Open-mid back rounded vowel

Open-mid back rounded vowel
ɔ
IPA number 306
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɔ
Unicode (hex) U+0254
X-SAMPA O
Kirshenbaum O
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The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɔ. The IPA symbol is a turned letter c and both the symbol and the sound are commonly called "open-o". The name open-o represents the sound, in that it is like the sound represented by o, the close-mid back rounded vowel, except it is more open. It also represents the symbol, which can be remembered as an o which has been "opened" by removing part of the closed circular shape.

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
ArmenianEastern[2]հողմ[hɔʁm]'storm'
BavarianAmstetten dialect[3]May be transcribed in IPA with ɒ.[3]
Bengali[4]অর্থ[ɔrt̪ʰo]'meaning'See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian[5]род[rɔt̪]'kin'See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[6]soc[ˈsɔk]'clog'See Catalan phonology
CipuTirisino dialect[7]kødø[kɔ̟̀ɗɔ̟́]"cut down!"Near-back.[8]
DanishStandard[9]kort[ˈkʰɔːd̥]'short'Also described as near-open [ɒ̝ː].[10] It is most often transcribed in IPA with ɒː. See Danish phonology
DutchStandard Belgian[11]och [ʔɔˤx] 'alas''Very tense, with strong lip-rounding',[12] strongly pharyngealized[13] (although less so in standard Belgian[14]) and somewhat fronted.[11][15] See Dutch phonology
Standard Northern[15]
EnglishAustralian[16]not [nɔt] 'not'See Australian English phonology
Estuary[17]
New Zealand[18]May be somewhat fronted.[19] Often transcribed in IPA with ɒ. See New Zealand English phonology
Received Pronunciation[20]/ɒ/ has shifted up in emerging RP.
General American[21]thought[θɔːt]'thought'Mainly in speakers without the cot–caught merger. It may be from lower [ɒ]. See English phonology
Norfolk[22]
Older Received Pronunciation[23]Higher [ɔ̝ː] for most other speakers.
Scottish[24]Many Scottish dialects exhibit the cot-caught merger, the outcome of which is a vowel of [ɔ] quality.
Sheffield[25]goat[ɡɔːt]'goat'
Newfoundland[26]but[bɔt]'but'Less commonly unrounded [ʌ].[26] See English phonology
Faroese[27]toldi[ˈtʰɔltɪ]'endured'See Faroese phonology
French[28][29]sort[sɔːʁ]'fate'The Parisian realization has been variously described as back [ɔ][28] and near-back [ɔ̟].[29] See French phonology
Georgian[30]სწრი[st͡sʼɔɾi]'correct'
GermanStandard[31][32]voll [fɔl] 'full'Described variously as open-mid back [ɔ],[31] open-mid near-back [ɔ̟][32] and near-open back [ɔ̞].[33] See Standard German phonology
Some speakers[34]Mutter[ˈmutɔʕ̞]'mother'Common allophone of /ə/ before the pharyngeal approximant realization of /r/. Occurs in East Central Germany, Southwestern Germany, parts of Switzerland and in Tyrol.[34] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[35]hoch[hɔːχ]'high'Close-mid [] in other accents.[36] See Standard German phonology
Italian[37]parola [päˈrɔ̟ːlä] 'word'Near-back.[37] See Italian phonology
Kaingang[38][ˈpɔ]'stone'
Kera[39][dɔ̟̀l]'hard earth'Near-back.[39]
Kokborokkwrwi[kɔrɔi]'not'
Limburgish[40][41]mòn[mɔːn]'moon'Lower [ɔ̞ː] in the Maastrichtian dialect.[42] The example word is from the Hasselt dialect.
Lower Sorbian[43]osba[ˈpʂɔz̪bä]'a request'
Low GermanMost dialectsstok[stɔk]'stick'May be more open [ɒ] in the Netherlands or more closed [o̞] in East Prussian dialects.
Various dialectsslaap[slɔːp]'sleep'May as low as [ɒː] and as high as [oː] in other dialects.
Southern Eastphalianbrâd[44][brɔːt]'bread'Corresponds to [oː], [ou̯], [ɔu̯], [ɛo̯] in other dialects.
Luxembourgish[45]Sonn[zɔn]'son'Possible realization of /o/.[45] See Luxembourgish phonology
NorwegianUrban East[46][47]topp[tʰɔpː]'top'Described variously as open-mid back [ɔ],[46] open-mid near-back [ɔ̟][47] and near-open back [ɔ̞].[48] See Norwegian phonology
Some dialects[46]så[sɔː]'so'Present e.g. in Telemark; realized as mid [ɔ̝ː] in other dialects.[46] See Norwegian phonology
Polish[49]kot [kɔt̪] 'cat'See Polish phonology
PortugueseMost dialects[50][51]fofoca[fɔˈfɔ̞kɐ]'gossip'Stressed vowel might be lower. The presence and use of other unstressed ⟨o⟩ allophones, such as [ o ʊ u], varies according to dialect.
Some speakers[52]bronca[ˈbɾɔ̃kə]'scolding'Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel /õ̞/. See Portuguese phonology
RussianSome speakers[53]сухой[s̪ʊˈxɔj]'dry'More commonly realized as mid [].[53] See Russian phonology
Temne[54]pɔn[pɔ̟̀n]'swamp'Near-back.[54]
Ukrainian[55]любов[lʲuˈbɔw]'love'See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[43][56]pos[pɔs̪]'dog'See Upper Sorbian phonology
West Frisian[57]rôt[rɔːt]'rat'See West Frisian phonology
Yoruba[58]k[ɔkɔ]"husband"Nasalized; may be near-open [ɔ̞̃] instead.[58]

See also

Notes

  1. While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  3. 1 2 Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. Khan (2010:222)
  5. Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999:56)
  6. Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:54)
  7. McGill (2014), pp. 308–309.
  8. McGill (2014), p. 308.
  9. Grønnum (1998:100)
  10. Basbøll (2005:47)
  11. 1 2 Verhoeven (2005:245)
  12. Collins & Mees (2003:132)
  13. Collins & Mees (2003:132, 222 and 224)
  14. Collins & Mees (2003:222)
  15. 1 2 Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  16. Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
  17. Wells (1982:305)
  18. Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a)
  19. Bauer et al. (2007:98)
  20. Wikström (2013:45), "It seems to be the case that younger RP or near-RP speakers typically use a closer quality, possibly approaching Cardinal 6 considering that the quality appears to be roughly intermediate between that used by older speakers for the LOT vowel and that used for the THOUGHT vowel, while older speakers use a more open quality, between Cardinal Vowels 13 and 6."
  21. Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b)
  22. Lodge (2009:168)
  23. Wells (1982:293)
  24. Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  25. Stoddart, Upton and Widowson in Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, page 74
  26. 1 2 Wells (1982:498)
  27. Árnason (2011:68, 75)
  28. 1 2 Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  29. 1 2 Collins & Mees (2013:225)
  30. Shosted & Chikovani (2006:261–262)
  31. 1 2 Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:34)
  32. 1 2 Lodge (2009:87)
  33. Collins & Mees (2013:234)
  34. 1 2 Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:51)
  35. Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 65.
  36. Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 65.
  37. 1 2 Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:119)
  38. Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  39. 1 2 Pearce (2011:251)
  40. Verhoeven (2007:221)
  41. Peters (2006:118–119)
  42. Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:158–159)
  43. 1 2 Stone (2002:600)
  44. Schambach, Gerog (1858), "Wörterbuch der niederdeutschen Mundart der Fürstenthümer Göttingen und Grubenhagen oder GöttingischGrubenhagen'sches Idiotikon", p. 30.
  45. 1 2 Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  46. 1 2 3 4 Popperwell (2010:26)
  47. 1 2 Strandskogen (1979:15, 19)
  48. Vanvik (1979:13)
  49. Jassem (2003:105)
  50. Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  51. Variação inter- e intra-dialetal no português brasileiro: um problema para a teoria fonológica – Seung-Hwa LEE & Marco A. de Oliveira Archived 2014-12-15 at the Wayback Machine.
  52. Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (in Portuguese)
  53. 1 2 Jones & Ward (1969:56)
  54. 1 2 Kanu & Tucker (2010:249)
  55. Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  56. Šewc-Schuster (1984:20)
  57. Tiersma (1999), p. 10.
  58. 1 2 Bamgboṣe (1969:166)

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