Open front rounded vowel
|Open front rounded vowel|
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The (near) open front rounded vowel, or (near) low front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, not confirmed to be phonemic in any spoken languages. While traditionally characterized as a fully open (low) vowel, the rounded equivalent of [a], acoustically it is near-open (or near-low), the rounded equivalent of [æ]. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɶ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
&. The letter ⟨ɶ⟩ is a small caps rendition of ⟨Œ⟩. Note that ⟨œ⟩, the lowercase version of the ligature, is used for the open-mid front rounded vowel.
Riad (2014) reports that [ɶː] in Stockholm Swedish is sometimes difficult to distinguish from [ɒː] (which is the main realization of the /ɑː/ phoneme). He states that it is a sign that these vowels are phonetically very close.
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
- Its vowel height is open, also known as low, which means the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth – that is, as low as possible in the mouth.
- Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
- It is rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than spread or relaxed.
|Danish||Some speakers||grøn||[ˈɡ̊ʁɶ̝nˀ]||'green'||Near-open; allophone of /œ/ after /r/. Other speakers pronounce it the same as [œ]. See Danish phonology|
|Limburgish||Weert dialect||bùj||[bɶj]||'shower'||Allophone of /œ/ before /j/.|
|Swedish||Stockholm||öra||[²ɶːra̠]||'ear'||Pre-/r/ allophone of /øː/ (sometimes also /œ/) for younger speakers. Open-mid [œː, œ] for other speakers. See Swedish phonology|
- While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
- Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
- Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
- Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:110)
- Basbøll (2005:46)
- Riad (2014:38)
- Grønnum (1998:100)
- Grønnum (2005:288)
- Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
- Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28 (1–2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006290
- Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
- Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
- Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1
- Traunmüller, Hartmut (1982), "Vokalismus in der westniederösterreichischen Mundart.", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, 2: 289–333