mulatto 74% White American, 14.8% Hispanic and Latino Americans (of any race), 13.4% African American, 6.5% Some other race, 4.4% Asian American, 2.0% Two or more races, 0.68% American Indian or Alaska Native, 0.14% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
GDP (nominal) (2013 estimate) $206.542 billion (50th) $17.438 trillion (1st)
GDP (nominal) per capita (2014 estimate) $6,895 (86th) $54,609 (8th)
GDP (PPP) (2014 estimate) $368.777 billion (39th) $17.438 trillion (1st)
GDP (PPP) per capita (2014 estimate) $11,735 (82nd) $54,609 (7th)
Gini (2012) 48.1 (32nd) 47.7[6] (39th)
HDI (2011) 0.741 (very high) (77th) 0.937[7] (very high) (3rd)
Currency Nuevo sol (S/.) United States dollar ($)
Peruvian Americans 16,000 American-born people living in Peru 594,418 People of Peruvian origin living in the United States
Military Troops 380,000 3,000,000 (about 1 military or paramilitary personnel per 105 persons)
English Speakers unknown 267,444,149 (85.1% of the total population)
Labour Forces 10,260,000 154,900,000
Telecommunications (Mobile Phones) 33,000,000 327,577,529

Bilateral relations

Peru enjoys strong and cooperative relations with the United States. Relations were strained following the tainted re-election of former President Alberto Fujimori in June 2000, but improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of the government of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001. Relations with President Alan García's administration were positive, and that continued to be the case with the administration of the former President, Pablo Kuczynski. The United States continues to promote the strengthening of democratic institutions and human rights safeguards in Peru and the integration of Peru into the world economy.

The United States and Peru cooperate on efforts to interdict the flow of narcotics, particularly cocaine, to the United States. Bilateral programs are now in effect to reduce the flow of drugs through Peru's port systems and to perform ground interdiction in tandem with successful law enforcement operations. These U.S. Government-supported law enforcement efforts are complemented by an aggressive effort to establish an alternative development program for coca farmers in key coca growing areas to voluntarily reduce and eliminate coca cultivation. This effort is funded by the Department of State's Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).

U.S. investment and tourism in Peru have grown substantially in recent years. The U.S. is Peru's number one trade partner, and economic and commercial ties will deepen if the U.S.–Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA) is passed by the U.S. Congress.

About 200,000 U.S. citizens visit Peru annually for business, tourism, and study. About 16,000 Americans reside in Peru, and more than 400 U.S. companies are represented in the country. The U.S. maintains an embassy in Lima. There is a U.S. Consular Agency in Cuzco, and the USAID building is located in Lima. The current U.S. ambassador is Krishna Urs.

The Cuzco Consulate assisted a group of American backpackers who were attacked by Peruvian villagers who suspected the group were "cattle rustlers".[8]

21st century

Peru remains part of SICOFAA (whose creation was proposed by the Peruvian Air Force in 1964) and the Rio Pact, requiring it and the U.S. to assist each other in case of attack, and continues to be a regular participant in RIMPAC, an international maritime military exercise led by the U.S. to promote stability throughout the Pacific in the event of a potential conflicts ranging from China invading Taiwan or North Korean aggression against its neighbors.

In 2002, nine people died when a car bomb detonated by suspected rebels in the Peruvian capital just days before a visit from American President George W. Bush (see 2002 Lima bombing).

During its time as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council from 2006-2007,[9] Peru (despite having refrained from openly participating in the Global War on Terror itself), alongside the U.S. and the West, repeatedly voted in favor of extending the authorization mandate of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan,[10][11] and increasing sanctions against Iran over its controversial nuclear program.[12][13]

The U.S. and Peruvian governments criticized North Korea's 2006 nuclear test; according to an official notice issued by the Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, "This is a serious event, that violates the effective moratorium for nuclear tests, constitutes a threat to international peace and security and aggravates the tensions in the Korean Peninsula and in the Northeastern Pacific." The note also remarked that, "as a state member of the Security Council, the Government of Peru considers that, in accordance with the Chart of the United Nations, this situation must be examined through the existing multilateral mechanisms". Peru urged North Korea to unconditionally return to the Six-Party Talks and to suspend all activity related to its nuclear program and also reiterated its "firm commitment with non-proliferation efforts, and the suitable mechanisms for the promotion of the strategic stability, international peace and security".

In 2007, Peruvian Foreign Minister Jose Garcia said that his country opposes America's occupation of Iraq, and called for the immediate withdrawal of US military forces from that country: "We are against the invasion of Iraq, and hope the military forces will leave that country soon to bring sovereignty back," noting the Iraqi situation is very complex and the invasion was a mistake of Washington.

In 2008, Peru joined the U.S. and its allies in recognizing Kosovo,[14] and ultimately refused to recognize South Ossetia and Abkhazia,[15] yet opposed the U.S. and Israel by recognizing Palestine in 2011, claiming "no pressure from any side".[16] In reaction to the Libyan Civil War, Peru became the first country to cut ties with Libya "until the violence against the people ceases" as a result of the aerial bombing of Tripoli. Peru's President Alan García stated, "Peru strongly protests against the repression unleashed by the dictatorship of Muammar al-Gaddafi against the people who are demanding democratic reforms to change the government which has been led for 40 years by the same person." Garcia said that Peru would ask the UN Security Council to establish a no-fly zone over Libya to prevent the use of the country’s warplanes against the population.[17]

Upon the death of Osama bin Laden in 2011, Garcia credited the death of bin Laden to late and recently beatified Pope John Paul II, saying, "His first miracle was to remove from the world the incarnation of evil, the demonic incarnation of crime and hatred..." He also said that bin Laden's death "vindicates [former U.S. President] George W. Bush's decision to punish Bin Laden and patiently continue this work that has borne fruit".[18]

While Peru's Deputy Foreign Minister José Beraún Araníbar condemned "the excesses committed by the government of Syria" in a 2012 interview,[19] Peru later joined Ecuador and Russia in taking a common stance on the Syrian civil war, with Araníbar stating, "The principle of non-interference has been adopted and advocated by the United Nations and Peru means to keep to it in the Syrian case," also stressing that Peru saw a political dialogue as the only viable means of peace enforcement and supported a joint UN/Arab League initiative to this effect, indicating Peru would not likely support a U.S. intervention.[20]

In June 2013, Peruvian President Ollanta Humala and U.S. President Barack Obama promised to strengthen ties between both nations, including in the fight against narcotics trafficking and in tightening economic ties.[21]

See also


  1. Opinion of the United States - Peru Pew Research Center
  2. 2013 World Service Poll BBC
  3. U.S. Global Leadership Project Report - 2012 Gallup
  4. Sam Roberts (April 5, 2012). "Population Growth in New York City Is Outpacing 2010 Census, 2011 Estimates Show". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
  5. Religious Affiliation Pew report
  6. "United States". The World Factbook. CIA. September 30, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2010. (area given in square kilometers)
  7. John Hall (4 February 2013). "Bound, beaten and robbed: Backpackers attacked by whip-brandishing Peruvian villagers in 'savage' two day ordeal". The Independent. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
  8. Countries Elected Members of the Security Council
  9. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1707
  10. United_Nations_Security_Council_Resolution_1776
  11. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737
  12. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747
  13. Peru formally recognizes Kosovo as independent state Andina
  14. International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
  15. Peru recognizes Palestinian state
  16. "Peru suspends diplomatic relations with Libya". Retrieved 2011-02-23.
  17. "Peru leader credits late pope for bin Laden death". May 2, 2011. Archived from the original on May 4, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
  18. Peru minister condemns excesses of Syrian regime Arab News
  19. Russian, Peru and Ecuador join voices on Syria Voice of Russia
  20. U.S., Peru Presidents Pledge to Fight Trafficking June 11, 2013 WSJ

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website (U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets).

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