Penryn and Falmouth (UK Parliament constituency)

Penryn and Falmouth
Former County constituency
for the House of Commons
County Cornwall
Major settlements Penryn and Falmouth
19181950
Number of members One
Replaced by Truro and Falmouth & Camborne
Created from Penryn and Falmouth, St Austell and Truro
18321918
Number of members 1832-1885: Two;
1885-1918: One
Type of constituency Borough constituency
Replaced by Penryn and Falmouth
Created from Cornwall and Penryn

Penryn and Falmouth was the name of a constituency in Cornwall, England, UK, represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1832 until 1950. From 1832 to 1918 it was a parliamentary borough, initially returning two Members of Parliament (MPs), elected by the bloc vote system.

Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, its representation was reduced to one member, elected by the first past the post system. In 1918 the borough was abolished and the name was transferred to a county constituency electing one MP.

Boundaries

1918-1950: The Municipal Boroughs of Falmouth, Penryn, and Truro, the Urban District of St Austell, and parts of the Rural Districts of East Kerrier, Truro, and St Austell.

History

The constituency was created by the Reform Act 1832 (the "Great Reform Act") as a replacement for the Penryn constituency, which had become a notoriously rotten borough. The new borough consisted of Penryn, Falmouth and parts of Budock and St Gluvias parishes, giving it a mostly urban population of nearly 12,000, of whom 875 were registered to vote at its first election in 1832.

Initially Penryn and Falmouth elected two MPs, but this was reduced to one in 1885. It was one of the smallest constituencies in England for the next thirty years. At this period its voters were politically unpredictable; though generally among the more Conservative Cornish constituencies, they were influenced by personal factors and often swung against the national tide of opinion. Falmouth, which had a stronger non-conformist presence, was the more Liberal part of the constituency in the late 19th century, but was thought to become more Conservative as it developed its economy as a destination seaside resort.

In 1918 the borough was abolished, but the Penryn and Falmouth name was applied to the county constituency in which the two towns were placed. This was a much more extensive constituency, covering the whole of south central Cornwall, including the towns of Truro and St Austell as well a long stretch of coastline. The constituency had a more industrial character (a sixth of the population were engaged in tin mining); the area suffered badly from unemployment in the 1930s, and in 1935 the Labour Party came within 3,031 votes of winning what would have been their first seat in Cornwall.

The constituency was abolished for the 1950 general election, most of its area being moved into the Truro constituency. Penryn and Falmouth were assigned to the new Falmouth and Camborne division.

Members of Parliament

Penryn & Falmouth borough 1832–1885

Election1st Member1st Party2nd Member2nd Party
1832 Sir Robert Rolfe Liberal Lord Tullamore Conservative
1835 James William Freshfield Conservative
1840 Edward John Hutchins[1] Liberal
1841 John Vivian Liberal James Hanway Plumridge Liberal
1847 Howel Gwyn Conservative Francis Mowatt Radical[2][3]
1852 James William Freshfield Conservative
1857 Thomas Baring Whig[4][5] Samuel Gurney[6] Ind. Liberal
1859 Liberal
1866 Jervoise Smith Liberal
1868 Robert Fowler Conservative Edward Eastwick Conservative
1874 David James Jenkins Liberal Henry Thomas Cole Liberal
1880 Reginald Brett Liberal
1885 Representation reduced to one member

Penryn & Falmouth borough 1885–1918

ElectionMemberParty
1885 David James Jenkins Liberal
1886 William George Cavendish-Bentinck Conservative
1895 Frederick John Horniman Liberal
1906 Sir John Barker Liberal
1910 Charles Sydney Goldman Unionist
1918 Borough abolished; name transferred to county division

Penryn & Falmouth division of Cornwall 1918–1950

ElectionMemberParty
1918 Sir Edward Nicholl Coalition Conservative
1922 Capt Denis Shipwright Conservative
1923 Sir Courtenay Mansel Liberal
1924 George Pilcher[7] Conservative
1929 Sir Tudor Walters Liberal
1931 Maurice Petherick Conservative
1945 Evelyn King Labour
1950 constituency abolished

Elections

Elections in the 1850s

General Election 1852: Penryn and Falmouth[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Y Howel Gwyn 464 37.5
Conservative Y James William Freshfield 435 35.1
Whig Thomas Baring 339 27.4
Majority 96 7.8
Turnout 789 (est) 87.0 (est)
Registered electors 906
Conservative hold Swing
Conservative gain from Radical Swing
General Election 1857: Penryn and Falmouth[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Y Thomas Baring Unopposed
Independent Liberal Y Samuel Gurney Unopposed
Registered electors 856
Whig gain from Conservative
Independent Liberal gain from Conservative

Baring was appointed a Civil Lord of the Admiralty, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 27 May 1857: Penryn and Falmouth[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Y Thomas Baring Unopposed
Whig hold
General Election 1859: Penryn and Falmouth[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Y Thomas Baring 389 30.2 N/A
Independent Liberal Y Samuel Gurney 373 29.0 N/A
Conservative Howel Gwyn 324 25.2 N/A
Conservative John Fitzgerald Leslie Foster[9] 200 15.6 N/A
Turnout 643 (est) 77.4 (est) N/A
Registered electors 856
Majority 16 1.2 N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Majority 49 3.8 N/A
Independent Liberal hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1860s

General Election 1865: Penryn and Falmouth[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Y Thomas Baring Unopposed
Independent Liberal Y Samuel Gurney Unopposed
Registered electors 837
Liberal hold
Independent Liberal hold

Baring succeeded to the peerage, becoming Lord Northbrook and causing a by-election.

By-election, 15 October 1866: Penryn and Falmouth[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Y Jervoise Smith 376 54.6 N/A
Conservative Robert Fowler 313 45.4 N/A
Majority 63 9.1 N/A
Turnout 689 82.3 N/A
Registered electors 837
Liberal hold Swing N/A
General Election 1868: Penryn and Falmouth (2 seats)[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Y Robert Fowler 732 27.9 N/A
Conservative Y Edward Eastwick 683 26.0 N/A
Liberal Jervoise Smith 611 23.3 N/A
Liberal Kirkman Hodgson[10] 597 22.8 N/A
Majority 72 2.7 N/A
Turnout 1,312 (est) 72.5 (est) N/A
Registered electors 1,808
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing N/A
Conservative gain from Independent Liberal Swing N/A

Elections in the 1870s

General Election 1874: Penryn and Falmouth (2 seats)[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Y David James Jenkins 851 28.1
Liberal Y Henry Thomas Cole 784 25.9
Conservative Robert Fowler 743 24.6
Conservative Edward Eastwick 646 21.4
Majority 41 1.4
Turnout 1,512 81.3
Registered electors 1,860
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1880s

General Election 1880: Penryn and Falmouth (2 seats) [11][8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Y David James Jenkins 1,176 30.2 +2.1
Liberal Y Reginald Brett 1,071 27.5 +1.6
Conservative Julius Vogel 882 22.7 1.9
Conservative John D. Mayne 765 19.6 1.8
Majority 189 4.9 +3.5
Turnout 1,947 (est) 88.4 (est) +7.1
Registered electors 2,202
Liberal hold Swing +2.0
Liberal hold Swing +1.7
General Election 1885: Penryn and Falmouth [12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal David James Jenkins 1,170 52.3 5.4
Conservative William Cavendish-Bentinck 1,069 47.7 +5.4
Majority 101 4.6 0.3
Turnout 2,239 87.4 1.0 (est)
Registered electors 2,562
Liberal hold Swing 5.4
General Election 1886: Penryn and Falmouth [13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Cavendish-Bentinck 1,089 52.2 +4.5
Liberal David James Jenkins 998 47.8 -4.5
Majority 91 4.4 N/A
Turnout 2,087 81.5 5.9
Registered electors 2,562
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +4.5

Elections in the 1890s

General Election 1892: Penryn and Falmouth [14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Cavendish-Bentinck 1,218 58.1 +5.9
Liberal Arthur Serena 880 41.9 5.9
Majority 338 16.2 +11.8
Turnout 2,098 81.3 0.2
Registered electors 2,580
Conservative hold Swing +5.9
General Election 1895: Penryn and Falmouth [15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Frederick John Horniman 1,150 51.1 +9.2
Conservative William Cavendish-Bentinck 1,101 48.9 -9.2
Majority 49 2.2 N/A
Turnout 2,251 86.0 +4.7
Registered electors 2,616
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +9.2

Elections in the 1900s

General Election 1900: Penryn and Falmouth [16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Frederick John Horniman 1,184 50.4 0.7
Conservative Nathaniel Louis Cohen 1,164 49.6 +0.7
Majority 20 0.8 1.4
Turnout 2,348 85.2 0.8
Registered electors 2,756
Liberal hold Swing 0.7
General Election 1906: Penryn and Falmouth [17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Barker 1,345 51.9 +1.5
Conservative D B Hall 1,248 48.1 1.5
Majority 97 3.8 +3.0
Turnout 2,593 88.6 +3.4
Registered electors 2,926
Liberal hold Swing +1.5

Elections in the 1910s

General Election January 1910: Penryn and Falmouth [18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Charles Sydney Goldman 1,593 53.0 +4.9
Liberal John Barker 1,412 47.0 4.9
Majority 181 6.0 N/A
Turnout 3,005 93.5 +4.9
Registered electors 3,215
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +4.9
General Election December 1910: Penryn and Falmouth [19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Charles Sydney Goldman 1,585 55.1 +2.1
Liberal Walter Burt 1,291 44.9 2.1
Majority 294 10.2 +4.2
Turnout 2,876 89.5 4.0
Registered electors 3,215
Conservative hold Swing +2.1

General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

General Election 1918: Penryn and Falmouth,[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
C Unionist Edward Nicholl 10,050 50.6 4.5
Liberal Arthur Carkeek[21] 9,815 49.4 +4.5
Majority 235 1.2 9.0
Turnout 19,865 56.6 32.9
Unionist hold Swing 4.5
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Elections in the 1920s

General Election 1922: Penryn and Falmouth[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Denis Shipwright 11,566 42.7 -7.9
Liberal Courtenay Mansel 8,879 32.8 -16.6
Labour Joseph Harris 4,482 16.6 n/a
National Liberal George Hay Morgan 2,129 7.9 n/a
Majority 2,687 9.9 +8.7
Turnout 72.5 +15.9
Unionist hold Swing +4.3
General Election 1923: Penryn and Falmouth[23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Courtenay Mansel 17,015 62.0 +23.2
Unionist Denis Shipwright 10,429 38.0 -4.7
Majority 6,586 24.0 +33.9
Turnout 73.0 +0.5
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing +17.0
General Election 1924: Penryn and Falmouth[24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist George Pilcher 12,485 43.3 +5.3
Liberal Courtenay Mansel 9,913 34.3 -27.7
Labour Frederick Jesse Hopkins 6,462 22.4 n/a
Majority 2,572 9.0 +33.0
Turnout 74.7 +1.7
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing +16.5
General Election 1929: Penryn and Falmouth,[25]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Tudor Walters 14,274 37.0 +2.7
Unionist Maurice Petherick 13,136 34.1 -9.2
Labour Frederick Jesse Hopkins 11,166 28.9 +6.5
Majority 1,138 2.9 11.9
Turnout 78.4 +3.7
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing +6.0

Elections in the 1930s

General Election 1931: Penryn and Falmouth,[26]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Maurice Petherick 16,388 40.5 +6.4
Liberal Ernest Simon 14,006 34.6 -2.4
Labour A.L.Rowse 10,098 24.9 -4.0
Majority 2,382 5.9 8.8
Turnout 40,492 79.8
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +4.4
General Election 1935: Penryn and Falmouth,[27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Maurice Petherick 16,136 39.6 -0.9
Labour A.L.Rowse 13,105 32.1 +7.2
Liberal Ronald Wilberforce Allen 11,537 28.3 -6.3
Majority 3,031 7.4
Turnout 40,778 77.6
Conservative hold Swing -4.0

A General election was due to take place before the end of 1940, but was postponed due to the Second World War. By 1939, the following candidates had been selected to contest this constituency;

Elections in the 1940s

General Election 1945: Penryn and Falmouth,[28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Evelyn King 17,962 43.8
Conservative Maurice Petherick 15,169 36.9
Liberal Percy Harris 7,917 19.3
Majority 2,793 6.8
Turnout 73.0
Labour gain from Conservative Swing

References

  1. E J Hutchins was subsequently elected for Lymington 1850–1857. There is a biography of him at Masonic Province of South Wales, Eastern Division. Archived 21 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. Collet, Collet Dobson (1899). History of the Taxes on Knowledge: Their Origin and Repeal. London: T. Fisher Unwin. p. 93. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  3. Cambridge Chronicle and Journal. 5 August 1854. pp. 4–5 https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000421/18540805/049/0005. Retrieved 22 April 2018 via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4.  Mallet, Bernard (1912). "Baring, Thomas George". Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  5. "The General Elections". Morning Chronicle. 16 March 1857. p. 6. Retrieved 24 June 2018 via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  6. See ODNB article by Richard Davenport-Hines, ‘Gurney, Samuel (1816–1882)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 23 Jan 2008
  7. Hansard website gives dates of George Pilcher, MP as 1882 – 8 December 1962, in Parliament 29 October 1924 – 30 May 1929. The National Portrait Gallery, London has two photographic portraits of him, taken in 1927. He is described as journalist, barrister and politician. Rayment says he was born 26 February 1882. He was Secretary of the Royal Empire Society. The Times, 16 March 1935; pg. 9; Issue 47014; col D Notes his resignation as Secretary of the RES, after six years' service and his previous work as a journalist. The Times, 13 December 1962; pg. 12; Issue 55573; col E includes an Obituary, giving further information.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  9. "The Cornish Times". 7 May 1859. p. 4. Retrieved 24 June 2018 via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  10. "Representation of Penryn and Falmouth". Royal Cornwall Gazette. 25 June 1868. p. 6. Retrieved 15 March 2018 via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  11. "Penryn And Falmouth". The Cornishman (90). 1 April 1880. p. 5.
  12. British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  13. British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  14. British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  15. British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  16. British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  17. British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  18. British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  19. British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  20. British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949 by FWS Craig
  21. CARKEEK, Sir Arthur’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014 ; online edn, April 2014 accessed 18 Sept 2017
  22. British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949 by FWS Craig
  23. British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949 by FWS Craig
  24. British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949 by FWS Craig
  25. British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949 by FWS Craig
  26. British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949 by FWS Craig
  27. British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949 by FWS Craig
  28. British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949 by FWS Craig

Sources

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