Peerage of Ireland

The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.[1] The creation of such titles came to an end in the 19th century. The ranks of the Irish peerage are Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount and Baron. As of 2016, there were 135 titles in the Peerage of Ireland extant: two dukedoms, ten marquessates, 43 earldoms, 28 viscountcies, and 52 baronies. The Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland continues to exercise jurisdiction over the Peerage of Ireland, including those peers whose titles derive from places located in what is now the Republic of Ireland.[2] Article 40.2 of the Irish Constitution forbids the state conferring titles of nobility and a citizen may not accept titles of nobility or honour except with the prior approval of the Government.[3] As stated above, this issue does not arise in respect of the Peerage of Ireland, as no creations of titles in it have been made since the Constitution came into force. However, this provision has not prevented William Hay, Baron Hay of Ballyore, an Irish citizen, from being created a life peer in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

In the following table, each peer is listed only by his or her highest Irish title, showing higher or equal titles in the other peerages. Those peers who are known by a higher title in one of the other peerages are listed in italics.

History

A handful of titles in the peerage of Ireland date from the Middle Ages. Before 1801, Irish peers had the right to sit in the Irish House of Lords, on the abolition of which by the Union effective in 1801 by an Act of 1800 they regularly elected a small proportion: twenty-eight representative peers of their number to the House of Lords at Westminster.[4]

Both before and after the Union, Irish peerages were often used as a way of creating peerages which did not grant a seat in the English House of Lords and so allowed the grantee (such as Clive of India) to sit in the House of Commons in London. As a consequence, many Irish peers had little or no connection to Ireland, and indeed the names of some Irish peerages refer to places in Great Britain (for example, the Earldom of Mexborough refers to a place in England and the Ranfurly refers to a village in Scotland). Irish peerages continued to be created for almost a century after the Union, although the treaty of Union placed restrictions on their numbers: three needed to become extinct before a new peerage could be granted, until there were only one hundred Irish peers (exclusive of those who held any peerage of Great Britain subsisting at the time of the union, or of the United Kingdom created since the union)– a condition still not achieved. There was a spate of creations of Irish peerages from 1797 onward, mostly peerages of higher ranks for existing Irish peers, as part of the negotiation of the Act of Union; this ended in the first week of January 1801, but the restrictions of the Act were not applied to the last few peers. Irish peerages were created in the early nineteenth century at least as often as the Act permitted, but the pace then slowed.

The last two grants of Irish peerages were: the promotion of the Marquess of Abercorn (a peerage of Great Britain) to be Duke of Abercorn in the Irish Peerage when he became Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland in 1868 and the granting of the Curzon of Kedleston barony to George Curzon when he became Viceroy of India in 1898. Peers of Ireland have precedence below peers of England, Scotland, and Great Britain of the same rank, and above peers of the United Kingdom of the same rank; but Irish peers created after 1801 yield to United Kingdom peers of earlier creation. Accordingly, the Duke of Abercorn (the junior Duke in the Peerage of Ireland) ranks between the Duke of Sutherland and the Duke of Westminster (both dukes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom).

When one of the Irish representative peers died, the Irish Peerage met to elect his replacement; but the officers required to arrange this were abolished as part of the creation of the Irish Free State. The existing representative peers kept their seats in the House of Lords, but they have not been replaced. Since the death of Francis Needham, 4th Earl of Kilmorey in 1961, none remains. The right of the Irish Peerage to elect Representatives was abolished by statute in 1971.

Extant Irish peerages

In the following table of the Peerage of Ireland as it currently stands,[5] each peer's highest titles in each of the other peerages (if any) are also listed. Irish peers possessed of titles in any of the other peerages (except Scotland, which only got the right to an automatic seat in 1963, with the Peerage Act 1963) had automatic seats in the House of Lords until 1999.

Dukes

TitleCreationOther titles
The Duke of Leinster1766Viscount Leinster in the Peerage of Great Britain
Lord Kildare in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
The Duke of Abercorn1868Earl of Abercorn in the Peerage of Scotland
Marquess of Abercorn in the Peerage of Great Britain

Marquesses

TitleCreationOther titles
The Marquess of Waterford1789Baron Tyrone in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Marquess of Downshire1789Earl of Hillsborough in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Marquess of Donegall1791Lord Fisherwick in the Peerage of Great Britain
Lord Templemore in the Peerage of the UK
The Marquess of Headfort1800Lord Kenlis in the Peerage of the UK
The Marquess of Sligo1800Lord Monteagle in the Peerage of the UK
The Marquess of Ely1801Lord Loftus in the Peerage of the UK
The Marquess of Londonderry1816Earl Vane in the Peerage of the UK
The Marquess Conyngham1816Lord Minster in the Peerage of the UK

Earls

TitleCreationOther titles; Notes
The Earl of Waterford1446Earl of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England
The Earl of Cork and Orrery1620; 1660Lord Boyle of Marston in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Earl of Kilkenny 1620 Baron Mountgarret in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Westmeath1621 
The Earl of Meath1627Lord Chaworth in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Desmond1628Earl of Denbigh in the Peerage of England
The Earl of Cavan1647 
The Earl of Drogheda1661Lord Moore in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Granard1684Lord Granard in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Kerry and Shelburne 1722; 1753Marquess of Lansdowne in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Earl of Darnley1725Lord Clifton in the Peerage of England
The Earl of Bessborough1739Lord Ponsonby in the Peerage of Great Britain
Lord Duncannon in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Carrick1748Lord Butler in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Shannon1756Lord Carleton in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Earl of Mornington 1760Duke of Wellington in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Arran1762Lord Sudley in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Courtown1762Lord Saltersford in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Earl of Mexborough1766 
The Earl Winterton1766 
The Earl of Kingston1768 
The Earl of Roden1771 
The Earl of Lisburne1776 
The Earl of Clanwilliam1776Lord Clanwilliam in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Antrim1785 
The Earl of Longford1785Lord Silchester and Pakenham in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Portarlington1785 
The Earl of Mayo1785 
The Earl Annesley1789 
The Earl of Enniskillen1789Lord Grinstead in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl Erne1789Lord Fermanagh in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Lucan1795Lord Bingham in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl Belmore1797 
The Earl Castle Stewart1800 
The Earl of Donoughmore1800Viscount Hutchinson in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Caledon1800 
The Earl of Limerick1803Lord Foxford in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Clancarty1803Viscount Clancarty in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Gosford1806Lord Worlingham and Acheson in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Rosse1806 
The Earl of Normanton1806Lord Mendip in the Peerage of Great Britain
Lord Somerton in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Kilmorey1822 
The Earl of Listowel1822Lord Hare in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Norbury1827 
The Earl of Ranfurly1831Lord Ranfurly in the Peerage of the UK

Viscounts

TitleCreationOther titles
The Viscount Gormanston1478Lord Gormanston in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Mountgarret1550Lord Mountgarret in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Grandison1620Earl of Jersey in the Peerage of England
The Viscount Valentia1622 
The Viscount Dillon1622 
The Viscount Lumley1628Earl of Scarbrough in the Peerage of England
The Viscount Massereene and Ferrard1660; 1797Lord Oriel in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Cholmondeley1661Earl of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of England
Lord Newburgh in the Peerage of Great Britain
Marquess of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Charlemont1665 
The Viscount Downe1681Lord Dawnay in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Molesworth1716 
The Viscount Chetwynd1717 
The Viscount Midleton1717Lord Brodrick in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Viscount Boyne1717Lord Brancepeth in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Grimston1719Lord Forrester in the Peerage of Scotland
Lord Verulam in the Peerage of Great Britain
Earl of Verulam in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Gage1720Lord Gage in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Viscount Galway1727 
The Viscount Powerscourt1743Lord Powerscourt in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Ashbrook1751 
The Viscount Southwell1776 
The Viscount de Vesci1776 
The Viscount Lifford1781 
The Viscount Bangor1781 
The Viscount Doneraile1785 
The Viscount Harberton1791 
The Viscount Hawarden1793 
The Viscount Monck1801Lord Monck in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Gort1816 

Barons

In Ireland, barony may also refer to an obsolete political subdivision of a county. There is no connection between such a barony and the noble title of baron.

TitleCreationOther titles
The Lord Kingsale1397 
The Lord Dunsany1439 
The Lord Trimlestown1461 
The Lord Dunboyne1541 
The Lord Louth1541 
The Lord Inchiquin1543 
The Lord Digby1620Lord Digby in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Lord Conway and Killultagh1712Lord Conway in the Peerage of England
Marquess of Hertford in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Lord Newborough1715Marquess of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Carbery1715 
The Lord Aylmer1718 
The Lord Farnham1756 
The Lord Lisle1758 
The Lord Clive1762Lord Clive in the Peerage of Great Britain
Earl of Powis in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Mulgrave1767Marquess of Normanby in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Newborough1776 
The Lord Macdonald1776 
The Lord Kensington1776Lord Kensington in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Westcote1776Viscount Cobham in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Lord Massy1776 
The Lord Muskerry1781 
The Lord Hood1782Viscount Hood in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Lord Sheffield1783Lord Stanley of Alderley and Eddisbury in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Kilmaine1789 
The Lord Auckland1789Lord Auckland in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Lord Waterpark1792 
The Lord Bridport1794Viscount Bridport in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Graves1794 
The Lord Huntingfield1796 
The Lord Carrington1796Lord Carrington in the Peerage of Great Britain
Lord Carington of Upton in the Peerage of the UK for life
The Lord Rossmore1796Lord Rossmore in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Hotham1797 
The Lord Crofton1797 
The Lord ffrench1798 
The Lord Henley1799Lord Northington in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Langford1800 
The Lord Dufferin and Claneboye1800 
The Lord Henniker1800Lord Hartismere in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Ventry1800 
The Lord Dunalley1800 
The Lord Clanmorris1800 
The Lord Ashtown1800 
The Lord Rendlesham1806 
The Lord Castlemaine1812 
The Lord Decies1812 
The Lord Garvagh1818 
The Lord Talbot of Malahide1831 
The Lord Carew1834Lord Carew in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Oranmore and Browne1836Lord Mereworth in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Bellew1848 
The Lord Fermoy1865 
The Lord Rathdonnell1868 

See also

References

  1. With the establishment of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the separate title "King of Ireland" ceased.
  2. "The Peerage of Ireland genealogy project". geni_family_tree. Retrieved 2017-07-12.
  3. "40.2" (PDF), Constitution of Ireland, Dublin: Stationery Office, archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2009
  4. "The Peerage of Ireland". www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-07-12.
  5. Cracroft's Peerage – The Peerage of Ireland
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