Open-mid central rounded vowel

Open-mid central rounded vowel
ɞ
ɔ̈
IPA number 395
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɞ
Unicode (hex) U+025E
X-SAMPA 3\
Kirshenbaum O"
Braille
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The open-mid central rounded vowel, or low-mid central rounded vowel,[1] is a vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɞ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is 3\. The symbol is called closed reversed epsilon. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ɔ̈.

Due to either typographic or design error, IPA charts were published with this vowel transcribed as a closed epsilon, ʚ, and this graphic variant made its way into Unicode as U+029A ʚ LATIN SMALL LETTER CLOSED OPEN E. The form ɞ ( U+025E ɞ LATIN SMALL LETTER CLOSED REVERSED OPEN E) is considered correct.

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

  • It is rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than spread or relaxed.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AfrikaansStandard[2]lug[lɞχ]'air'Also been described as mid [ɞ̝], typically transcribed in IPA with œ. Many speakers merge /œ/ with /ə/, even in formal speech.[3] See Afrikaans phonology
EnglishIrish[4]but[bɞθ̠]'but'Corresponds to [ʌ] in other varieties. See English phonology
New Zealand[5]not[nɞʔt]'not'Possible realization of /ɒ/.[5] See New Zealand English phonology
Irishtomhail[tɞːlʲ]'consume' (imp.)See Irish phonology
Kashubianptôch[ptɞx]'bird'
Navajo[6]tsosts’id[tsʰɞstsʼɪt]'seven'See Navajo phonology
Northern TiwaTaos dialectącut'uonbo[ʔãˌtʃʊt̚ːˈʔuɞnbɑ]'his-garment-around'Allophone of /ɑ/. See Taos phonology
NorwegianStavangersk[7]topp[tʰɞpː]'top'See Norwegian phonology
Poitevino doune[ɞ dun]'he gives'
Somalikeenaysaa[keːnɞjsɑː]'she brings'See Somali phonology
West FrisianSouthwestern dialects[8]boare[ˈbɞːrə]'tomcat'Corresponds to [wa] in other dialects.[8] See West Frisian phonology

Notes

  1. While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. Wissing (2012), p. 711.
  3. Wissing (2016), section "The rounded and unrounded mid-central vowels".
  4. Wells (1982), p. 422.
  5. 1 2 Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  6. McDonough, Ladefoged & George (1993). Note that the authors gave a narrow transcription of [ɵ], though at the time the IPA had only this one symbol for a mid central rounded vowel, and it is clear from the discussion and formant charts that this vowel a centralized open-mid vowel.
  7. Vanvik (1979), p. 17.
  8. 1 2 Hoekstra (2003:202), citing Hof (1933:14)

References

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