|Native to||Philippines (Ilocos Region & Central Luzon)|
|Region||Pangasinan, northern Tarlac, southern La Union, southwestern Benguet, northwestern Nueva Ecija, northern Zambales, and southwestern Nueva Vizcaya|
(1.2 million cited 1990 census)|
8th most spoken native language in the Philippines
Latin (Pangasinan alphabet)|
Historically written in: Baybayin
|Regulated by||Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino|
Area where Pangasinan is spoken according to Ethnologue
The Pangasinan language or Salitan Pangasinan is one of the major languages of the Philippines. It is the language spoken in the province of Pangasinan, on the west-central seaboard of the island of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf, the northern portion of Tarlac and southwestern La Union, most of whom belong to the Pangasinan ethnic group. Pangasinan is also understood in some municipalities in Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, and by the Aeta or Aeta of Zambales. As of 2012, Pangasinan is one of the major languages of the Philippines that is taught and studied formally in schools and universities.
The Pangasinan language belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family. Pangasinan is similar to other closely related Philippine languages, Indonesian in Indonesia, Malaysian in Malaysia, Hawaiian in Hawaii and Malagasy in Madagascar. The Pangasinan language is very closely related to the Ibaloi language spoken in the neighboring province of Benguet, located north of Pangasinan. Pangasinan is classified under the Pangasinic group of languages.
The other Pangasinic languages are:
Pangasinan is the official language of the province of Pangasinan, located on the west central area of the island of Luzon along Lingayen Gulf. The people of Pangasinan are also referred to as Pangasinense or Pangalatok. The province has a total population of 2,343,086 (2000), of which 2 million speak Pangasinan. Pangasinan is spoken in other Pangasinan communities in the Philippines, mostly in the neighboring provinces of Benguet, La Union, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Zambales, and Nueva Vizcaya.
Austronesian speakers settled in Maritime Southeast Asia during prehistoric times, perhaps more than 5,000 years ago. The indigenous speakers of Pangasinan are descendants of these settlers, who were probably part of a wave of prehistoric human migration that is widely believed to have originated from Southern China via Taiwan between 10 and 6 thousand years ago.
The word Pangasinan, means “land of salt” or “place of salt-making”; it is derived from the root word asin, the word for "salt" in Pangasinan. Pangasinan could also refer to a “container of salt or salted-products”; it refers to the ceramic jar for storage of salt or salted-products or its contents.
|Absolutive Independent||Absolutive Enclitic||Ergative||Oblique|
|1st person singular||siák||ak||-k(o)||ed siak|
|1st person dual||sikatá||ita, ta||-ta||ed sikata|
|2nd person singular||siká||ka||-m(o)||ed sika|
|3rd person singular||sikató||-, -a||to||ed sikato|
|1st person plural inclusive||sikatayó||itayo, tayo||-tayo||ed sikatayo|
|1st person plural exclusive||sikamí||kamí||mi||ed sikami|
|2nd person plural||sikayó||kayó||yo||ed sikayo|
|3rd person plural||sikara||ira, ra||da||ed sikara|
- MAKAN-, AKAN-
- MANKA-, ANKA-, MANGA-
- NA-AN, A-AN
|isa, sakey, san-||one|
|dua, dua'ra (dua ira)||two|
|talo, -tlo, talo'ra (talo ira)||three|
|apat, -pat, apatira (apat ira)||four|
|lima, lima'ra (lima ira)||five|
|anem, -nem, anemira (anem ira)||six|
|pito, pito'ra (pito ira)||seven|
|walo, walo'ra (walo ira)||eight|
|siam, siamira (siam ira)||nine|
|polo, samplo (isa'n polo), samplo'ra (isa'n polo ira)||tens, ten|
|lasus, sanlasus (isa'n lasus)||hundreds, one hundred|
|libo, sakey libo||thousands, one thousand|
|laksa, sanlaksa (isa'n laksa), sakey a laksa||ten thousands, ten thousand|
Ordinal numbers are formed with prefix KUMA- (KA- plus infix -UM). Example: kumadua, second.
Associative numbers are formed with prefix KA-. Example: katlo, third of a group of three.
Fraction numbers are formed with prefix KA- and an associative number. Example: kakatlo, third part.
Multiplicative ordinal numbers are formed with prefix PI- and a cardinal number from two to four or PIN- for other numbers except for number one. Example: kaisa, first time; pidua, second time; pinlima, fifth time.
Multiplicative cardinal numbers are formed with prefix MAN- (MAMI- or MAMIN- for present or future tense, and AMI- or AMIN- for the past tense) to the corresponding multiplicative ordinal number. Example: aminsan, once; amidua, twice; mamitlo, thrice.
Distributive cardinal numbers are formed with prefixes SAN-, TAG-, or TUNGGAL and a cardinal number. Example: sansakey, one each; sanderua, two each.
Distributive multiplicative numbers are formed with prefix MAGSI-, TUNGGAL, or BALANGSAKEY and a multiplicative cardinal number. Example: tunggal pamidua, twice each; magsi-pamidua, each twice.
Modern Pangasinan consists of 27 letters, which include the 26 letters of the basic Latin alphabet and the Pangasinan digraph ng:
|Majuscule Forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)|
|Minuscule Forms (also called lowercase or small letters)|
The ancient people of Pangasinan used an indigenous writing system. The ancient Pangasinan script, which is related to the Tagalog Baybayin script, was derived from the Javanese Kawi script of Indonesia and the Vatteluttu or Pallava script of South India.
The Latin script was introduced during the Spanish colonial period. Pangasinan literature, using the indigenous syllabary and the Latin alphabet, continued to flourish during the Spanish and American colonial period. Pangasinan acquired many Spanish and English words, and some indigenous words were Hispanicized or Anglicized. However, use of the ancient syllabary has declined, and not much literature written in it has survived.
Pangasinan was preserved and kept alive despite the propagation of the Spanish and English languages. Written Pangasinan and oral literature in this language flourished during the Spanish and American period. Writers like Juan Saingan, Felipe Quintos, Narciso Corpus, Antonio Solis, Juan Villamil, Juan Mejía and María C. Magsano continued to write and publish in Pangasinan. Felipe Quintos, a Pangasinan officer of the Katipunan, wrote Sipi Awaray: Gelew Diad Pilipinas (Revolución Filipina), a history of the Katipunan revolutionary struggle in Pangasinan and surrounding provinces. Narciso Corpus and Antonio Solis co-wrote Impanbilay na Manoc a Tortola, a short love story. (Lingayen, Pangasinan: Gumawid Press, 1926)
Juan Villamil translated José Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adiós in Pangasinan. Pablo Mejia edited Tunong, a news magazine, in the 1920s. He also wrote Bilay tan Kalkalar nen Rizal, a biography of Rizal. Magsano published Silew, a literary magazine. Magsano also wrote Samban Agnabenegan, a romance novel. Pangasinan Courier published articles and literary works in Pangasinan. Pioneer Herald published Sinag, a literary supplement in Pangasinan. Many Christian publications in Pangasinan are widely available.
Many Pangasinan are multilingual and proficient in English, Filipino, and Ilocano. However, the spread and influence of the other languages is contributing to the decline of the Pangasinan. Many Pangasinan people, especially the native speakers are promoting the use of Pangasinan in the print and broadcast media, Internet, local governments, courts, public facilities and schools in Pangasinan. In April 2006, the creation of Pangasinan Wikipedia was proposed, which the Wikimedia Foundation approved for publication in the Internet.
Malinac ya Labi (original by Julian Velasco).
Malinac ya Labi
Oras ya mareen
Katekep to’y linaew
Samit day kogip ko
Binangonan kon tampol
Ta pilit na pusok ya sika'y amamayoen
Lalo la no bilay
No sikalay nanengneng
Napunas ya ami'y
Ermen ya akbibiten
No nodnonoten ko ra'y samit na ogalim
Anggad kaayos na bilay
Modern Pangasinan with English translation
Malinak lay Labi
A night of calm
Oras la’y mareen
An hour of peace
A gentle breeze
Katekep to’y linaew
Along with it is the dew
Samit da’y kugip ko
So sweet is my dream
Binangonan kon tampol
Suddenly I awake
Lapu’d say limgas mo
Because of your beauty
Sikan sika’y amamayoen
You are the only one I will love
Lalo la bilay
Best of all, my life
No sika la’y nanengne'ng
When it's you that I see
Napunas lan amin
All are wiped away
So ermen ya akbibiten
The sorrows that I bear
When I remember
Ko la'y samit day ugalim
Of your sweet kindness
Ag ta ka nalingwanan
I will not forget you
Angga’d kauyos na bilay
Until life is gone
Most of the loan words in Pangasinan are Spanish, as the Philippines was ruled by Spain for more than 300 years. Examples are lugar (place), podir (power, care), kontra (from contra, against), birdi (verde, green), ispiritu ("espíritu", spirit), and santo (holy, saint).
Dictionaries and further reading
The following is a list of some dictionaries and references:
- Lorenzo Fernández Cosgaya. Diccionario pangasinán-español and Vocabulario Hispano-pangasinán (Colegio de Santo Tomás, 1865). This is available in the Internet at the University of Michigan's Humanities Text Initiative.
- Anastacio Austria Macaraeg. Vocabulario castellano-pangasinán (1898).
- Mariano Pellicer. Arte de la lengua pangasinán o caboloan (1904).
- Felixberto B. Viray. The Sounds and Sound Symbols of the Pangasinan Language (1927).
- Corporación de PP. Dominicos. Pasion Na Cataoan Tin JesuChristo (U.S.T. Press, 1951).
- Paciencia E. Versoza. Stress and Intonation Difficulties of Pangasinan Learners of English (1961).
- Paul Morris Schachter. A Contrastive Analysis of English and Pangasinan (1968).
- Richard A. Benton. Pangasinan Dictionary (University of Hawaii Press, 1971).
- Richard A. Benton. Pangasinan Reference Grammar (University of Hawaii Press, 1971).
- Richard A. Benton. Spoken Pangasinan (University of Hawaii Press, 1971).
- Richard A. Benton. Phonotactics of Pangasinan (1972).
- Ernesto Constantino. English-Pangasinan Dictionary (1975).
- Julio F. Silverio. New English-Pilipino-Pangasinan Dictionary (1976).
- Alta Grace Q. Garcia. Morphological Analysis of English and Pangasinan Verbs (1981).
- Philippine Bible Society. Say Santa Biblia (Philippine Bible Society, 1982).
- Philippine Bible Society. Maung A Balita Para Sayan Panaon Tayo (Philippine Bible Society and United Bible Societies, 1983).
- Mario "Guese" Tungol. Modern English-Filipino Dictionary (Merriam Webster, 1993).
- Church of Christ. Say Cancanta (Church of Christ, n.d.). Includes translations of English songs like "Joy to the World," and "What A Friend We Have in Jesus."
- Emiliano Jovellanos. Pangasinan-English English-Pangasinan Dictionary (2002). The compilation has 20,000 entries.
- Mel V. Jovellanos. Pangasinan-English English-Pangasinan Language Dictionary (Corpuz Press, Calasiao, Pangasinan, March 2007).
- Traditional Folk Song. Malinak Lay Labi (Calm is the Night).
- Pangasinan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pangasinan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Ulrich Ammon; Norbert Dittmar; Klaus J. Mattheier (2006). Sociolinguistics: an international handbook of the science of language and society. Volume 3. Walter de Gruyter. p. 2018. ISBN 978-3-11-018418-1.
- Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition".
- Fox, James J. (August 19–20, 2004). "Current Developments in Comparative Austronesian Studies" (PDF).
- Greenhill, S. J., Blust. R, & Gray, R.D. (2003-2008). "The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database".
- Ronald S. Himes (1998). "The Southern Cordilleran Group of Philippine Languages". Oceanic Linguistics 37. 120-177. JSTOR 3623282.
|Pangasinan edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Bansa Pangasinan-English Dictionary
- Pangasinan Wiktionary
- Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database
- Sunday Punch
- Sun Star Pangasinan
- Pangasinan Star
- Pangasinan: Preservation and Revitalization of the Pangasinan Language and Literature
- Globalization killing Pangasinan language
- Pangasinan language is alive and kicking (Philippine Daily Inquirer, June 8, 2007)
- Dying languages
- Pangasinan-Spanish Dictionary, by Lorenzo Fernandez Cosgata, published in 1865.