Panch Kalyanaka

Panch Kalyanaka (Sanskrit: pan̄ca kalyāṇaka, "Five Auspicious Events") are the five chief auspicious events that are believed to occur in the life of tirthankara in Jainism.[1][2][3] They are commemorated as part of many Jain rituals and festivals.[4]


These auspicious life events are as below:[3][4][5][6]

  1. Cyavana kalyāṇaka: When the ātman (soul) of a tirthankara enter's their mother's womb.[7]
  2. Janma kalyāṇaka: Birth of the tirthankara.[2][7] Snatra Puja is a ritual celebrating this event in which Indra does abhisheka on the tirthankara on Mount Meru.[8]
  3. Dīkṣā kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara renounce all worldly possessions and becomes an ascetic.[9]
  4. Kēvalajñāna kalyāṇaka: The event when a tirthankara attains kēvalajñāna (absolute knowledge). A divine samavasarana (preaching hall) appears, from where the tirthankara delivers sermons and restores the Jain community and teachings.[10]
  5. Nirvāṇa kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara leaves their mortal body, it is known as nirvana. It is followed by final liberation, moksha. A tirthankara is considered a Siddha after that.[11][12]

Kalyanaka Dates of 24 Tirthankara

These dates are called Kalyanaka Tithi. All dates are considered according to Jain calendar known as Jain Panchang based on the Vira Nirvana Samvat, but they differ according to different sects of Jain tradition and sometimes different within the same tradition also.[13][14][15][16]

s[] d[] o[]

Note: This list is according to Śvētāmbara tradition and months are according to the Gujarati calendar.

No.TirthankaraChyavan KalyanakaJanma KalyanakaDiksha KalyanakaKevala Jnana KalyanakaNirvana Kalyanaka
1RishabhaJeth Vad 4Fagan Vad 8Fagan Vad 8Maha Vad 11Posh Vad 13
2AjitanathaVaisakh Sud 13Maha Sud 8Maha Sud 9Posh Sud 11Chaitra Sud 5
3SambhavanathaFagan Sud 8Magsar Sud 14Magasar Sud 15Asho Vad 5Chaitra Sud 5
4AbhinandananathaVaisakh Sud 4Maha Sud 2Maha Sud 12Posh Sud 14Vaisakh Sud 8
5SumatinathaShravan Sud 2Vaisakh Sud 8Vaisakh Sud 9Chaitra Sud 11Chaitra Sud 9
6PadmaprabhaPosh Vad 6Asho Vad 12Asho Vad 13Chaitra Sud 11Chaitra Sud 9
7SuparshvanathaShravan Vad 8Jeth Sud 12Jeth Sud 13Maha Vad 6Maha Vad 7
8ChandraprabhaFagan Vad 5Magasar Vad 12Magasar Vad 13Maha Vad 7Shravan Vad 7
9PushpadantaMaha Vad 9Kartak Vad 5Kartak Vad 6Kartak Sud 3Bhadarva Sud 9
10ShitalanathaChaitra Vad 6Posh Vad 12Posh Vad 13Magasar Vad 14Chaitra Vad 2
11ShreyanasanathaVaisakh Vad 6Maha Vad 12Maha Vad 13Posh Vad AmaasAshadh Vad 3
12VasupujyaJeth Sud 9Maha Vad 14Maha Vad AmaasMaha Sud 2Asadh Sud 14
13VimalanathaVaisakh Sud 12Maha Sud 3Maha Sud 4Posh Sud 6Jeth Vad 7
14AnantanathaAsadh Vad 7Chaitra Vad 13Chaitra Vad 14Chaitra Vad 14Chaitra Sud 5
15DharmanathaVaisakh Sud 7Maha Sud 3Maha Sud 12Posh sud 15Jeth Sud 5
16ShantinathaShravan Vad 7Vaishakh Vad 13Vaiskh Vad 14Posh Sud 9Vaisakh Vad 13
17KunthunathaAsadh Vad 9Chaitra Vad 14Chaitra Vad 5Chaitra Vad 5Chaitra Vad 1
18AranathaFagan Sud 2Magsar Sud 10Magsar Sud 11Kartik Sud 12Magsar Sud 10
19MāllīnāthaFagan Sud 4Magsar Sud 11Magsar Sud 11Magsar Sud 11Fagan Sud 12
20MunisuvrataShravan Sud 15Vaisakh Vad 8Fagan Sud 12Shravan Vad 12Vaisakh Vad 9
21NaminathaAsho Sud 15Ashadh Vad 8Jeth Vad 9Magsar Sud 11Chaitra Vad 10
22NeminathaAsho Vad 12Shravan Sud 5Shravan Sud 6Bhadarva Vad AmaasAshadh Sud 8
23ParshvanathaFagan Vad 4Magsar Vad 10Magsar Vad 11Fagan Vad 4Shravan Sud 7
24MahaviraAsadh Sud 6Chaitra Sud 13Kartak Vad 10Vaisakh Sud 10Asho Vad Amaas
  • Dates are in short format. For example, Kartik Sud 2 means Second day of Bright half(Sud) of Kartik month.
  • ^ s: according to Śvētāmbara tradition
  • ^ d: according to Digambara tradition
  • ^ o: according to other sources

Kalyanaka Places of 24 Tirthankara

Kalyanaka Bhumi are places where any of these Kalyanaka took place in relation to 24 Tirthankara. They are considered places of pilgrimage by Jains.[5] 20 out of 24 Tirthankaras' Nirvana kalyanaka took place at Shikharji.[12]

They are as below:[12][17][18][19][20]

No.TirthankaraChyavan KalyanakaJanma KalyanakaDiksha KalyanakaKeval Gyan KalyanakaNirvan Kalyanaka
1RishabhaAyodhyaPurimtal ( now Prayag or Allahabad)Ashtapad
7SuparshvanathBhadaini, Varanasi
9SuvidhinathaKakandi (now Khukhundu, Deoria district)
10SheetalnathBhadilpur or Bhadrikapuri
11ShreyansanathSinhpuri, Varanasi
12VasupujyaChampapuri (now Bhagalpur)[21]
21Nami NathaMithila
24MahaviraKundalagrama (Kshatriya Kund) near VaishaliRijuvalikaPavapuri


Some rituals have close relationshhip with these five Kalyanakas.

Jain temple erection

When a new Jain Temple is erected, these Five Auspicious Life Events are celebrated known as Panch Kalyanak Pratishtha Mahotsava. It is followed by Anjana Shalaka, a ceremony to install new Tirthankara icon. An Acharya recite mantras related to Panch Kalyanaka followed by applying special paste to eyes of Tirthankara image. After these an icons of Tirthankara gets a status of real Tirthankara which can be worshipped by Jains. Acharya have to fast for three days before that.[22]

Worship rituals

Panch Kalyanaka Puja is a ritual solemnizes all five Kalyanaka. It was narrated by Pandit Virvijay.

Snatra Puja is a ritual related to Janma Kalyanaka in which icons of Tirthankara are bathed symbolising Indra doing Abhisheka on Tirthankara on Mount Meru after birth of Tirthankara. It performed before many other rituals and before starting of new enterprises, birthdays.[8]


Many religious festivals mark Kalyanaka of Tirthankara especially Janma and Nirvana Kalyanaka.

Mahavir Jayanti

It marks Janma Kalyanak (birth) of 24th Tirthankara, Mahavira. Abhisheka of icons are done on this day and procession celebrating this event takes place in the cities. It is on 13th day of bright half of Chaitra month of Jain calendar (March/April).[8]


Diwali is a day of Nirvana Kalyanaka of 24th Tirthankara, Mahavira. He attained Moksha on this day in 527 BCE. It falls on fifteenth day of dark half of Ashwin (Aaso) month (September/October) which is also a last day of a year.[8]

Pausha Dashmi

It is celebrated on 10th day of dark half of Pausha (Pushya) month of Hindu calendar(December/January). It marks Janma kalyanaka (birth) of 23rd Tirthankara, Parshvanath. Three days fast is observed by many Jains.

Maun Agiyaras

Maun Agiyaras or Ekadashi marks Kalyanaka of many Tirthankaras. It is celebrated on 11th day of Magshar month of Jain calendar (October/November). On this day, complete silence is observed and fasting is kept. Meditation is also performed.[8]

See also


  1. Titze, Kurt (1998). Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-Violence. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 262. ISBN 9788120815346. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  2. 1 2 Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1998). The Jaina Path Of Purification. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 196, 343, 347. ISBN 9788120815780. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  3. 1 2 Mehta, Jodh Sinha (1970). Abu to Udaipur: (Celestial Simla to City of Sunrise). Motilal Banarsidass Publisher. p. 20. ISBN 9788185066172. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  4. 1 2 Cort, John E. (2001). Jains in the World: Religious Values and Ideology in India. Oxford University Press. p. 110. ISBN 9780195132342. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  5. 1 2 Lal, Kanwar (1961). Holy cities of India. Asia Press. p. 59. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  6. Eberhard Fischer, Jyotindra Jain (1978). Jaina Iconography, Volume 1. BRILL. pp. 4–13. ISBN 9789004052598. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  7. 1 2 "Chyavana Kalyanak". Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Wiley, Kristi L. (2009). The A to Z of Jainism. Scarecrow Press. pp. 200, 246. ISBN 9780810868212. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  9. "Diksha Kalyanak". Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  10. "Kevaljnana Kalyanak". Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  11. "Nirvana Kalyanak". Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  12. 1 2 3 Dalal, Roshen (2010). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books India. p. 369. ISBN 9780143415176. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  13. "PANCH KALYANAK of 24 TIRTHANKAR". Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  14. "Kalyanak Year 2012-13". Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  15. "Jain Panchang 2010-Page 2" (PDF). Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  16. "Activity / Tithi Calendar showing Feb-2011/Posh-Maha month Kalyanaka". Melbourne Jain Sangh. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  17. "kalyanak-bhumi". Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  18. "Narration Chart of 24 Tirthankars". Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  19. "Introduction 24 Tirthankaras". Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  20. "Brief details of Tirthankaras". Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  21. Krishnachandra Ghosh, Puran Chand Nahar (1988). Jainism, precepts and practice, Volume 2. Caxton. p. 689. ISBN 9788185066172. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  22. Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1998). The Jaina Path Of Purification. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 196–199. ISBN 9788120815780. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
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