For example, early patronymic Welsh surnames were the result of the Anglicizing of the historical Welsh naming system, which sometimes had included references to several generations: e.g., Llywelyn ap Gruffydd ap Morgan (Llywelyn son of Gruffydd son of Morgan), and which gave rise to the quip, "as long as a Welshman's pedigree."
As an example of Anglicization, the name Llywelyn ap Gruffydd was turned into Llywelyn Gruffydds; i.e., the "ap" meaning "son of" was replaced by the genitive suffix "-s." Some Welsh surnames, such as John or Howell, did not acquire the suffix "-s." In some other cases the suffix was affixed to the surname much later: 18th or 19th century. Likewise, in some cases the "ap" coalesced into the name in some form, as in Broderick (ap Rhydderch), Price (ap Rhys) and Upjohn (ap John).
- David Hey (2006). Family Names and Family History, pp.92-93. ISBN 1852855509.
- Charles P. G. Scott, "English words which have gained or lost and initial consonant by attraction", Transactions of the American Phililogical Society, vol. 25, pp. 82-139 (esp. pp. 91-106).
- P. H. Reaney, Dictionary of English Surnames, 3rd ed., Routledge, 1991, pp. 462, 3213.