Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa
Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA) is the United States military operation to combat militant Islamism and piracy in the Horn of Africa. It is one component of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), which includes eight African states stretching from the far northeast of the continent to the oil-rich Gulf of Guinea in the west. The other OEF mission in Africa is known as Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara (OEF-TS), which, until the creation of the new United States Africa Command, was run from the United States European Command.
The Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) is the primary (but not sole) military component assigned to accomplish the objectives of the mission. The naval component is the multinational Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150) which operates under the direction of the United States Fifth Fleet. Both of these organizations have been historically part of United States Central Command. In February 2007, United States President George W. Bush announced the establishment of the United States Africa Command which took over all of the area of operations of CJTF-HOA in October 2008.
CJTF-HOA consists of about 2,000 servicemen and women from the United States military and allied countries. The official area of responsibility comprises Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Seychelles and Kenya. Outside this Combined Joint Operating Area, the CJTF-HOA has operations in Mauritius, Comoros, Liberia, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania. The American contribution to the operation, aside from advisers, supplies, and other forms of non-combat support, consists mainly of drone strikes targeted at Al-Shabaab. These are estimated to have killed roughly 400 militants as well as 3 to 10 civilians. Other American combat operations include manned airstrikes, cruise missile strikes, and special forces raids.
Interception of missiles from North Korea
On 9 December 2002 Spanish frigate SPS Navarra (F85) intercepted the unflagged freighter So San several hundred miles southeast of Yemen at the request of the United States government. The frigate fired across So San's bow after the freighter ignored hails and attempted to evade the frigate. The freighter's crew was North Korean; 23 containers containing 15 complete Scud ballistic missiles, 15 high-explosive warheads, and 23 nitric acid (used as an oxidizer for fueling Scud missiles) containers were found on board. Yemen claimed ownership of the shipment and protested the interception and U.S. officials released the vessel after receiving assurances that the missiles would not be transferred to a third party.
Pirates are rampant along the coast of Somalia and present a hazard to all shipping there; as such, anti-piracy operations are a routine part of Operation Enduring Freedom: Horn of Africa. This is done primarily by the Combined Task Force 150 and in parallel to other independent anti-piracy operations conducted off the coast of Somalia by other countries such as China, India and Russia.
The U.S. Coast Guard Cutter USCGC Munro (WHEC-724), working with carrier HMS Invincible and the destroyer HMS Nottingham in the Gulf of Aden, intercepted a hijacked vessel at around noon on 17 March. The interception was ordered after Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Central Command (COMUSNAVCENT) received telephone reports from the International Maritime Bureau's Piracy Reporting Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, concerning the hijacking of the Thai-flagged fishing boat Sirichai Nava 12 by three Somalis on the evening of 16 March, as well as a fax indicating that the hijackers demanded U.S. $800,000 in ransom for the vessel's crew.
Commander, Combined Task Force (CTF) 150 tasked Invincible, Nottingham and Munro to investigate the situation. A Visit, Board, Search and Seizure (VBSS) team from Munro boarded Sirichai Nava, while a boarding team from Nottingham went on to a second fishing vessel, Ekhwat Patana, which was with the Thai vessel. Munro's boarding team detained the Somalis without incident.
One of the crew members of the Thai vessel had a minor flesh wound, which was treated by the Munro boarding team. The Coast Guardsmen also discovered four automatic weapons in the pilothouse, expended ammunition shells on the deck of the vessel, as well as ammunition on the detained suspects. The three suspects were transferred to Munro. The Munro was assigned to CTF 150, which is the Coalition maritime task force conducting Maritime Security Operations (MSO) in the vicinity of the Horn of Africa, Gulf of Aden, Red Sea, North Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman.
On 20 January, a 14 Royal Malaysian Navy PASKAL assault teams engaging seven Somali pirates on board the Japanese-Malaysian chemical freighter MT Bunga Laurel, about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) east of Oman, near Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea, resulting in 3 pirates wounded, 4 remaining pirates captured, and the freeing of 23 Filipino hostages after gunfighting aboard the vessel.
In the early morning of 22 January, 15 ROKN UDT/SEAL members boarded the 11,000-ton chemical freighter Samho Jewelry which was taken by 13 pirates six days prior; killed 8 pirates and captured 5 without taking any casualties after three hours of intense firefighting. All 21 hostages were secured, with one hostage suffering a non-fatal gunshot wound to the abdomen.
A hijacked dhow was hailed by USS Bainbridge on 10 May, after which 7 pirates on board immediately surrendered. The ship's 15 crew members claimed they were hijacked 6 months prior and their ship was used as a mothership for the pirates.
On 16 May, USS Stephen W. Groves exchanged fire with Jih Chun Tsai 68, a known pirate mothership. When a boarding team arrived, they found 3 pirates dead and captured 2 pirates.
On 11 September, a Spanish Navy patrol boat engaged Somali pirates, freeing a French hostage after sinking the pirate skiff and capturing 7 pirates. The woman was taken hostage after pirates killed her husband and left her catamaran off the coast of Yemen.
On 11 October, Royal Marines embarked on board RFA Fort Victoria freed 23 crew members of a hijacked Italian cargo ship after it had been captured by pirates 5 days earlier. USS DeWert was the first vessel to arrive on scene after gathering intelligence on the whereabouts of the vessel and deploying counter intelligence surveillance units in the area.
On 3 October, Tanzania Navy freed a hijacked vessel and managed to apprehend seven pirates, They are handed over to civilian police for further action.
Acting on intelligence from other counter-piracy forces, USS Carney boarded the Indian-flagged dhow, Al Qashmi on 6 January. By the time the search team boarded, all evidence of potential piracy had been disposed of, though the crew said they were hijacked by the 9 pirates on board from a different vessel. The 9 suspected pirates were disarmed and given sufficient fuel and provisions to return to Somalia.
The next day, the Danish warship HDMS Absalon intercepted an Iranian-flagged dhow after identifying it as a potential pirate mother ship. Warning shots had to be fired before a search team could board. In addition to the crew of 5 Iranian and 9 Pakistani nationals, the team seized 25 pirates. The captured pirates were then taken aboard Absalon to determine whether they should be prosecuted.
A third pirate vessel was intercepted on 13 January. RFA Fort Victoria fired off warning shots to stop the vessel and then launched a boarding party. All of the pirates surrendered without incident and search uncovered several RPGs and automatic weapons. Royal Marines held the captured pirates for further investigation.
HDMS Absalon had been observing a pirate mother ship for several days when it attempted to leave the coast of Somalia on 28 February. Danish forces fired on the ship, forcing it to stop. On board were 17 pirates and 18 hostages, though two of the hostages later died from wounds sustained. NATO said that an investigation would be held regarding the hostages' deaths.
On October 11, pirates attacked Hong Kong registered tanker Island Splendor and attacked a Spanish fishing vessel 3 days later. Suspected to have been carried out by the same group of pirates, they were tracked down by RFA Fort Victoria, supported by HMAS Melbourne, ROKS Wang Geon, European Union flagship HNLMS Johan de Witt, and a Seychelles-based maritime patrol aircraft from Luxembourg. The pirate skiffs were tracked by Melbourne's Seahawk helicopter, a boarding team from Melbourne searched the skiffs, they successfully apprehended nine pirates and later destroyed two skiffs and their piracy equipment.
By December 2013, the US Office of Naval Intelligence reported that only 9 vessels had been attacked during the year by the pirates, with zero successful hijackings. Control Risks attributed this 90% decline in pirate activity from the corresponding period in 2012 to the adoption of best management practices by vessel owners and crews, armed private security onboard ships, a significant naval presence, and the development of onshore security forces.
Escalating tensions in Somalia
On 1 July 2006, a Web-posted message purportedly written by Osama bin Laden urged Somalis to build an Islamic state in the country and warned western states that his al-Qaeda network would fight against them if they intervened there.
On 11 July 2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) took control of the Somali capital Mogadishu, and by the beginning of December had firm control of most of the south of Somalia. In November 2006, a United States Marine detachment was in the town of Garissa in Kenya's North Eastern Province, adjoining Somalia. Officially, the Marines were an engineering detachment conducting a humanitarian mission of drilling bore holes in conjunction with the Kenya military to support flood relief. However, locals speculated that the Marines were performing a reconnaissance mission close to the Somali border. On 26 November 2006, the U.S. Embassy in Kenya issued a travel alert to U.S. citizens regarding travel to Kenya or Ethiopia after letters allegedly written by the Somalian leader of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), Sheik Hassan Dahir Aweys, encouraged suicide attacks on U.S. citizens in those two countries.
War in Somalia
On 14 December 2006, the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Jendayi Frazer warned that al-Qaeda cell operatives were controlling the Islamic Courts Union, the Islamist faction of Somalia rapidly taking control of the southern area of the country. The next day, ICU Information Secretary Abdirahim Ali Mudey denied the allegation as baseless. Frazer later announced that the United States has no intention of committing troops to Somalia to root out al-Qaeda.
On 27 December 2006, The New York Times reported analysts in Nairobi, Kenya claimed U.S. surveillance aircraft were funneling information to Ethiopian forces. Major Kelley Thibode, a spokeswoman for the task force of American military personnel based in Djibouti, said she was "not at liberty to discuss" the matter. Somali Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi declared one of the key objectives of the offensive on Kismayo was the capture of three alleged al-Qaeda members, suspects wanted for the 1998 United States embassy bombings in East Africa: Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan and Abu Taha al-Sudani. At the time, the United States Fifth Fleet's maritime task force (Combined Task Force 150) based out of Bahrain, was patrolling off the Somali coast to prevent terrorists launching an "attack or to transport personnel, weapons or other material," said Commander Kevin Aandahl. The announcement did not say what particular ships comprised the cordon, but the task force includes vessels from Canada, France, Germany, Pakistan, the United Kingdom and the U.S. American ships of Combined Task Force 150 include the Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Ramage and the Ticonderoga-class cruiser USS Bunker Hill. The aim of the patrols shifted on 2 January 2007, according to diplomats, to "... stop SICC leaders or foreign militant supporters escaping".
On 2 January 2006, U.S. Marines operating out of Lamu, Kenya, were said to be assisting Kenyan forces patrolling the border with Somalia with the interception of Islamists. On 8 January it was reported that an AC-130 gunship belonging to the United States military had attacked suspected al-Qaeda operatives in southern Somalia. It was also reported that the aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower had been moved into striking distance. The aircraft flew out of its base in Djibouti. Many bodies were spotted on the ground, but the identity of the dead or wounded was not yet established. The targeted leaders were tracked by the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as they headed south from Mogadishu starting on 28 December. It was reported that the leader of al-Qaeda in East Africa, Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, was killed in the attack, but later officials confirmed that he survived and also that none of the al-Qaeda operatives were killed. However, at least 8 militants of the ICU and at least 2 civilians were killed. On 9 January it was reported U.S. special forces and CIA operatives were working with Ethiopian troops on the ground in operations inside Somalia from a base in Galkayo, in Puntland, and from Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti. On 12 January, a small team of U.S. forces investigated the site of the U.S. gunship attack to search for information about the identity and fate of the targeted individuals.
On 17 January 2006, the Assistant Deputy Secretary of Defense for African affairs, Theresa Whelan, clarifed the airstrike conducted on 8 January was not the work of the CJTF-HOA, but of another force which she did not specify. The target of the strike was confirmed to be Aden Hashi Farah Ayro, who was believed wounded or possibly dead, while eight members of his group were killed in the attack. Likewise, many airstrikes which resulted in civilian casualties around Afmadow conducted by Ethiopian aircraft were mis-attributed to the United States. On 21 January the capture of U.S. troops was reported by the ICU's Qaadisiya.com site, as well as the death of one due to malaria, but this assertion was denied as "utterly bogus" by Michael Ranneberger, U.S. Envoy to Kenya and Somalia. On 24 January, the U.S. admitted to have made a second airstrike, but did not confirm the exact date or location of the strike. On 1 February 2007, the captured ICU leader Sharif Ahmed was released from Kenyan police authorities. He also was reported to have met with Michael Ranneberger allegedly to arrange for the release of the captured U.S. troops. By 8 February, Sheikh Sharif Sheik Ahmed had gone to Yemen where other ICU members are also thought to have gone. On that day, reports in the Yememi Arabic newspaper Al-nedaa stated Sharif Ahmed's release was the first conditional step to arrange the release of varying reports of 11 or 15 United States Marines allegedly captured during fighting in southern Somalia at the Battle of Ras Kamboni. Four Marines were also alleged to have been wounded in the fighting. However, while these stories of captured American soldiers were prevalent in Somali media, they received little or no attention in the Western media. United States involvement in the conflict continued through 2008 with airstrikes targeting suspected Al Qaeda affiliated militants including a strike of dubious success conducted on 2 March 2008 where at least one U.S. naval vessel launched cruise missiles against an Al Qaeda target in a strike on the village of Dobley and a successful strike on Dhusamareb which killed several militant leaders
Alleged operations in Somaliland
On 6 May 2005, a United States Marine Corps unit reportedly landed in Somaliland, the autonomous and self-declared state in northern Somalia. The landings were purportedly conducted to carry out searches, as well as to question locals regarding the whereabouts of terrorist suspects. United States military officials denied the allegations and said operations were not being conducted in Somaliland.
War in Somalia (2009–present)
Operations against al-Qaeda linked terrorists continued in 2009 when on 14 September several U.S. Navy helicopters launched a raid in Baraawe against Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan, killing him as well as five other militants. Also in 2009, Operators from the SAS and the SRR were deployed to Djibouti as part of Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa to conducting operations against Islamist terrorists in Somalia; carrying out missions focusing on surveillance and targeting of terrorists, alongside their US counterparts, they have also been carrying out this role in Yemen. On 25 January 2012, two U.S. Navy Seal teams raided a compound 12 miles north of Adow, Somalia, freeing two hostages while killing nine pirates and capturing five others. On 5 October 2013, American commandos from DEVGRU launched an amphibous raid on the town of Baraawe engaging with al-Shabaab militants and inflicting some casualties on them before withdrawing. On 5 March 2016, U.S. airstrikes carried out by aircraft and unmanned drones killed more than 150 Al-Shabaab terrorists at a terrorist training camp called "Camp Raso", located about 120 miles north of Mogadishu as they were completing "training for a large-scale attack" according to a Pentagon spokesman. The camp had been under surveillance for some time before the strike. In the early hours of 9 March 2016, U.S. special forces and Somali national army special forces killed between 1 and 15 Al-Shabaab terrorists in a heliborne-attack on the Al-Shabaab-controlled town of Awdhegele, as well as capturing an undisclosed number of high-value Al-Shabaab figures the mililtants were training for a major operation against coalition forces. On 11/12 April 2016, two U.S. airstrikes on Al-Shabaab targets in the town of Kismayo killed about a dozen suspected militants who posed a "imminent threat" to American troops in the country. As of May 2016, roughly 50 U.S. special operations troops operate at undisclosed locations across southern Somalia, with their headquarters at the airport in Mogadishu; advising and assisting, Kenyan, Somali and Ugandan forces in their fight against Al-Shabaab. Also in that month, U.S. personnel helped those forces plan an operation against illegal checkpoints. On May 13, a U.S. strike targeted nine al-Shabab militants, three of them were allegedly killed. On June 1, 2016, the Pentagon announced that it had conducted an airstrike that killed a senior Al-Shabaab leader in Somalia on May 27. On August 3, 2016, a contingent of elite American troops acting as military advisers assisted Somali commandos in an assault on an al-Shabaab checkpoint in Saakow, as the Somali-led force approached the checkpoint the militants opened fire, a gun battle ensued that resulted in 3 militants killed. On September 29, 2016, the Military Times reported that on September 26 a bomb-manufacturing network linked al-Shabaab attacked a small team of U.S. and Somali troops, who were conducting an operation near Kismayo, with small-arms fire. A Pentagon spokesman said the U.S. military "conducted a self-defense strike to neutralize the threat and in doing so killed nine enemy fighters." Also on September 28, near the town of Galkayo, a Somali army unit conducting counterterrorism operations nearby, when the Somali soldiers came under fire from al-Shabab militants. The Somali soldiers engaged them, then broke contact and rejoined with their nearby American advisers and soon afterwards the militants "began to maneuver in an offensive manner" so the U.S. conducted a self-defense airstrike, killing 4 militants.
- On 25 June 2011, U.S. Predator drones attacked a Shabaab training camp south of Kismayo. Ibrahim al-Afghani, a senior al Shabaab leader was rumored to be killed in the strike.
- On 6 September 2011, a U.S. drone struck a large Al-Shabaab base, killing 35 militants.
- A drone strike on 17 September killed 17 militants.
- A U.S. drone strike occurred near Mogadishu on 21 January 2012, killing British al-Qaeda operative Bilal el-Berjawi.
- 4 Al-Shabaab fighters, including a white Kenyan and a Moroccan jihadist named Abu Ibrahim, were killed in a drone strike in the K60 area (60 miles south of Mogadishu) of the Lower Shabelle region in southern Somalia late on 24 February 2012.
United States military fatalities
- "Somalia Leaders Killed". New America Foundation. 740 15th Street, N.W., Suite 900, Washington, DC 20005. May 19, 2016.
- Pike, John. "Pirates". Global security. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Eritrea 'arming' Somali militia". BBC News. 27 July 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "UN probes Eritrea arms in Somalia – Africa". Al Jazeera English. 16 May 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Gettleman, Jeffrey (27 July 2007). "A U.N. Report on Somalia Accuses Eritrea of Adding to the Chaos". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- Gettleman, Jeffrey (11 June 2011). "Somalis kill Mastermind of 2 US Embassy Bombings". New York Times.
- Gettleman, Jeffrey (1 September 2010). "In Somali Civil War, Both Sides Embrace Pirates". The New York Times.
- "1 U.S. Soldier Is Killed and 4 Are Wounded in Somalia Firefight".
- "The Bureau of Investigative Journalism", Somalia Datasheet. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Cooper, Helene. ""US Strikes Kill 150 Shabab fighters in Somalia, officials say". Washington Post. March 7 2016. "American warplanes on Saturday struck a training camp in Somalia belonging to the Islamist militant group the Shabab, the Pentagon said, killing about 150 fighters who United States officials said were preparing an attack against American troops and their regional allies in East Africa." New York Times. March 7, 2016.
- Marthe Van Der Wolf (20 March 2013). "Group Envisions Legal Plan to Prosecute Somali Pirates". Voice of America.
- "The Bureau of Investigative Journalism", Somalia Datasheet. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
- "EUCOM: Operations and Initiatives". United States European Command. Archived from the original on 9 January 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2007.
- Rozoff, Rick. "AFRICOM's First War: U.S. Directs Large-Scale Offensive In Somalia". Information Clearing House. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- "DoD Establishing U.S. Africa Command". United States Department of Defense. 6 February 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2007.
- "Africans Fear Hidden U.S. Agenda in New Approach to Africom". Fox News. Associated Press. 30 September 2008. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- "CJTF-HOA Factsheet". Hoa.africom.mil. Archived from the original on 16 September 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- "Scud affair draws US apology". BBC News. 12 December 2002.
- "U.S. lets Scud ship sail to Yemen". CNN. 12 December 2002. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Suspected Pirates Captured Off Somali Coast". United States Central Command. 22 January 2007. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
- Adrian David (21 January 2011). "Royal Malaysian Navy commandos save crew from Somali pirates". News Straits Times. Archived from the original on 27 August 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- "Paskal commandos foil hijack attempt in Gulf of Aden". The Star online. 22 January 2011. Archived from the original on 23 January 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- "Malaysia navy foils ship hijack attempt, seizes pirates". BBC News Asia-Pacific. 22 January 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- "That's how to deal with pirates: South Korean commandos storm hijacked tanker and rescue all crew alive". Daily Mail. London. 21 January 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- "Navy storms hijacked ship, rescues all 21 sailors". Korea Joong Ang Daily. 21 January 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- "News Release" (PDF). NATO. 12 April 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2012.
- "News Release" (PDF). NATO. 10 May 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2012.
- "Press Statement" (PDF). NATO. 18 May 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2012.
- "French Hostage Rescued from Pirates after Gunfight". Reuters Africa. 11 September 2011.
- "Kenya military claims to kill 18 pirates". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 31 October 2011.
- "NATO Task Force Neutralizes Two Pirate Mother Ships" (PDF). NATO. 8 January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2012.
- "NATO Warship Disrupts Another Pirate Ship" (PDF). NATO. 13 January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 June 2012.
- "Denmark Piracy Raid off Somalia Leaves Two Dead". BBC. 28 February 2012.
- "Teamwork helps stop Somali pirates". 21 October 2013.
- "Royal Navy helps apprehend Somali pirates". 21 October 2013.
- Yanofsky, David (27 December 2013). "Somali piracy was reduced to zero this year". Quartz. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "Somali piracy is down 90 per cent from last year". The Journal. 15 December 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "Bin Laden releases Web message on Iraq, Somalia". USA Today. 1 July 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
- Hart, Brett (5 December 2007). "CJTF-HOA to Support Kenyan Government Flood Relief Operations". Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
- "Suspicion As U.S. Marines Hit Town", The East African Standard, All Africa, Nov 17, 2006.
- "Marines Mission Shrouded in Mystery", The East African Standard, All Africa, Dec 4, 2006.
- "Why U.S. Imposed Travel Curb", The Nation, All Africa, Nov 26, 2006.
- "U.S. says al Qaeda behind Somali Islamists", Alert net, Reuters.
- "Islamic Courts Deny Al-Qaeda Operatives In Country", All Africa, Shabelle Media Network, Dec 15, 2006.
- US Does Not Plan to Send Troops Against Al-Qaida in Somalia, US: State Department, archived from the original on 28 November 2010.
- Gettleman, Jeffrey (Dec 27, 2006), "Islamists in Somalia Retreat From Ethiopia-Backed Forces", The New York Times,
- "Navy tries to block fleeing jihadists from Somalia". Air Force Times. 3 January 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2007.
- "Thousands Flee Somalia Fighting". Associated Press. 31 December 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2007.
- "Ramage, Bunker Hill keeping an eye on Somalia". MarineTimes.com. 4 January 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2007.
- "Ethiopian troops to stay in Somalia weeks". Reuters. 2 January 2007. Archived from the original on 31 March 2007.
- Kibaki meets Somalia president as tension at border persists Archived 4 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine. The Standard
- "U.S. targets al Qaeda suspects in Somalia, Pentagon official says". CNN. 8 January 2007. Archived from the original on 10 January 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
- "Reports say U.S. targeted al Qaeda suspects in Somalia". 9 January 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2007.
- "U.S. Special Forces Engaged in Operations on the Ground in Somalia". ABC NEWS. 9 January 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2007.
- "America's Boots on the Ground in Somalia". Pajamas Media. 9 January 2007. Archived from the original on 13 January 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2007.
- "U.S. troops seek airstrike dead in Somalia". United Press International. 12 January 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2007.
- "U.S. raid may have hit top Somali militant: Pentagon". Reuters. 17 January 2006. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2006.
- "U.S. has ground troops in southern Somalia: Journalist". Garowe Online. 21 January 2007. Retrieved 29 February 2007. Check date values in:
- "Military Official Reports Second US Air Strike in Somalia". Voice of America. 24 January 2007. Archived from the original on 15 February 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2007.
- "Somali Islamist leader out of Kenyan custody". Reuters. 1 February 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2007.
- "US diplomat bids the release of 11 US soldiers seized in Somalia". Shabelle Media Network. 1 February 2007. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007.
- "Somali Islamist travels to Yemen". BBC. 8 February 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2007.
- "Somalia: The story of US captives in Somalia gains weight". 8 February 2007. Archived from the original on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2007.
- "The Release of 15 US soldiers in southern Somalia underway—Yemen paper". Shabelle Media Network. 8 February 2007. Archived from the original on 10 February 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2007.
- "US denies Somali terror landing". BBC News. 6 May 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
- "Cargo bomb plot: SAS hunting al-Qaeda in Yemen". the telegraph. 2 November 2010.
- "UK and US spend millions to counter Yemeni threat". the independent. 30 October 2010.
- "U.S. commandos free two hostages in daring Somalia raid". Reuters. 25 January 2012.
- "US commando raids: What did they achieve?". BBC News. 6 October 2013.
- "US strike kills at least 150 Shebab fighters in Somalia". yahoo news. 7 March 2016.
- "US troops in helicopter-borne raid in Somalia: Pentagon". yahoo news. 9 March 2016.
- "Somalia al-Shabab: US forces took part in raid on militants". BBC News. 9 March 2016.
- "U.S., Somali commandos nab valuable Al-Shabaab figures, spokesman says". CNN. 10 March 2016.
- "U.S. air strikes kill suspected al Shabaab militants in Somalia". reuters. 12 April 2016.
- "U.S. airstrikes hit Al-Shabaab camp in Somalia after 'imminent threat'". CNN. 12 April 2016.
- "U.S. special forces wage secretive 'small wars' against terrorists". CNN. 12 May 2016.
- "4 US airstrikes targeted al-Shabab militants in Somalia last month". stars and stripes. 17 June 2016.
- "Al Shabaab commander killed in US airstrike in Somalia". fox news. 1 June 2016.
- "Somali Forces, Backed by U.S., Kill Shabab Militants in Raid". New York Times. 16 August 2016.
- "Attacks on U.S. troops in Somalia leads to airstrikes on al-Shabab". militarytimes. 29 September 2016.
- Roggio, Bill; Joscelyn, Thomas (9 July 2011). "Senior Shabaab commander rumored to have been killed in recent Predator strike". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- "US Drone Kills 35 in S Somalia". PressTV. 6 September 2011.
- "US Drones Kill 17 Al-Shabaab Fighters". PressTV. 17 September 2011.
- Cobain, Ian (22 January 2012). "British 'al-Qaida member' killed in US drone attack in Somalia". The Guardian. London.
- "US Drone Strike Kills 4 in Somalia". Fox News. 24 February 2012.
- Roggio, Bill, "Moroccan jihadist killed in Somalia airstrike", Long War Journal, 24 February 2012; Retrieved 27 February 2012.
- "Operation Enduring Freedom, Djibouti, Fatalities". iCasualties. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011. (Note: apply filter for Country of Death = Djibouti)
- "Plane crash kills four US military personnel in Djibouti", Voice of America, 20 February 2012.
- DOD Identifies Navy Casualty, AFRICOM, 19 June 2018.
- "Operation Enduring Freedom, Kenya, Fatalities". iCasualties. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011. (Note: apply filter for Country of Death = Kenya)
- "Operation Enduring Freedom, Ethiopia, Fatalities". iCasualties. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011. (Note: apply filter for Country of Death = Ethiopia)
- "Operation Enduring Freedom, Fatalities". iCasualties. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011. (Note: apply filter for Country of Death accordingly)
- Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa / Djibouti Global Security.
- Djibouti Base Global Security.
- Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) Global Security.
- Combined Joint Task Force Horn of Africa Official U.S. Military web site
- USCGC Munro and UK Navy US And UK Navies Resolve Hi-Jacking