Pakistan Day

Not to be confused with Independence Day (Pakistan).
Pakistan Day
یوم پاکستان
Two JF-17 Thunder fighter jets flown at the Joint Inter-Services parade in Islamabad on 23 March 2007.
Official name Urdu: یوم پاکستان
lit. Yaum-e-Pakistan[Note 1]
Observed by  Pakistan
Significance Commemoration of Pakistan Resolution and Constitution
Celebrations Full Joint Inter-Services military parade, conferring of national decorations
Observances Pakistan (Diplomatic missions of Pakistan in other countries)
Date 23 March
Next time 23 March 2019 (2019-03-23)
Frequency Annual

Pakistan Day (Urdu: یوم پاکستان, lit. Yaum-e-Pakistan) or Pakistan Resolution Day, also Republic Day, is a national holiday in Pakistan commemorating the Lahore Resolution passed on 23 March 1940[1] and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan during the transition of the Dominion of Pakistan to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan on 23 March 1956 making Pakistan the world's first Islamic republic.[2] A Republic Day parade by the armed forces is often part of the celebrations.[3]

The day celebrates the adoption of the Pakistan resolution by the Muslim League at the Minar-e-Pakistan (lit. Pakistan Tower) that called for establishing an independent federation comprising provinces with Muslim majority located in north-western and north-eastern region of British controlled territories in India (excluding autonomous princely States) on 23 March 1940.[4][5][2][6] Since then, the day is celebrated annually throughout the country as a public holiday. The Armed forces of Pakistan usually hold a military parade to celebrate the event.[3][7]

History

The Muslim League held its annual session at Minto Park in Lahore, Punjab, that lasted from the 22nd of March to the 24th of March 1940.[8] During this event, the Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and other Founding Fathers narrated the events regarding the differences between Hindus and Muslims, and introduced the historical resolution that cemented the formation of a nation-state in South Asia as Pakistan, even though it did not actually mention Pakistan at all.[9]

The resolution was passed on 23 March and had its signatures from the Founding Fathers of Pakistan. It reads as:

[Quoting Resolution:] No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless geographical contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary. That the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign.

The British plan to partition Indian subcontinent into two dominion- Hindustan and Pakistan was announced on Jun 3 1947. In the event Pakistan was created on 14 August 1947 and Hindustan independence came a day later. Pakistan was immediately identified as migrant state born amid bloodshed. Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founder of Pakistan became first Governor General of Pakistan and Mr. Liaqat Ali Khan, The first Prime Minister of Pakistan. The Indian Act of 1935 provided the legal framework for Pakistan until 1956, when the state passed its own constitution.[10] While Pakistan's Independence Day celebrates its freedom from British Rule, the Republic Day celebrates of coming into force of its constitution.

Works and efforts by Basic Principles Committee drafted the basic outlines of the constitution in 1949.[11] After many deliberations and years of some modifications, the first set of the Constitution of Pakistan was enforced in the country on 23 March 1956. This marked the country's successful transition from Dominion to Islamic Republic. The Governor-General was replaced with President of Pakistan as ceremonial head of state.[12]

Celebrations

The main celebration is held in Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan.[13] The President of Pakistan is usually the Chief Guest; also the attended in public are Prime Minister of Pakistan alongside the Cabinet ministers, military chiefs of staff, and chairman joint chiefs.[14]

A full inter-services joint military parade is rehearsed and broadcast live by the news media in all over the country.[14] Pakistan military inter services also shows a glance of its power and capabilities during this parade.

The celebrations regarding the holiday include a full military and civilian parade in the capital, Islamabad.[3] These are presided by the President of Pakistan and are held early in the morning.[14] After the parade, the President confers national awards and medals on the awardees at the Presidency.[14] Wreaths are also laid at the mausoleums of Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah founder of Pakistan.[3] In very rare times and significance, foreign dignitaries have been invited to attend the military parade.[15]

Parade Commanders

From 1956–2018, the following officers from the army have lead the joint services parade:

YearOfficerUnitNotes
1983Brigadier Nasir Mehmood1st Punjab Regiment.
1987Brigadier Afzal Janjua SJFF RegtLater Lt. Gen.
1989Brigadier Yasub Dogar2 FF Regiment (Guides)
1996Brigadier Naveed Nasr17 Punjab RegimentAlso commanded 70 Punjab
1997Brigadier Javed Iqbal18 Field RegimentMS to Nawaz Sharif in 1999
1998Brigadier Akram SahiFF RegtLater Maj. Gen.
1999Brigadier Khalid Nawaz Janjua3 Baluch RegtLater Lt. Gen.
20xxBrigadier Badar MunirAK Regt
2005Brigadier Naushad KianiPunjab RegtLater Maj. Gen.
2007Brigadier Tariq GhafoorFF RegtLater Maj. Gen.
2008Brigadier Ihsan ul HaqLater Maj. Gen.
2015Brigadier Khurram Sarfaraz27 Baluch Regt
2016Brigadier Amir Majeed29 AK Regt
2017Brigadier Amer Ahsan Nawaz3 Baluch Regt
2018Brigadier Amer Amin19 FF Regt

Foreign dignitaries who have attended the parade

From 1956–2000, the following foreign dignitaries who have attended parade are:

YearForeign dignitary
Chief Guest
CountryNotes
1985General Rudini[15] IndonesiaChief of staff of Indonesian Army
1987Robert Mugabe ZimbabwePresident of Zimbabwe
1996Cassam Uteem[15] MauritiusPresident of Mauritius
2018Maithripala Sirisena[16] Sri LankaPresident of Sri Lanka

Foreign contingents

YearContingentCountry
1956Janissary Military band Turkey
1956Iran Military Contingent Iran
1956Turkish Military Contingent Turkey
1997Janissary Military band Turkey
2017
2018
Beijing Garrison Honor Guard Battalion China
2018Janissary Military band[17] Turkey
2018Saudi Arabian Special Forces Saudi Arabia
2018UAE elite unit[18] UAE

See also

References and Notes

  1. Official name is (Urdu: Urdu: یوم پاکستان, lit. Yaum-e-Pakistan) or Pakistan Day in English. The day also commemorates The Pakistan Resolution Day, Republic Day (Urdu: يوم جمهوريه) or as Joint Inter-Services parade. Unofficially, the day is also known as 23 March

Citations

  1. Stacy Taus-Bolstad (April 2003). Pakistan in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-8225-4682-5. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  2. 1 2 John Stewart Bowman (2000). Columbia chronologies of Asian history and culture. Columbia University Press. p. 372. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Agencies (23 March 2012). "Nation celebrates Pakistan Day today". The Nation.
  4. Olson, Gillia (2005). "Holidays". Pakistan : a question and answer book. Mankato, Minn.: Capstone Press. ISBN 0736837574.
  5. Singh, Sarina; et al. (2008). Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway (7th ed.). Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet.
  6. Rizvi, Hasan Askari (23 March 2015). "Pakistan and March 23" (Special works published by Dr. H.A. Rizvi). Express Tribune, Rizvi. Express Tribune. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  7. DAWN.com (23 March 2015). "Pakistan holds first Republic Day parade in seven years". Dawn News, 2015. Dawn. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  8. Programme of the All India Muslim Leagues 27th Annual Session, to be held at Lahore 21 to 24 March 1940, at the National Archives of Pakistan, Islamabad, the Quaid i Azam Papers, File 1354
  9. Syed Iftikhar Ahmed (1983), Essays on Pakistan, Alpha Bravo Publishers, Lahore, OCLC 12811079
  10. Cohen, Stephen P. The idea of Pakistan. Brookings Institution Press, 2004.
  11. Hussain, Rizwan. Pakistan. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World.
  12. Ghazali, Abdus Sattar. "The First Islamic Republic". Islamic Pakistan: Illusions and Reality. Islamabad: National Book Club. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  13. Staff work (22 March 2015). "Preparations complete for Pakistan Day parade on March 23". NewsTribe, 2015. NewsTribe. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
  14. 1 2 3 4 DAWN.com (24 March 2015). "Pakistan holds first Republic Day parade in seven years". Dawn Newspapers, 2015. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
  15. 1 2 3 Dawn.com (24 March 2015). "Relive Pakistan Day: 1940 – 2000". Dawn archives, 2015. Dawn archives. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
  16. "Sri Lankan President arrives in Pakistan". The Hindu. 2018-03-22. Retrieved 2018-08-20.
  17. "Saudi Arabia, Chinese and Turkish Military contingents to participate in Pakistan Day parade on". Timesofislamabad.com. 2018-03-07. Retrieved 2018-08-20.
  18. "UAE troops to participate in Pakistan Day parade". Arab News. 2018-03-20. Retrieved 2018-08-20.
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