Paite language

Paite
Paite
Pronunciation Pai-te
Native to India
Region Assam, Manipur
Ethnicity Paite
Native speakers
79,507 (2011 census)[1]
Roman alphabet/Latin alphabet, Pau Chin Hau script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 pck
Glottolog pait1244[2]

Paite is a Kuki-Chin language spoken by the Paite people. There are different Paite dialects. The language exhibits mutual intelligibility with the other languages of the region including Thadou, Hmar, Vaiphei, Simte, Kom, Gangte and other languages.[3] The name Paite literally means 'Go-people' and can be translated as 'Leavers' , 'Marchers' or 'simply the people who went.'

Paite alphabet (Paite laimal)

The alphabet is propounded by Shri T Vialphung in 1903 which is extract from the Roman alphabets and has 18 consonants and 6 vowels. Out of 18 consonant phomemes in Paite, 11 of them are glottal stops, 4 fricatives, 2 nasal and 1 lateral.

This version of the Paite alphabet is called 'Paite Laimal'. This alphabet is used since 1903 to till today.

Letter aawbchdefgnghijk
Letter lmnoprstuvz
Consonants bchdfgnghjklmnprstvz
Vowels aaweiou

Diphthongs

High-front-oriented eiaiuioi
High-back-oriented auiueuou
Low-central-oriented iaua

'iai'(yai) and 'uau'(wao) are the Triphthongs of Paite language.

Numbers

PaiteEnglishMeitei
BialZeroPhun
KhatOneAma
NihTwoAni
ThumThreeAhum
LiFourMari
NgaFiveManga
GukSixTaruk
SagihSevenTaret
GiatEightNipal
KuaNineMapal
SawmTenTara
SawmlehkhatElevenTaraMathoi
SawmlehkuaNineteenTaraMapal
SawmhniTwentyKhun
SawmthumThirtyKhumThra
SawmkuaNinetyMariPhuTara
ZaHundredChaAma
ZangaFive hundredChaManga
Saang(khat)One thousandLishing
Siing(khat)Ten thousand
Nuai(khat)Hundred thousand/One lakh
MaktaduaiMillion
VaibelsiaTen million
VaibelsetakHundred million
TuklehdingawnBillion
Tuklehdingawn sawmTen billion
Tuklehdingawn zaHundred billion

Sample text

The following is a sample text in Paite of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

Paite pauEnglish
Mi tengteng zalena piang ihi ua, zahomna leh dikna tanvou ah kibangvek ihi. Sia leh pha theihna pilna neia siam ihihziakun imihingpihte tungah unauna lungsim feltak iputngai ahi. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

There are two major dialects of Paite in Manipur, namely Lousau, Lamjang and Dapjar.[4]

Grammar

Paite grammar is fairly complex because of a number of word modification and a bit complex noun structure.

Word order

Paite's declarative word structure is Object-subject-verb.

Vasa
bird
ka
I

see
Vasa Ka mu
I see a bird
Sing
firewood
a
he
puá
carries
Sing a puá
He carries wood

But even if the word order and grammar isn't followed, sentences and phrases won't loose its meaning.

Example: "Lai a gelh'' which means He writes can also be written as ''Gelh a Lai'' but still doesn't loose it's meaning.

Five prominent tones in Paite are Rising(Tungkal)(á), Rising-falling(Tungkal-niamkiak)(â), Falling(Niamkiak)(à), Falling-rising(Niamkiak-tungkal)(ã), flat/levelled (Pheipai)(ā).The number of tones varies with variations in region and dialect.

Geographical distribution

Paite is spoken mainly in the following locations (Ethnologue).

References

  1. "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Paite Chin". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. Singh, Chungkham Yashawanta (1995). "The linguistic situation in Manipur" (PDF). Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 18 (1): 129–134. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  4. Singh, Naorem Saratchandra Singh (2006). A Grammar of Paite. Mittal Publications. p. xviii. ISBN 978-8183240680. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  • Singh, Naorem Saratchandra. 2006. A grammar of Paite. New Delhi: Mittal Publications.

Further reading

  • Muivah, Esther T. 1993. English-Paite dictionary. Lamka, Manipur: Paite Tribe Council.
  • Tualkhothang, Naulak. 2003. English-Paite dictionary. Lamka, Manipur: The Tualkhothang Naulak Memorial Trust.
  • Tawmbing, Chinzam. 2014. English-Paite dictionary. Lamka, Manipur: Hornbill Publication.
  • Paite Tribe Council. 2013. Paite customary law & practices / Paite pupa ngeina dan leh a kizatnate. Lamka, Manipur: Paite Tribe Council.
  • Thuamkhopau, T. 2009. Paite paunaak leh pau upate. Manipur: Tribal Research Institute.
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