Pacific Islands Americans

Pacific Islands Americans
Oceanian Americans
Total population
540,013 alone
0.2% of the total U.S. population (2010 Census)[1]
1,225,195 alone or in combination
0.4% of the total U.S. population (2010 Census)
Regions with significant populations
 Guam,  American Samoa,  Northern Mariana Islands,  California,  Hawaii,  Washington,  Oregon,  Nevada,  Alaska,  Texas
Languages
American English, Polynesian languages, Micronesian languages
Religion
Christianity, Polytheism, Bahá'í, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, Jainism
Related ethnic groups
Pacific Islanders, Austronesians

Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, Pacific Islander Americans, or Native Hawaiian and/or other Pacific Islander Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry among the indigenous peoples of Oceania (viz. Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians). For its purposes, the U.S. Census also counts Indigenous Australians as part of this group.[2][3]

Pacific Islander Americans make up 0.5% of the U.S. population including those with partial Pacific Islander ancestry, enumerating about 1.4 million people. The largest ethnic subgroups of Pacific Islander Americans are Native Hawaiians, Samoans, Chamorros, Fijians, Marshallese and Tongans. Native Hawaiians, Samoans, Tongans, and Chamorros have large communities in Hawaii, California, and Utah, with sizable communities in Washington, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Alaska. Fijians are predominantly based in California.

American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam are insular areas (U.S. territories), while Hawaii is a state.

Population

In the 2000 and 2010 U.S. Census, the term "Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander" refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Tonga, Samoa, Fiji, the Marshalls or other Pacific Islands.

In the 2010 census 1,225,195 Americans claimed "'Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander'" as their race alone or in combination.

Pacific Islands Americans in the 2000[4]2010 U.S. Census[5] (From over 1,000 people)

Ancestry20002000 % of Pacific Islands American population20102010 % of Pacific Islands American population
Native Hawaiians 401,162 45.9% 527,077 43.0%
Samoan 133,281 15.2% 184,440 15.1%
Chamorro 93,237 (Guamanian or Chamorro: 92,611; Saipanese: 475; Mariana Islander: 141) 10.7% 148,220 (Guamanian or Chamorro: 147,798; Saipanese: 1,031; Mariana Islander: 391) 12.2%
Tongan 36,840 4.2% 57,183 4.7%
Fijian 13,581 1.6% 32,304 2.6%
Marshallese 6,650 0.8% 22,434 1.8%
Palauan 3,469 0.4% 7,450 0.6%
French Polynesian 3,313 0.4% 5,062 0.4%
Polynesians with New Zealand citizenship (Māori, Tokelauans, Niueans, Cook Islanders) 2,422 (Māori: 1,994; Tokelauans: 574) 0.3% 925 (Tokelauans only) 0.1%
Micronesian (FSM) 1,948 0.2% 8,185 0.7%
"Micronesian" (not specified) 9,940 1.1% 29,112 2.4%
"Polynesian" (not specified) 8,796 1.0% 9,153 0.7%
Others 188,389 % 241,952 %
TOTAL 874,414 100.0% 1,225,195 100.0%

Location

State/territoryPacific Islands Americans alone (2010 US Census)[6]Percentage[note 1]
 Alabama5,2080.1%
 Alaska7,6621.0%
 Arizona16,1120.2%
 Arkansas6,6850.2%
 California181,4310.8%
 Colorado8,4200.1%
 Connecticut3,4910.0%
 Delaware6900.0%
 District of Columbia770-
 Florida18,790-
Georgia10,4540.1%
 Hawaii138,29210.0%
 Idaho2,7860.1%
 Illinois7,436-
 Indiana3,5320.1%
 Iowa2,4190.1%
 Kansas2,8640.1%
 Kentucky3,1990.1%
 Louisiana2,588-
 Maine377-
 Maryland5,391-
 Massachusetts5,971-
 Michigan3,442<0.1%
 Minnesota2,9580.0%
 Mississippi1,700-
 Missouri7,1780.1%
 Montana7340.1%
 Nebraska2,0610.1%
 Nevada19,3070.6%
 New Hampshire532-
 New Jersey7,731-
 New Mexico3,1320.1%
 New York24,0000.1%
 North Carolina10,3090.1%
  North Dakota3340.1%
 Ohio5,3360.03%
 Oklahoma5,3540.1%
 Oregon14,6490.4%
 Pennsylvania7,115-
 Rhode Island1,6020.1%
 South Carolina3,9570.1%
 South Dakota5170.1%
 Tennessee5,4260.1%
 Texas31,2420.1%
 Utah26,0491.3%
 Vermont175-
 Virginia8,2010.1%
 Washington43,5050.6%
 West Virginia485-
 Wisconsin2,505-
 Wyoming5210.1%
 American Samoa51,403[7]91%
 Guam78,582 [8]49%
 Northern Mariana Islands18,800 [9]34.9%
USA674,6250.2%
State/territoryPacific Islands Americans alone or in combination (2010 US Census)[10]
 Alabama7,984
 Alaska11,360
 Arizona28,431
 Arkansas8,597
 California320,036
 Colorado16,823
 Connecticut6,864
 Delaware1,423
 District of Columbia1,514
 Florida43,416
Georgia18,587
 Hawaii358,951
 Idaho5,508
 Illinois15,873
 Indiana7,392
 Iowa4,173
 Kansas5,445
 Kentucky5,698
 Louisiana5,333
 Maine1,008
 Maryland11,553
 Massachusetts12,369
 Michigan10,010
 Minnesota6,819
 Mississippi3,228
 Missouri12,136
 Montana1,794
 Nebraska3,551
 Nevada35,435
 New Hampshire1,236
 New Jersey15,777
 New Mexico5,750
 New York45,801
 North Carolina17,891
  North Dakota801
 Ohio11,380
 Oklahoma9,052
 Oregon26,936
 Pennsylvania14,662
 Rhode Island2,803
 South Carolina6,988
 South Dakota1,040
 Tennessee9,359
 Texas54,801
 Utah37,994
 Vermont476
 Virginia17,233
 Washington73,213
 West Virginia1,295
 Wisconsin5,558
 Wyoming1,137
 American Samoa52,790[11]
 Guam90,238 [12]
 Northern Mariana Islands24,891 [13]
USA1,332,494

Micronesian Americans

Micronesian Americans are Americans of Micronesian descent.

The largest Micronesian American subgroups are Marshallese and Chamoru Americans. Other significant groups include Yapese, Pohnpeian, Kosraean, Chuuk, and Palauan.

Chamorro Americans, or the Chamoru, are the indigenous inhabitants of the Marianas, which are politically divided between Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Chamoru have been subject to the jurisdiction of the United States since the U.S. captured Guam during the Spanish–American War in 1898. The rest of the archipelago did not become affiliated with the U.S. until it invaded the Japanese-occupied islands in 1944. In the 2010 census, 147,798 identified as "Guamanian or Chamorro". Because of economic conditions in the Marianas, particularly from the 1990s onward, many emigrated to the States in search of work and better opportunities. There are now more Chamorros in the 50 states than there are in the Marianas.

According to the 2010 census, the largest Chamoru populations were located in California, Washington and Texas, but their combined number from these three states totaled less than half the number living throughout the U.S. It also revealed that the Chamoru people are the most geographically dispersed Oceanic ethnicity in the country.[14]

Marshallese Americans or Marshallese come from the Marshall Islands. In the 2010 census 22,434 Americans identified as being of Marshallese descent.

Because of the Marshall Islands entering the Compact of Free Association in 1986, Marshallese have been allowed to migrate and work in the United States. There are many reasons why Marshallese came to the United States. Some Marshallese came for educational opportunities, particularly for their children. Others sought work or better health care than what’s available in the islands. Massive layoffs by the Marshallese government in 2000 led to a second big wave of immigration.

Arkansas has the largest Marshallese population with over 6,000 residents. Many live in Springdale, and the Marshallese comprise over 5% of the city's population. Other significant Marshallese populations include Spokane and Costa Mesa.

Polynesian Americans

Polynesian Americans are Americans of Polynesian descent.

Large subcategories of Polynesian Americans include Native Hawaiians and Samoan Americans. In addition there are smaller communities of Tongan Americans (see Culture and diaspora of Tonga), French Polynesian Americans, and Māori Americans.

A Samoan American is an American who is of ethnic Samoan descent either from the independent nation Samoa or the American territory of American Samoa. Samoan American is a subcategory of Polynesian American. About 65,000 people live on American Samoa, while the US census in 2000 and 2008 has found 4 times the number of Samoan Americans live in the mainland USA.

California has the most Samoans; concentrations live in the San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles County, and San Diego County. San Francisco has approximately 2,000 people of Samoan ancestry, and other Bay Area cities such as East Palo Alto and Daly City have Samoan communities. In Los Angeles County, Long Beach and Carson have abundant Samoan communities, as well as in Oceanside in San Diego County.[15][16][17] Other West Coast metropolitan areas such as Seattle have strong Samoan communities, mainly in King County and in Tacoma. Anchorage, Alaska and Honolulu, Hawaii both have thousands of Samoan Americans residing in each city.

Since the end of World War II, persons born in American Samoa are United States nationals, but not United States citizens. (This is the only circumstance under which an individual would be one and not the other.) For this reason, Samoans can move to Hawaii or the mainland United States and obtain citizenship comparatively easily. Like Hawaiian Americans, the Samoans arrived in the mainland in the 20th century as agricultural laborers and factory workers.

Elsewhere in the United States, Samoan Americans are plentiful throughout the state of Utah, as well as in Killeen, Texas, Norfolk, Virginia and Independence, Missouri.

A Tongan American is an American who is of ethnic Tongan descent. Utah has the largest Tongan American population and Hawaii has the second largest. Many of the first Tongan Americans came to the United States in connection to the LDS Church.

Military

Based on 2003 recruiting data, Pacific Islander Americans were 249% over-represented in the military.[18]

American Samoans are distinguished among the wider Pacific Islander group for enthusiasm for enlistment. In 2007, a Chicago Tribune reporter covering the island's military service noted, "American Samoa is one of the few places in the nation where military recruiters not only meet their enlistment quotas but soundly exceed them."[19] As of 23 March 2009 there have been 10 American Samoans who have died in Iraq, and 2 who have died in Afghanistan.[20]

Pacific Islander Americans are also represented in the Navy SEALS, making up .6% of the enlisted and .1% of the officers.[21]

See also

Notes

  1. Percentage of the state population that identifies itself as Pacific Islands relative to the state/territory population as a whole.

References

  1. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). US Census Bureau.
  2. University of Virginia. Geospatial and Statistical Data Center. "1990 PUMS Ancestry Codes." 2003. August 30, 2007."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
  3. University of Michigan. Census 1990: Ancestry Codes. August 27, 2007
  4. The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population, Census 2000
  5. The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population: 2010 Census, 2010 Census Briefs, United States Bureau of the Census, May 2012
  6. US Census Bureau: " Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States, States, and Counties: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" retrieved September 05, 2016 - select state from drop-down menu
  7. ETHNIC ORIGIN OR RACE: Total ethnic origin and race groups tallied more information 2010 American Samoa Summary File
  8. ETHNIC ORIGIN OR RACE: Total ethnic origin and race groups tallied more information 2010 Guam Summary File
  9. ETHNIC ORIGIN OR RACE: Total ethnic origin and race groups tallied more information 2010 Northern Mariana Islands Summary File
  10. US Census Bureau: " Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States, States, and Counties: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" retrieved September 05, 2016 - select state from drop-down menu
  11. ETHNIC ORIGIN OR RACE ALONE OR IN COMBINATION Universe: Total ethnic origin and race groups tallied more information 2010 American Samoa Summary File
  12. ETHNIC ORIGIN OR RACE ALONE OR IN COMBINATION Universe: Total ethnic origin and race groups tallied more information 2010 Guam Summary File
  13. ETHNIC ORIGIN OR RACE ALONE OR IN COMBINATION Universe: Total ethnic origin and race groups tallied more information 2010 Northern Mariana Islands Summary File
  14. "2010 Census Shows More than Half of Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders Report Multiple Races". United States Census 2010. United States government. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  15. Knight, Heather (March 1, 2006). "A YEAR AT MALCOLM X: Second Chance at Success Samoan families learn American culture". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
  16. Sahagun, Louis (October 1, 2009). "Samoans in Carson hold church services for tsunami, earthquake victims". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
  17. Garrison, Jessica. "Samoan Americans at a Crossroads", Los Angeles Times, April 14, 2000. Retrieved 2010-10-3.
  18. "Who Bears the Burden?". Heritage Foundation.
  19. Scharnberg, Kirsten (March 21, 2007). "Young Samoans have little choice but to enlist". Chicago Tribune.
  20. Congressman Faleomavaega (23 March 2009). "WASHINGTON, D.C.—AMERICAN SAMOA DEATH RATE IN THE IRAQ WAR IS HIGHEST AMONG ALL STATES AND U.S. TERRITORIES". Press Release. United States House of Representatives. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
  21. "Navy SEALS to Diversify". Time. March 12, 2012.
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