|Trade names||Prostetin, Roxenone|
|Synonyms||TSAA-291; 16β-Ethyl-19-nortestosterone; 16β-Ethylestr-4-en-17β-ol-3-one|
|Drug class||Steroidal antiandrogen; Progestin; Progestogen|
|Bioavailability||Oral: Very low (1% in dogs)|
|Elimination half-life||IM: 5.0–6.6 days.|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||302.451 g/mol|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Oxendolone, sold under the brand names Prostetin and Roxenone, is an antiandrogen and progestin medication which is used in Japan in the treatment of enlarged prostate. However, this use is controversial due to concerns about its clinical efficacy. Oxendolone is not effective by mouth and must be given by injection into muscle.
Oxendolone is an antiandrogen, and hence is an antagonist of the androgen receptor, the biological target of androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. It is also a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone. Due to its progestogenic activity, oxendolone has antigonadotropic effects. Oxendolone has no other important hormonal activity.
Oxendolone is used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Japan. It has been used at a dosage of 200 mg once every 2 weeks via intramuscular injection. Although it is approved for the treatment of BPH in Japan, concerns have been raised about its use for this condition due to poor efficacy seen in clinical trials.
Oxendolone binds to the androgen receptor (Ki = 320 nM) and progesterone receptor (Ki = 20 nM) and acts as a weak but clinically relevant inhibitor of 5α-reductase (IC50 = 1.4 μM). The binding affinity of oxendolone for the androgen receptor is far lower than that of cyproterone acetate. At the androgen receptor, oxendolone is not a silent antagonist but is rather predominantly antagonistic with weak agonistic activity; for this reason, it has been described as a selective androgen receptor modulator. The drug has potent antigonadotropic effects via its progestogenic actions. It has been found to suppress luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels to an equivalent extent as allylestrenol and chlormadinone acetate, which are two progestins that are similarly used at high dosages to treat BPH.
The oral bioavailability of oxendolone in dogs is extremely low, 1% at most. Due to its low oral bioavailability, oxendolone is administered by intramuscular injection in humans. Its elimination half-life via this route is 5.0 to 6.6 days.
Society and culture
Oxendolone is marketed only in Japan.
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[Oxendolone] has been clinically tested in Japan (weekly intramuscular injection of 200-400 mg) in prostatic hypertrophy.
- Hikichi Y, Yamaoka M, Kusaka M, Hara T (2015). "Selective androgen receptor modulator activity of a steroidal antiandrogen TSAA-291 and its cofactor recruitment profile". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 765: 322–31. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.08.052. PMID 26335395.
According to the clinical data of TSAA-291, the plasma level of TSAA-291 after weekly intramuscular administration at 400 mg/kg for 12 weeks is approximately 100 nM (Drug Information).
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Thirty patients were treated with weekly injections of oxendolone 200 mg during a 3 months' period, and 30 patients were allocated to placebo treatment.
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After intramuscular administration of 16β-ethyl-17β-hydroxy-4-[4-14C] estren-3-one (14C-oxendolone; 300 mg) to 3 human subjects, [...]
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