|Sound change and alternation|
Paragoge is particularly common in Brazilian Portuguese, not only in loanwords but also in word derivation. It is also present in most accents of Brazilians who speak foreign languages such as English.
Some languages have undergone paragoge as a sound change, and modern forms are longer than the historical forms they are derived from. Italian sono 'I am', from Latin sum, is an example. Sometimes, as above, the paragogic vowel is an echo vowel.
- Crowley, Terry. (1997) An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press.