Ogonek

̨
Ogonek
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
circumflex( ˆ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(   ̑  )
cedilla( ¸ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
palatal hook(   ̡ )
retroflex hook(   ̢ )
hook above, dấu hỏi(  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
iota subscript(  ͅ )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek, nosinė( ˛ )
perispomene(  ͂ )
overring( ˚ )
underring( ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
period( . )
hyphen( ˗ )
prime( )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora(  ҄ )
pokrytie(  ҇ )
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
visarga( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Ąą
Ą́ą́
Ą̃ą̃
Ą̈ą̈
Ą̊ą̊
Ęę
Ę́ę́
Ę̃ę̃
Įį
Į́į́
Į̃į̃
Ǫǫ
Ǭǭ
Ǫ̈ǫ̈
Ǫ́ǫ́
Ǫ᷎ǫ᷎
O᷎o᷎
Ųų
Ų́ų́
Ų̃ų̃

The ogonek (Polish: [ɔˈɡɔnɛk], "little tail", the diminutive of ogon; Lithuanian: nosinė, "nasal") is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European languages, and directly under a vowel in several Native American languages.

An ogonek can also be attached to the top of a vowel in Old Norse-Icelandic to show length or vowel affection.[1] For example, o᷎ represents i-mutated ø.

Use

Example in Polish:

Wół go pyta: „Panie chrząszczu,
Po co pan tak brzęczy w gąszczu?“
Jan Brzechwa, Chrząszcz

Example in Cayuga:

Ęyǫgwędę́hte — we will become poor

Example in Dogrib:

dǫ sǫǫ̀łįį — native people

Example in Lithuanian:

Lydėdami gęstančią žarą vėlai
Pakilo į dangų margi sakalai
Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas, Margi sakalai

Example in Elfdalian:

"Ja, eð war įe plåg að gęslkallum, dar eð war slaik uondlostjyner i gęslun."
— Vikar Margit Andersdotter, I fäbodlivet i gamla tider.

Example in Western Apache: lęk'e' created

Values

Nasalization

The use of the ogonek to indicate nasality is common in the transcription of the indigenous languages of the Americas. This usage originated in the orthographies created by Christian missionaries to transcribe these languages. Later, the practice was continued by Americanist anthropologists and linguists who still follow this convention in phonetic transcription to the present day (see Americanist phonetic notation).

The ogonek is also used in academic transliteration of Old Church Slavonic. In Polish, Old Church Slavonic, Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua, Tłįch Yatiì, Slavey, Dëne Sųłiné and Elfdalian it indicates that the vowel is nasalized. In Polish, ę is nasalized e in Polish, but ą is nasalized o, not a, because of a vowel shift; "ą", originally a long nasal "a", turned into a short nasal "o" when the distiction in vowel quantity disappeared.

Length

In Lithuanian, the nosinė (literally, "nasal") mark originally indicated vowel nasalization but around the late 17th century, nasal vowels gradually evolved into the corresponding long non-nasal vowels in most dialects. Thus, the mark is now de facto an indicator of vowel length (the length of etymologically non-nasal vowels is marked differently). The mark also helps to distinguish different grammatical forms with otherwise the same written form, but are pronounced differently.

Openness

In Rheinische Dokumenta, it marks vowels that are more open than those denoted by their base letters Ää, Oo, Öö. In two cases, it can be combined with umlaut marks.

Similar diacritics

E caudata and o caudata

The E caudata (ę), a symbol similar to an e with ogonek, evolved from a ligature of a and e in medieval scripts, in Latin and Irish palaeography. The O caudata of Old Norse[5] (letter ǫ, with ǫ́)[6][7] is used to write the open-mid back rounded vowel, /ɔ/. Medieval Nordic manuscripts show this "hook" in both directions, in combination with several vowels.[8] Despite this distinction, the term "ogonek" is sometimes used in discussions of typesetting and encoding Norse texts, as o caudata is typographically identical to o with ogonek. Similarly, the E caudata was sometimes used to designate the vowel Norse [ɛ] or [æ].

Cedilla and comma

The ogonek is functionally equivalent to the cedilla and comma diacritics. If two of these three are used within the same orthography their respective use is restricted to certain classes of letters, i.e. usually the ogonek is used with vowels whereas the cedilla is applied to consonants. In handwritten text the marks may even look the same.

Typographical notes

The ogonek should be almost the same size as a descender (in larger type sizes may be relatively quite shorter) and should not be confused with the cedilla or comma diacritic marks used in other languages.

When used for Native American languages, the ogonek should be placed directly under the letter rather than to the side as is the norm for European languages. European-style placement is acceptable when no other alternatives are available.

Encoding

Character˛̨
Unicode nameOGONEKCOMBINING OGONEKCOMBINING OGONEK ABOVE
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode731U+02DB808U+03287630U+1DCE
UTF-8203 155CB 9B204 168CC A8225 183 142E1 B7 8E
Numeric character reference˛˛̨̨᷎᷎
CharacterĄąĘę
Unicode nameLATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH OGONEKLATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH OGONEKLATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH OGONEKLATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH OGONEK
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode260U+0104261U+0105280U+0118281U+0119
UTF-8196 132C4 84196 133C4 85196 152C4 98196 153C4 99
Numeric character referenceĄĄąąĘĘęę
ISO 8859-2 / ISO 8859-4202CA234EA
ISO 8859-10221DD253FD
CharacterĮįǪǫ
Unicode nameLATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH OGONEKLATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH OGONEKLATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH OGONEKLATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH OGONEK
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode302U+012E303U+012F490U+01EA491U+01EB
UTF-8196 174C4 AE196 175C4 AF199 170C7 AA199 171C7 AB
Numeric character referenceĮĮįįǪǪǫǫ
CharacterǬǭŲų
Unicode nameLATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH OGONEK
AND MACRON
LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH OGONEK
AND MACRON
LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH OGONEKLATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH OGONEK
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode492U+01EC493U+01ED370U+0172371U+0173
UTF-8199 172C7 AC199 173C7 AD197 178C5 B2197 179C5 B3
Numeric character referenceǬǬǭǭŲŲųų

LaTeX2e

In LaTeX2e, macro \k will typeset a letter with ogonek, if it is supported by the font encoding, e.g. \k{a} will typeset ą. (The default LaTeX OT1 encoding does not support it, but the newer T1 one does. It may be enabled by saying \usepackage[T1]{fontenc} in the preamble.)

However, \k{e} rather places the diacritic "right-aligned" with the carrying e (ę), suitably for Polish, while \textogonekcentered horizontally centers the diacritic with respect to the carrier, suitably for Native American Languages as well as for e caudata and o caudata. So \textogonekcentered{e} better fits the latter purposes. Actually, \k{o} (for ǫ) is defined to result in \textogonekcentered{o}, and \k{O} is defined to result in \textogonekcentered{O}.[9]

The package TIPA, activated by using the command "\usepackage{tipa}", offers a different way: "\textpolhook{a}" will produce ą.

References

  1. "N3027: Proposal to add medievalist characters to the UCS" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2. 2006-01-30.
  2. "Gwich'in alphabet" (PDF)., Yukon Native Language Centre
  3. "Hoocąk Waaziija Haci Language Division". Mauston, Wisconsin: Ho-Chunk Nation. Archived from the original on 2003-04-23. Retrieved 2011-05-15.
  4. "N3077: Response to UTC/US contribution N3037R (Feedback on N3027 Proposal to add medievalist characters)" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2. 2006-03-31.
  5. For this traditional and correct name, see e.g. Einar Haugen (ed. and trans.), First Grammatical Treatise, 2nd edition, Longman, 1972.
  6. "Non-European and historic Latin". Unicode Consortium. Retrieved 2011-05-15.
  7. Sebastian Kempgen (2006). "Unicode 4.1 and Slavic Philology Problems and Perspectives (I)" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  8. "Characters with a combining hook above". Medieval Unicode Font Initiative. 2003-02-05. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  9. See t1enc.def in LaTeX2e distributions.
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