Open access (OA) refers to research outputs which are distributed online and free of cost or other barriers, and possibly with the addition of a Creative Commons license to promote reuse. Open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers, theses, book chapters, and monographs.
Academic articles (as historically seen in paper-based academic journals) have been the main focus of the movement. Conventional (non-open access) journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as subscriptions, site licenses or pay-per-view charges. Open access research is advanced by a range of distribution mechanisms and business models. These include:
- Self-archiving - green: After peer review by a journal, the author posts the same content the journal will be publishing to a web site controlled by the author, the research institution that funded or hosted the work, or which has been set up as a central open access repository.
- Open access journal: The publisher of the journal makes all articles and related content available for free on the journal's web site.
- Open access journal funded by article processing charges paid by authors or research sponsor - gold
- Open access journal funded by an academic institution, learned society or a government information center (no publication fees are paid by authors) - platinum, diamond, or gold
- Delayed open-access journals - provide open access after an embargo period, typically 6–12 months or longer
- Hybrid open access journals at least partially funded by subscriptions, and only provide open access for those individual articles for which the authors (or research sponsor) pay a publication fee
Advantages and disadvantages of open access have generated considerable discussion amongst researchers, academics, librarians, university administrators, funding agencies, government officials, commercial publishers, editorial staff and society publishers. Reactions of existing publishers to open access journal publishing have ranged from moving with enthusiasm to a new open access business model, to experiments with providing as much free or open access as possible, to active lobbying against open access proposals. There are many publishers that started up as open access publishers, such as PLOS and BioMed Central.
Gratis and libre open access
In order to reflect actual practice in providing two different degrees of open access, the further distinction between gratis open access and libre open access was added in 2006 by two of the co-drafters of the original BOAI definition. Gratis open access refers to online access free of charge, and libre open access refers to online access free of charge plus some additional re-use rights. Libre open access is equivalent to the definition of open access in the Budapest Open Access Initiative, the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities. The re-use rights of libre OA are often specified by various specific Creative Commons licenses; these almost all require attribution of authorship to the original authors.
Open access publishing
One option for authors who wish to make their work openly accessible is to publish in a journal or book that makes research output immediately available from the publisher. This is sometimes referred to as gold open access.
There are many financial models for open access publications. Open access can be provided by commercial publishers, who may publish open access as well as subscription-based journals, or dedicated open-access publishers such as Public Library of Science (PLOS) and BioMed Central.
Article processing charges
In one model of open access, journals generate revenue by charging publication fees in order to make the work openly available at the time of publication. The money might come from the author but more often comes from the author's research grant or employer. Some publishers will waive all or part of the fee for authors from less developed economies. Journals charging publication fees normally take various steps to ensure that editors conducting peer review do not know whether authors have requested, or been granted, fee waivers, or to ensure that every paper is approved by an independent editor with no financial stake in the journal. While the payments are often incurred per article published (e.g. BMC journals or PLOS ONE), there are some journals that apply them per manuscript submitted (e.g. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics until recently) or per author (PeerJ). As of June 2018, only 26% of journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) required payment of article processing charges. A 2013 study showed this practice was higher in journals with a scientific or medical focus (43% and 47% respectively), and lowest in journals publishing in the arts and humanities (0% and 4% respectively). Traditionally, many academic journals levied page charges, long before open access became a possibility.
There currently is a growing global debate regarding open access's ideology and ethics and its related Article Processing Charge fees (APC) as they are being created and managed by academic journal and monograph publisher conglomerates together with some national and international academic institutions and government bodies. One controversy is "double dipping", where both authors and subscribers are charged. Groups offering open access solutions include the Publishers for Development and Research4Life projects and activities.
Subsidized open access publications
No-fee open access journals, also known as "platinum" or "diamond" have no fees for readers and no article processing charges or publication fees for authors. They use a variety of business models. As summarized by Peter Suber: "Some no-fee OA journals have direct or indirect subsidies from institutions like universities, laboratories, research centers, libraries, hospitals, museums, learned societies, foundations, or government agencies. Some have revenue from a separate line of non-OA publications. Some have revenue from advertising, auxiliary services, membership dues, endowments, reprints, or a print or premium edition. Some rely, more than other journals, on volunteerism. Some undoubtedly use a combination of these means".
Open access monographs are subsidized through a variety of means as well. Knowledge Unlatched and unglue.it crowdsource funding in order to make a work available open access.
Open access repositories
Self-archiving, also known as green open access, refers to the practice of depositing articles in an open access repository, where it can be accessed for free. Repositories may be specific to an institution, a discipline (e.g.arXiv), a scholarly society (e.g. MLA's CORE Repository), or a funder (e.g.PubMed Central). Open access self-archiving was first formally proposed in 1994 by Stevan Harnad in his "Subversive Proposal". However, self-archiving was already being done by computer scientists in their local FTP archives in the 1980s, later harvested into CiteSeer.
Many publishers permit authors to self-archive in an open access repository, but may place restrictions on which version of the work may be shared and/or require an embargo period following the original date of publication. What is deposited can be either a preprint, or the peer-reviewed postprint – either the author's refereed, revised final draft or the publisher's version of record. Some publishers require delays, or an embargo, on when a research output in a repository may be made open access. To find out if a publisher or journal has given a green light to author self-archiving, the author can check the Publisher Copyright Policies and Self-Archiving list on the SHERPA/RoMEO web site.
Distribution and search technology
Like the self-archived green open access articles, most gold open access journal articles are distributed via the World Wide Web, due to low distribution costs, increasing reach, speed, and increasing importance for scholarly communication. Open source software is sometimes used for open access repositories, open access journal websites, and other aspects of open access provision and open access publishing.
Access to online content requires Internet access, and this distributional consideration presents physical and sometimes financial barriers to access. Proponents of open access argue that Internet access barriers are relatively low in many circumstances, that efforts should be made to subsidize universal Internet access, whereas pay-for-access presents a relatively high additional barrier over and above Internet access itself.
There are various open access aggregators that index open access journals or articles. ROAD (the Directory of Open Access scholarly Resources) synthesizes information about open access journals and is a subset of the ISSN register. The OALibrary provides open and free access to a large database of scientific research papers, covering all topics. Users may browse to find open access journals by country or by subject. SHERPA/RoMEO lists international publishers that allow the published version of articles to be deposited in institutional repositories. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) contains over 8,000 peer-reviewed open access journals of varying open access policies for searching and browsing Open access articles can also often be found with a web search, using any general search engine or those specialized for the scholarly and scientific literature, such as OAIster and Google Scholar.
The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) lists 2937 conforming repositories. Searching each open access repository individually is impractical. The resources in these repositories can be harvested, using the OAI Protocol and aggregated into online systems which in-turn provide access to millions of resources from a single online location.
In 1998, several universities founded the Public Knowledge Project to foster open access, and developed the open-source journal publishing system Open Journal Systems, among other scholarly software projects. As of 2010, it was being used by approximately 5,000 journals worldwide.
Several initiatives provide an alternative to the American and English language dominance of existing publication indexing systems, including Index Copernicus (Polish), SciELO (Portuguese, Spanish) and Redalyc (Spanish).
Policies and mandates
Many universities, research institutions and research funders have adopted mandates requiring their researchers to provide open access to their peer-reviewed research articles by self-archiving them in an open access repository. Research Councils UK spent nearly £60m on supporting their open access mandate between 2013 and 2016. Some publishers and publisher associations have lobbied against introducing mandates.
The idea of mandating self-archiving was mooted at least as early as 1998. Since 2003 efforts have been focused on open access mandating by the funders of research: governments, research funding agencies, and universities.
The Registry of Open Access Repository Mandates and Policies (ROARMAP) is a searchable international database charting the growth of open access mandates. As of December 2017, mandates have been registered by over 600 universities (including Harvard, MIT, Stanford, University College London, and University of Edinburgh) and over 100 research funders worldwide.
Open access itself (mostly green and gratis) began to be sought and provided worldwide by researchers when the possibility itself was opened by the advent of Internet and the World Wide Web. The momentum was further increased by a growing movement for academic journal publishing reform, and with it gold and libre OA. Electronic publishing created new benefits as compared to paper publishing but beyond that, it contributed to causing problems in traditional publishing models.
The premises behind open access publishing are that there are viable funding models to maintain traditional peer review standards of quality while also making the following changes:
- Rather than making journal articles accessible through a subscription business model, all academic publications could be made free to read and published with some other cost-recovery model, such as publication charges, subsidies, or charging subscriptions only for the print edition, with the online edition gratis or "free to read".
- Rather than applying traditional notions of copyright to academic publications, they could be libre or "free to build upon".
An obvious advantage of open access journals is the free access to scientific papers regardless of affiliation with a subscribing library and improved access for the general public; this is especially true in developing countries. Lower costs for research in academia and industry has been claimed in the Budapest Open Access Initiative, although others have argued that OA may rise the total cost of publication, and further increase economic incentives for exploitation in academic publishing. The open access movement is motivated by the problems of social inequality caused by restricting access to academic research, which favor large and wealthy institutions with the financial means to purchase access to many journals, as well as the economic challenges and perceived unsustainability of academic publishing.
Stakeholders and concerned communities
The intended audience of research articles is usually other researchers. Open access helps researchers as readers by opening up access to articles that their libraries do not subscribe to. One of the great beneficiaries of open access may be users in developing countries, where currently some universities find it difficult to pay for subscriptions required to access the most recent journals. Some schemes exist for providing subscription scientific publications to those affiliated to institutions in developing countries at little or no cost. All researchers benefit from open access as no library can afford to subscribe to every scientific journal and most can only afford a small fraction of them – this is known as the "serials crisis".
Open access extends the reach of research beyond its immediate academic circle. An open access article can be read by anyone – a professional in the field, a researcher in another field, a journalist, a politician or civil servant, or an interested layperson. Indeed, a 2008 study revealed that mental health professionals are roughly twice as likely to read a relevant article if it is freely available.
Author citation advantage
The main reason authors make their articles openly accessible is to maximize their research impact. There have been claims of higher citation rates for open access authors. The overall citation rates for a time period of 2 years (2010–2011) were 30% higher for subscription journals, but, after controlling for discipline, journal age and publisher location, the differences largely disappeared in most subcategories, except for those launched prior to 1996. A study in 2001 first reported an open access citation impact advantage,
Two major studies dispute the claim that open access articles lead to more citations. A randomized controlled trial of open access publishing involving 36 participating journals in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities found that open access articles (n=712) received significantly more downloads and reached a broader audience within the first year, yet were cited no more frequently, nor earlier, than subscription-access control articles (n=2533) within 3 years.
For example, a 2006 study in PLoS Biology found that articles published as immediate open access in PNAS were three times more likely to be cited than non-open access papers, and were also cited more than PNAS articles that were only self-archived. This result has been challenged as an artifact of authors self-selectively paying to publish their higher quality articles in hybrid open access journals, whereas a 2010 study found that the open access citation advantage was equally big whether self-archiving was self-selected or mandated.
A 2010 study of 27,197 articles in 1,984 journals used institutionally mandated open access instead of randomized open access to control for bias on the part of authors toward self-selectively making their better (hence more citeable) articles open access. The result was a replication of the repeatedly reported open access citation advantage, with the advantage being equal in size and significance whether the open access was self-selected or mandated.
A 2016 study reported that the odds of an open access journal being referenced on the English Wikipedia are 47% higher than for paywalled journals, and suggested that this constitutes a significant "amplifier" effect for science published on such platforms.
Scholars are paid by research funders and/or their universities to do research; the published article is the report of the work they have done, rather than an item for commercial gain. The more the article is used, cited, applied and built upon, the better for research as well as for the researcher's career. Open access can reduce publication delays, an obstacle which led some research fields such as high-energy physics to adopt widespread preprint access.
Some professional organizations have encouraged use of open access: in 2001, the International Mathematical Union communicated to its members that "Open access to the mathematical literature is an important goal" and encouraged them to "[make] available electronically as much of our own work as feasible" to "[enlarge] the reservoir of freely available primary mathematical material, particularly helping scientists working without adequate library access."
Research funders and universities
Research funding agencies and universities want to ensure that the research they fund and support in various ways has the greatest possible research impact. As a means of achieving this, research funders are beginning to expect open access to the research they support. Many of them (including all seven UK Research Councils) have already adopted green open access self-archiving mandates, and others are on the way to do so (see ROARMAP).
In 2008, the NIH Public Access Policy, an open access mandate was put into law, and required that research papers describing research funded by the National Institutes of Health must be available to the public free through PubMed Central within 12 months of publication.
A growing number of universities are providing institutional repositories in which their researchers can deposit their published articles. Some open access advocates believe that institutional repositories will play a very important role in responding to open access mandates from funders. EnablingOpenScholarship (EPS) provides universities with OA policy-building.
In May 2005, 16 major Dutch universities cooperatively launched DAREnet, the Digital Academic Repositories, making over 47,000 research papers available to anyone with internet access. From 1 January 2007, at the completion of the DARE programme, KNAW Research Information has taken over responsibility for the DAREnet portal. On 2 June 2008, DAREnet has been incorporated into the scholarly portal NARCIS. At the end of 2009, NARCIS provided access to 185,000 open access publications from all Dutch universities, KNAW, NWO and a number of scientific institutes.
In 2011, a group of universities in North America formed the Coalition of Open Access Policy Institutions (COAPI). Starting with 21 institutions where the faculty had either established an open access policy or were in the process of implementing one, COAPI now has nearly 50 members. These institutions' administrators, faculty and librarians, and staff support the international work of the Coalition's awareness-raising and advocacy for open access. Members agree to the following COAPI Principles:
- The immediate and barrier-free online dissemination of scholarly research resulting in faster growth of new knowledge, increased impact of research, and improved return on public research investments
- Developing and implementing institutional open access policies
- Sharing experiences and best practices in the development and implementation of Open Access Policies with individuals at institutions interested in cultivating cultures of open access
- Fostering a more open scholarly communication system through cultural and legislative change at the local, national, and international levels
In 2012, the Harvard Open Access Project released its guide to good practices for university open-access policies, focusing on rights-retention policies that allow universities to distribute faculty research without seeking permission from publishers.
In 2013 a group of nine Australian universities formed the Australian Open Access Support Group (AOASG) to advocate, collaborate, raise awareness, and lead and build capacity in the open access space in Australia. In 2015, the group expanded to include all eight New Zealand universities and was renamed the Australasian Open Access Support Group. It was then renamed the Australasian Open Access Strategy Group, highlighting its emphasis on strategy. The awareness raising activities of the AOASG include presentations, workshops, blogs, and a webinar series on open access issues.
Libraries and librarians
As information professionals, librarians are vocal and active advocates of open access. These librarians believe that open access promises to remove both the price barriers and the permission barriers that undermine library efforts to provide access to the scholarly record, as well as helping to address the serials crisis. Many library associations have either signed major open access declarations, or created their own. For example, the Canadian Library Association endorsed a Resolution on Open Access in June 2005.
Librarians also lead education and outreach initiatives to faculty, administrators, and others about the benefits of open access. For example, the Association of College and Research Libraries of the American Library Association has developed a Scholarly Communications Toolkit. The Association of Research Libraries has documented the need for increased access to scholarly information, and was a leading founder of the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC).
At most universities, the library manages the institutional repository, which provides free access to scholarly work by the university's faculty. The Canadian Association of Research Libraries has a program to develop institutional repositories at all Canadian university libraries.
An increasing number of libraries provide hosting services for open access journals. A 2008 survey by the Association of Research Libraries found that 65% of surveyed libraries either are involved in journal publishing, or are planning to become involved in the very near future.
In 2013, open access activist Aaron Swartz was posthumously awarded the American Library Association's James Madison Award for being an "outspoken advocate for public participation in government and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed scholarly articles". In March 2013, the entire editorial board and the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Library Administration resigned en masse, citing a dispute with the journal's publisher. One board member wrote of a "crisis of conscience about publishing in a journal that was not open access" after the death of Aaron Swartz.
The pioneer of the open access movement in France and one of the first librarians to advocate the self-archiving approach to open access worldwide is Hélène Bosc. Her work is described in her "15-year retrospective".
Open access to scholarly research is argued to be important to the public for a number of reasons. One of the arguments for public access to the scholarly literature is that most of the research is paid for by taxpayers through government grants, who therefore have a right to access the results of what they have funded. This is one of the primary reasons for the creation of advocacy groups such as The Alliance for Taxpayer Access in the US. Examples of people who might wish to read scholarly literature include individuals with medical conditions (or family members of such individuals) and serious hobbyists or 'amateur' scholars who may be interested in specialized scientific literature (e.g. amateur astronomers). Additionally, professionals in many fields may be interested in continuing education in the research literature of their field, and many businesses and academic institutions cannot afford to purchase articles from or subscriptions to much of the research literature that is published under a toll access model.
Even those who do not read scholarly articles benefit indirectly from open access. For example, patients benefit when their doctor and other health care professionals have access to the latest research. As argued by open access advocates, open access speeds research progress, productivity, and knowledge translation. Every researcher in the world can read an article, not just those whose library can afford to subscribe to the particular journal in which it appears. Faster discoveries benefit everyone. High school and junior college students can gain the information literacy skills critical for the knowledge age. Critics of the various open access initiatives claim that there is little evidence that a significant amount of scientific literature is currently unavailable to those who would benefit from it. While no library has subscriptions to every journal that might be of benefit, virtually all published research can be acquired via interlibrary loan. Note that interlibrary loan may take a day or weeks depending on the loaning library and whether they will scan and email, or mail the article. Open access online, by contrast is faster, often immediate, making it more suitable than interlibrary loan for fast-paced research.
In developing nations, open access archiving and publishing acquires a unique importance. Scientists, health care professionals, and institutions in developing nations often do not have the capital necessary to access scholarly literature, although schemes exist to give them access for little or no cost. Among the most important is HINARI, the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative, sponsored by the World Health Organization. HINARI, however, also has restrictions. For example, individual researchers may not register as users unless their institution has access, and several countries that one might expect to have access do not have access at all (not even "low-cost" access) (e.g. South Africa).
Many open access projects involve international collaboration. For example, the SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), is a comprehensive approach to full open access journal publishing, involving a number of Latin American countries. Bioline International, a non-profit organization dedicated to helping publishers in developing countries is a collaboration of people in the UK, Canada, and Brazil; the Bioline International Software is used around the world. Research Papers in Economics (RePEc), is a collaborative effort of over 100 volunteers in 45 countries. The Public Knowledge Project in Canada developed the open source publishing software Open Journal Systems (OJS), which is now in use around the world, for example by the African Journals Online group, and one of the most active development groups is Portuguese. This international perspective has resulted in advocacy for the development of open-source appropriate technology and the necessary open access to relevant information for sustainable development.
The main argument against open access, author's paid fee based journals, is the possible damage to the peer review system, diminishing the overall quality of scientific journal publishing. For example, in 2009, a hoax paper generated by a computer program was accepted for publication by a major publisher under the author-pays-for-publication model. In a similar incident, a staff writer for Science magazine and popular science publications targeted the open access system in 2013 by submitting to some such journals a deeply flawed paper on the purported effect of a lichen constituent. About 60% of those journals, including journals published by the major academic publishers Sage Publications and Elsevier the Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals, accepted the faked medical paper, although journals published by notable open access publishers PLOS, BioMed Central, and Hindawi Publishing Corporation rejected the fake article. This study did not also submit the fake article journals published under a subscription model. As a result, this experiment was criticised for being not peer-reviewed itself and for having a flawed methodology and lack of a control group. Many newer open access journals also lack the reputation of their subscription counterparts, which have been in business for decades. This effect has been diminishing though since 2001, reflecting the emergence of high quality professional open access publishers such as PLOS and BioMed Central.
Opponents of the open access model continue to assert that the pay-for-access model is necessary to ensure that the publishers are adequately compensated for their work. Scholarly journal publishers that support pay-for-access claim that the "gatekeeper" role they play, maintaining a scholarly reputation, arranging for peer review, and editing and indexing articles, require economic resources that are not supplied under an open access model. Opponents claim that open access is not necessary to ensure fair access for developing nations; differential pricing or financial aid from developed countries or institutions can make access to proprietary journals affordable. Some critics also point out the lack of funding for author fees.
Lack of diversity
Open access does not mean there is access is equal to all. Some people have difficulties accessing the internet and, thus, the articles, but there is also inequality in terms of what is published and by whom. The lack of diversity in academia and research, in reviewers and publishers, and in librarians (those who help others find sources) leads to many people's voices being unheard.
A study published in 2010 showed that roughly 20% of the total number of peer-reviewed articles published in 2008 could be found openly accessible. Another study found that by 2010, 7.9% of all academic journals with impact factors were gold open access journals and showed a broad distribution of Gold Open Access journals throughout academic disciplines. 8.5% of the journal literature could be found free at the publishers’ sites (gold open access), of which 62% in full open access journals, 14% in delayed-access subscription journals, and 24% as individually open articles in otherwise subscription journals. For an additional 11.9% of the articles, open access full text copies were available via green open access in either subject-based repositories (43%), institutional repositories (24%) or on the home pages of the authors or their departments (33%). These copies were further classified into exact copies of the published article (38%), manuscripts as accepted for publishing (46%) or manuscripts as submitted (15%).
In the 2010 study, of all scientific fields chemistry had the lowest overall share of open access (13%), while Earth Sciences had the highest (33%). In medicine, biochemistry and chemistry gold publishing in open access journals was more common than author self-archiving. In all other fields self-archiving was more common.
In 2009, there were approximately 4,800 active open access journals, publishing around 190,000 articles. As of October 2015, this had increased to over 10,000 open access journals listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals, though this number has fallen to 9,500 in January 2017. A study of random journals from the citations indexes AHSCI, SCI and SSCI in 2013 came to the result that 88% of the journals were closed access and 12% were open access.
In August 2013, a study done for the European Commission reported that 50% of a random sample of all articles published in 2011 as indexed by Scopus were freely accessible online by the end of 2012. A 2017 study by the Max Planck Society put the share of gold access articles in pure open access journals at around 13 percent of total research papers.
The Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) indexes the creation, location and growth of open access open access repositories and their contents. As of December 2017, over 4,500 institutional and cross-institutional repositories have been registered in ROAR.
- Access to knowledge movement
- Creative Commons
- Digital rights
- FUTON bias
- Guerilla Open Access
- List of open-access projects
- Open Access Button
- Open access monograph
- Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association
- Open Access Week
- Open content
- Open data
- Open publishing (different from "open access" publishing)
- Public domain
- Public Knowledge
- Right to Internet access
- Sci-Hub, a guerilla open-access website providing infringing copies of paywalled papers
- Category:Open access by country
Related to journals
- Suber, Peter. "Open Access Overview". Archived from the original on 2017-05-19. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
- Schöpfel, Joachim; Prost, Hélène (2013). "Degrees of secrecy in an open environment. The case of electronic theses and dissertations". ESSACHESS – Journal for Communication Studies. 6 (2(12)): 65–86. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01.
- Schwartz, Meredith (2012). "Directory of Open Access Books Goes Live". Library Journal. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013.
- Suber 2012, pp. 138–139
- Machovec, George (2013). "An Interview with Jeffrey Beall on Open Access Publishing". The Charleston Advisor. 15: 50–50. doi:10.5260/chara.15.1.50.
- Öchsner, A. (2013). "Publishing Companies, Publishing Fees, and Open Access Journals". Introduction to Scientific Publishing. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. p. 23. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38646-6_4. ISBN 978-3-642-38645-9.
- Fuchs, Christian; Sandoval, Marisol (2013). "The diamond model of open access publishing: Why policy makers, scholars, universities, libraries, labour unions and the publishing world need to take non-commercial, non-profit open access serious". TripleC. 13 (2): 428–443.
- Gajović, S (31 August 2017). "Diamond Open Access in the quest for interdisciplinarity and excellence". Croatian medical journal. 58 (4): 261–262. PMC 5577648
. PMID 28857518.
- Harris, Siân (August 2012). "Moving towards an open access future: the role of academic libraries" (PDF). Sage Publications. Retrieved 2018-03-16.
- Suber 2012, p. 140
- Suber 2012, pp. 140–141
- Markin, Pablo (25 April 2017). "The Sustainability of Open Access Publishing Models Past a Tipping Point". OpenScience. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- Suber, Peter (2008). "Gratis and Libre Open Access". Retrieved 2011-12-03.
- Suber 2012, pp. 68–69
- Suber 2012, pp. 7–8
- "OA journal business models". Open Access Directory. 2009–2012. Archived from the original on 2015-10-18. Retrieved 2015-10-20.
- Socha, Beata (20 April 2017). "How Much Do Top Publishers Charge for Open Access?". openscience.com. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- Kozak, Marcin; Hartley, James (Dec 2013). "Publication fees for open access journals: Different disciplines-different methods". Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology. 64 (12): 2591–2594. doi:10.1002/asi.22972.
- Kember, Sarah. "Opening Out from Open Access: Writing and Publishing in Response to Neoliberalism". ADANewMedia. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- Kember, Sarah. "How Open is Open Access?". The Bookseller. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- Page, Benedicte. "Angry publishers debate OA monographs at IPG". The Bookseller. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- INASP. "Publishers for Development". Publishers for Development. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- "Research4Life". Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- Double dipping policy
- Koroso, Nesru H. (18 November 2015). "Diamond Open Access - UA Magazine". UA Magazine.
- Suber, Peter (November 2, 2006). "No-fee open-access journals". SPARC open access Newsletter.
- Montgomery, Lucy (2014). "Knowledge Unlatched:A Global Library Consortium Model for Funding Open Access Scholarly Books". Cultural Science. 7 (2). Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- "About unglue.it". unglue.it. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- Eve, Martin (2014). Open access and the humanities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 9–10. ISBN 9781107484016.
- Harnad, S. 2007. "The Green Road to Open Access: A Leveraged Transition" Archived 2010-03-12 at the Wayback Machine.. In: ''The Culture of Periodicals from the Perspective of the Electronic Age'', pp. 99–105, L'Harmattan. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
- Harnad, S.; Brody, T.; Vallières, F. O.; Carr, L.; Hitchcock, S.; Gingras, Y.; Oppenheim, C.; Stamerjohanns, H.; Hilf, E. R. (2004). "The Access/Impact Problem and the Green and Gold Roads to Open Access". Serials Review. 30 (4): 310–314. doi:10.1016/j.serrev.2004.09.013.
- "Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR)" Archived 2012-10-30 at the Wayback Machine.. Roar.eprints.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Fortier, Rose; James, Heather G.; Jermé, Martha G.; Berge, Patricia; Del Toro, Rosemary (14 May 2015). "Demystifying Open Access Workshop". e-Publications@Marquette. e-Publications@Marquette. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
- Ann Shumelda Okerson and James J. O'Donnell (eds). 1995. "Scholarly Journals at the Crossroads: A Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing" Archived 2012-09-12 at the Wayback Machine.. Association of Research Libraries. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Poynder, Richard. 2004. "Poynder On Point: Ten Years After" Archived 2011-09-26 at the Wayback Machine.. Information Today, 21(9), October 2004. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Harnad, S. 2007."Re: when did the Open Access movement "officially" begin" Archived 2016-09-13 at the Wayback Machine.. American Scientist Open Access Forum, 27 June 2007. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- " SPARC Europe – Embargo Periods Archived 2015-11-18 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 2015-10-18.
- SHERPA/RoMEO – Publisher copyright policies & self-archiving Archived 2007-11-11 at the Wayback Machine.. Sherpa.ac.uk. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Budapest Open Access Initiative, FAQ Archived 2006-07-03 at the Wayback Machine.. Earlham.edu (2011-09-13). Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Public Knowledge Project. "Open Journal Systems" Archived 2013-03-01 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 2012-11-13.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-07-10. Retrieved 2017-12-15.
- Open Access: Finding Open Access Content
- These online systems include, but are not limited to: openaccess.xyz Archived 2016-03-02 at the Wayback Machine., base-search.net Archived 2016-02-16 at the Wayback Machine., core.ac.uk Archived 2016-03-12 at the Wayback Machine. and oaister.worldcat.org Archived 2014-08-03 at the Wayback Machine..
- Edgar, Brian D.; Willinsky, John (14 June 2010). "A survey of scholarly journals using open journal systems". Scholarly and Research Communication. 1 (2). ISSN 1923-0702.
- About the Repository – ROARMAP. Roarmap.eprints.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- "RCUK Open Access Block Grant analysis - Research Councils UK". www.rcuk.ac.uk. Retrieved 2018-02-12.
- Palazzo, Alex (27 August 2007). "PRISM – a new lobby against open access". Science Blogs. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Basken, Paul (5 January 2012). "Science-Journal Publishers Take Fight Against Open-Access Policies to Congress". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Albanese, Andrew (15 February 2013). "Publishers Blast New Open Access Bill, FASTR". Publishers Weekly. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- American-Scientist-Open-Access-Forum: Re: Savings from Convertin Archived 2005-12-10 at the Wayback Machine.. Ecs.soton.ac.uk. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- AMERICAN-SCIENTIST-OPEN-ACCESS-FORUM archives – 2003 (#710) Archived 2007-01-11 at the Wayback Machine.. Listserver.sigmaxi.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Recommendations For Uk Open-Access Provision Policy Archived 2006-01-07 at the Wayback Machine.. Ecs.soton.ac.uk (1998-11-05). Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- "Open Access". RCUK. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- Suber 2012, pp. 29–43
- "The Life and Death of an Open Access Journal: Q&A with Librarian Marcus Banks"., "As the BOAI text expressed it, “the overall costs of providing open access to this literature are far lower than the costs of traditional forms of dissemination.”"
- "Gold open access in practice: How will universities respond to the rising total cost of publication?".
- "Reasoning and Interest: Clustering Open Access - LePublikateur". LePublikateur. 2018-06-04. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
- Tennant, Jonathan P.; Waldner, François; Jacques, Damien C.; Masuzzo, Paola; Collister, Lauren B.; Hartgerink, Chris. H. J. (2016-09-21). "The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review". F1000Research. 5: 632. doi:10.12688/f1000research.8460.3. PMC 4837983
. PMID 27158456. Archived from the original on 2017-01-06.
- Sivaraj, S., et al. 2008. "Resource Sharing among Engineering College Libraries in Tamil Nadu in a Networking System" Archived 2012-12-24 at the Wayback Machine.. Library Philosophy and Practice.
- "Developing World Access to Leading Research" Archived 2013-12-01 at the Wayback Machine.. research4life.org. Retrieved on 2012-11-19.
- Van Orsdel, Lee C. & Born, Kathleen. 2005. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-06-30. Retrieved 2017-10-18. "Periodicals Price Survey 2005: Choosing Sides"] Library Journal, 15 April 2005. Retrieved on 2012-11-19.
- Hardisty, David J.; Haaga, David A.F. (2008). "Diffusion of Treatment Research: Does Open Access Matter?" (PDF). Journal of Clinical Psychology. 64 (7): 821–839. doi:10.1002/jclp.20492. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2008-05-28.
- Swan, Alma (2006) The culture of Open Access: researchers’ views and responses Archived 2012-05-22 at the Wayback Machine.. In: Neil Jacobs (Ed.) Open access: key strategic, technical and economic aspects, Chandos.
- Eysenbach, G. (2006). "Citation Advantage of Open Access Articles". PLoS Biology. 4 (5): e157. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040157. PMC 1459247
. PMID 16683865.
- Björk, Bo-Christer; Solomon, David (2012). "Open access versus subscription journals: A comparison of scientific impact". BMC Medicine. 10: 73. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-73. PMC 3398850
. PMID 22805105.
- Online or Invisible? Steve Lawrence; NEC Research Institute Archived 2007-03-16 at the Wayback Machine.. Citeseer.ist.psu.edu. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Davis, P. M; Lewenstein, B. V; Simon, D. H; Booth, J. G; Connolly, M. J L (2008). "Open access publishing, article downloads, and citations: randomised controlled trial". BMJ. 337: a568. doi:10.1136/bmj.a568. PMC 2492576
. PMID 18669565.
- Davis, P. M. (2011). "Open access, readership, citations: a randomized controlled trial of scientific journal publishing". The FASEB Journal. 25 (7): 2129–34. doi:10.1096/fj.11-183988. PMID 21450907.
- Effect of OA on citation impact: a bibliography of studies Archived 2017-11-02 at the Wayback Machine.. Opcit.eprints.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Gaulé, P.; Maystre, N. (2011). "Getting cited: Does open access help?". Research Policy. 40 (10): 1332–1338. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2011.05.025.
- Gargouri, Yassine; Hajjem, Chawki; Larivière, Vincent; Gingras, Yves; Carr, Les; Brody, Tim; Harnad, Stevan; Futrelle, Robert P. (18 October 2010). Futrelle, Robert P, ed. "Self-selected or mandated, open access increases citation impact for higher quality research". PLOS One. 5 (10): e13636. arXiv:1001.0361
. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...513636G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013636. PMC 2956678 . PMID 20976155.
- Teplitskiy, M.; Lu, G.; Duede, E. (2016). "Amplifying the impact of open access: Wikipedia and the diffusion of science". Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68 (9): 2116. arXiv:1506.07608
- Maximising the Return on the UK's Public Investment in Research – Open Access Archivangelism Archived 2017-07-02 at the Wayback Machine.. Openaccess.eprints.org (2005-09-14). Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Garfield, E. (1988) Can Researchers Bank on Citation Analysis? Archived 2005-10-25 at the Wayback Machine. Current Comments, No. 44, October 31, 1988
- Gentil-Beccot, Anne; Mele, Salvatore; Brooks, Travis (2009). "Citing and Reading Behaviours in High-Energy Physics. How a Community Stopped Worrying about Journals and Learned to Love Repositories". arXiv:0906.5418
- Committee on Electronic Information and Communication (CEIC) of the International Mathematical Union (15 May 2001). "Call to All Mathematicians". Archived from the original on 7 June 2011.
- "DFID Research: DFID's Policy Opens up a World of Global Research". dfid.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-01-03.
- How To Integrate University and Funder Open Access Mandates Archived 2008-03-16 at the Wayback Machine.. Openaccess.eprints.org (2008-03-02). Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Enabling Open Scholarship (EOS) Archived 2010-06-15 at the Wayback Machine.. openscholarship.org
- Libbenga, Jan. (2005-05-11) Dutch academics declare research free-for-all Archived 2017-07-15 at the Wayback Machine.. Theregister.co.uk. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Portal NARCIS. Narcis.info. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- "Coalition of Open Access Policy Institutions (COAPI) – SPARC". arl.org. Archived from the original on 2015-10-18. Retrieved 2015-10-20.
- "COAPI Principles" (PDF). SPARC. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- "Good practices for university open-access policies". Harvard. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- "About the AOASG". Australian Open Access Support Group. Archived from the original on 2014-12-20.
- Officer, Executive. "Australian Open Access Support Group expands to become Australasian Open Access Support Group". Archived from the original on 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2015-11-15.
- "Creative Commons Australia partners with Australasian Open Access Strategy Group". Creative Commons Australia. 2016-08-31.
- Suber, Peter (2003). "Removing the Barriers to Research: An Introduction to Open Access for Librarians". College & Research Libraries News. 62 (2): 92–94, 113.
- SPARC-OAForum@arl.org Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine.. Mx2.arl.org (2005-06-19). Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- ALA Scholarly Communication Toolkit Archived September 8, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
- Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition Archived 2013-08-15 at the Wayback Machine.. Arl.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Open Access for Scholarly Publishing Archived 2014-05-19 at the Wayback Machine.. Southern Cross University Library. Retrieved on 2014-03-14.
- CARL – Institutional Repositories Program Archived 2013-06-07 at the Wayback Machine.. Carl-abrc.ca. Retrieved on 2013-06-12.
- Suber, Peter (April 3, 2008). "More on libraries as OA publishers". Open Access News. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05.
- Hahn, Karla. "Research Library Publishing Services: New Options for University Publishing" (PDF). Association of Research Libraries. Association of Research Libraries. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Kopfstein, Janus (2013-03-13). "Aaron Swartz to receive posthumous 'Freedom of Information' award for open access advocacy". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2013-03-15. Retrieved 2013-03-24.
- "James Madison Award". Ala.org. 2013-01-17. Archived from the original on 2013-03-22. Retrieved 2013-03-24.
- [%= data.comment.created_on %] (2013-03-26). "Entire library journal editorial board resigns, citing 'crisis of conscience' after death of Aaron Swartz". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
- "Journal's Editorial Board Resigns in Protest of Publisher's Policy Toward Authors – Wired Campus – Blogs – The Chronicle of Higher Education". Chronicle.com. Archived from the original on 2014-01-08. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
- "It was just days after Aaron Swartz' death, and I was having a crisis of conscience about publishing in a journal that was not open access". Chrisbourg.wordpress.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-24. Retrieved 2014-08-09.
- Poynder, Richard (2009) The Open Access Interviews: Helene Bosc. Open and Shut 2009 (3) "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-10-23. Retrieved 2013-09-06.
- Open Access to scientific communication. Open-access.infodocs.eu. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- ATA | The Alliance for Taxpayer Access Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine.. Taxpayeraccess.org (2011-10-29). Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Open Access: Basics and Benefits. Eprints.rclis.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Eysenbach, Gunther (2006). "The Open Access Advantage". J Med Internet Res. 8 (2): e8. doi:10.2196/jmir.8.2.e8. Archived from the original on 2017-10-19.
- Davis, P. M. (2010). "Does Open Access Lead to Increased Readership and Citations? A Randomized Controlled Trial of Articles Published in APS Journals". The Physiologist. 53: 197–201. Archived from the original on December 7, 2010.
- Goodman, D (2004). "The Criteria for Open Access". Serials Review. 30 (4): 258–270. doi:10.1016/j.serrev.2004.09.009. hdl:10760/6167.
- World Health Organization Archived 2012-01-27 at the Wayback Machine. Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative
- World Health Organization Archived 2009-04-22 at the Wayback Machine.: Eligibility
- Scientific Electronic Library Online Archived 2005-08-31 at the Wayback Machine.. SciELO. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
- Pearce, J. M. (2012). "The case for open source appropriate technology". Environment, Development and Sustainability. 14 (3): 425–431. doi:10.1007/s10668-012-9337-9.
- A. J. Buitenhuis, et al., "Open Design-Based Strategies to Enhance Appropriate Technology Development", Proceedings of the 14th Annual National Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Alliance Conference : Open, March 25–27th 2010, pp.1–12.
- Gilbert, Natasha (15 June 2009). "Editor will quit over hoax paper". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2009.571.
- Bohannon, John (4 October 2013). "Who's afraid of peer review?". Science. 342 (6154): 60–65. doi:10.1126/science.342.6154.60.
- Eve, Martin (3 October 2013). "What's "open" got to do with it?". Martin Eve. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Michael, Eisen (3 October 2013). "I confess, I wrote the Arsenic DNA paper to expose flaws in peer-review at subscription-based journals". it is NOT junk. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Vogel, Gretchen (January 14, 2011). "Quandary: Scientists Prefer Reading Over Publishing 'open-access' Papers". Science. Retrieved 2012-11-13.
- Hathcock, April (8 February 2016). "Open But Not Equal: Open Scholarship for Social Justice". At The Intersection. Retrieved 2018-03-16.
- Inefuku, Harrison; Roh, Charlotte (2016). "Agents of Diversity and Social Justice: Librarians and Scholarly Communication". In Smith, Kevin; Dickson, Katherine. Open Access and the Future of Scholarly Communication: Policy and Infrastructure. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 107–127.
- Roh, Charlotte (1 February 2016). "Library publishing and diversity values: Changing scholarly publishing through policy and scholarly communication education". College & Research Libraries News. 77 (2): 82–85. doi:10.5860/crln.77.2.9446.
- Björk, B. C.; Welling, P.; Laakso, M.; Majlender, P.; Hedlund, T.; Guðnason, G. N. (2010). Scalas, Enrico, ed. "Open Access to the Scientific Journal Literature: Situation 2009". PLoS ONE. 5 (6): e11273. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...511273B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011273. PMC 2890572
. PMID 20585653.
- Cummings, J. (2013). "Open access journal content found in commercial full-text aggregation databases and journal citation reports". New Library World. 114 (3/4): 166–178. doi:10.1108/03074801311304078.
- Björk, Bo-Christer (2011). "A Study of Innovative Features in Scholarly Open Access Journals". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 13 (4): e115. doi:10.2196/jmir.1802. PMC 3278101
. PMID 22173122.
- "Directory of Open Access Journals". Directory of Open Access Journals. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- "Open access to research publications reaching 'tipping point'". Press Releases. europa.eu. Archived from the original on 2013-08-24. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- "Proportion of Open Access Peer-Reviewed Papers at the European and World Levels—2004–2011" (PDF). Science-Metrix. August 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-09-03. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- Van Noorden, Richard (2013). "Half of 2011 papers now free to read". Nature. 500 (7463): 386–7. Bibcode:2013Natur.500..386V. doi:10.1038/500386a. PMID 23969438.
- "Area-wide transition to open access is possible: A new study calculates a redeployment of funds in Open Access". www.mpg.de/en. Max Planck Gesellschaft. 27 April 2015. Archived from the original on 16 June 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
- "Browse by Country". Registry of Open Access Repositories. Archived from the original on 7 June 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- Suber, Peter (2012). Open access (The MIT Press Essential Knowledge Series ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-51763-8. Retrieved 2015-10-20.
- Kirsop, Barbara, and Leslie Chan. (2005) Transforming access to research literature for developing countries. Serials Reviews, 31(4): 246–255.
- Laakso, Mikael; Welling, Patrik; Bukvova, Helena; Nyman, Linus; Björk, Bo-Christer; Hedlund, Turid (2011). "The Development of Open Access Journal Publishing from 1993 to 2009". PLoS ONE. 6 (6): e20961. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...620961L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020961. PMC 3113847
. PMID 21695139.
- Hajjem, C.; Harnad, S; Gingras, Y. (2005). "Ten-Year Cross-Disciplinary Comparison of the Growth of Open Access and How It Increases Research Citation Impact". IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin. 28 (4): 39–47. Analyzed 1,307,038 articles published across 12 years (1992–2003) in 10 disciplines; OA articles have consistently more citations (25%–250% varying with discipline and year).
- Tötösy; de Zepetnek, S.; Joshua, Jia (2014). "Electronic Journals, Prestige, and the Economics of Academic Journal Publishing". CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture. 16 (1): 2014. doi:10.7771/1481-4374.2426.
- "Open and Shut?" Blog on open access by Richard Poynder, a freelance journalist, who has done a series of interviews with a few of the leaders of the open access movement.
- Mietchen, Daniel (15 January 2014). "Wikimedia and Open Access — a rich history of interactions". Wikimedia Blog. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- Green, Toby (October 2017). "We've failed: Pirate black open access is trumping green and gold and we must change our approach". Learned Publishing. 30 (4): 325–329. doi:10.1002/leap.1116.
- 5 Tips for Keeping Your Finger on the Open Access Pulse, US: Copyright Clearance Center, 18 January 2018
- Okerson, Ann; O'Donnell, James (Eds.) (June 1995). Scholarly Journals at the Crossroads: A Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing. Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries. ISBN 0-918006-26-0..
- Willinsky, John (2006). The Access Principle: The Case for Open Access to Research and Scholarship (PDF). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262512664.
- Bergstrom, Theodore C.; Carl T. Bergstrom (May 2, 2004). "Will open access compete away monopoly profits in journal publishing?" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-07-20.
- "Accessibility, sustainability, excellence: how to expand access to research publications" (PDF). United Kingdom: Working Group on Expanding Access to Published Research Findings. 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- In Oldenburg's Long Shadow: Librarians, Research Scientists, Publishers, and the Control of Scientific Publishing
- Why A Fake Article Titled "Cuckoo for Cocoa Puffs?" Was Accepted By 17 Medical Journals. "A Harvard scientist wanted to see exactly how easy it is to get medical research published. In some cases, $500 is pretty much all it takes." By Elizabeth Segran, Fast Company (magazine)
- Glyn Moody (June 17, 2016). "Open access: All human knowledge is there—so why can't everybody access it?". Ars Technica. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Open access (publishing).|
|Library resources about |
|Wikiversity has learning resources about WikiJournal of Science|
|Wikiversity has learning resources about WikiJournal of Medicine|
- OAD: Open Access Directory, an "open-access, wiki-based, community-updated encyclopedia of OA factual lists" (started by Peter Suber and Robin Peek). OCLC 757073363. Published by Simmons School of Library and Information Science in US.
- OATP: Open Access Tracking Project, a crowd-sourced tagging project providing real-time alerts about new OA developments and organizing knowledge of the field (started by Peter Suber). OCLC 1040261573
- GOAP: UNESCO's Global Open Access Portal, providing "status of open access to scientific information around the world"