Nemeth Braille

Nemeth Braille
Type
Alphabet Braille code for encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly
Languages Several
Creator Abraham Nemeth
Time period
1952 to the present

The Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics is a Braille code for encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly using standard six-dot Braille cells for tactile reading by the visually impaired. The code was developed by Abraham Nemeth. The Nemeth Code was first written up in 1952. It was revised in 1956, 1965, and 1972,[1] and beginning in 1992 was integrated into Unified English Braille. It is an example of a compact human-readable markup language.

Nemeth Braille is just one code used to write mathematics in braille. There are many systems in use around the world.[2]

Principles of the Nemeth Code

The Nemeth Code Book (1972) opens with the following words:

This Braille Code for Mathematics and Science Notation has been prepared to provide a system of symbols which will allow technical literature to be presented and read in braille. The Code is intended to convey as accurate an impression as is possible to the braille reader of the corresponding printed text, and this is one of its principal features. When the braille reader has a clear conception of the corresponding printed text, the area of communication between himself and his teacher, his colleagues, his associates, and the world at large is greatly broadened. A test of the accuracy with which the Code conveys information from the print to the braille text is to effect a transcription in the reverse direction. The amount of agreement between the original printed text and one transcribed from the braille is a measure of the Code's accuracy.

[3]

One consequence is that the braille transcriber does not need to know the underlying mathematics. The braille transcriber needs to identify the inkprint symbols and know how to render them in Nemeth Code braille. For example, if the same math symbol might have two different meanings, this would not matter; both instances would be brailled the same. This is in contrast to the International Braille Music Code, where the braille depends on the meaning of the inkprint music. Thus a knowledge of music is required to produce braille music.

Table of Nemeth braille codes

General Signs

Symbol*,
Braille

[4]

Number Signs

SymbolNumber prefix. / , (decimal), / . (separator)0123456789
Braille

[3]

Operators

Symbol+-×·÷. (decimal)i√ (radical index)
Braille
Symbolinner √ (1st)inner √ (2nd)end 1st √end 2nd √long division/!
Braille

[4]

Parentheses and Brackets

Symbol()[]{}
Braille

[4]

Fractions

Symbol simplecomplexhypercomplexfraction in mixed number
openlinecloseopenlinecloseopenlinecloseopenlineclose
Braille

[4]

Other modifiers

Symbol
Braille

[4]

Symbol°%
Braille

[4]

Braille indicators

SymbolPunctuationSuperscriptSubscriptBaselineOmissionCancel (close)Cancel (open)Run OverDirectly OverDirectly UnderBeginningTermination
Braille

[4]

Comparison Signs

Symbol><
Braille

[4]

Symbol
Braille

[4]

Symbol><<>>=<<=>
Braille

[4]

Symbol=±
Braille

[4]

Geometry

SymbolParallelPerpendicularAngleRight angle
Braille

[4]

SymbolArc downArc upTrapezoidSquareRectangleParallelogram
Braille

[4]

SymbolRhombusIsosceles trapezoidTriangleRight triangleCircleEllipse
Braille

[4]

Arrows

Symbol
Braille

[4]

Symbol
Braille

[4]

Trig functions

FunctionSineCosineTangent
Braille

[4]

FunctionSecantCosecantCotangentLogarithm
Braille

[4]

Set Theory

Symbol{}
Braille

[4]

Symbol
Braille

[4]

Misc. signs

Symbol
Braille

[4]

SymbolIntersecting lines@DittoTally mark+--+
Braille

[4]

Symbol|| | (modulus). dot
Braille

[4]

Polygons

SymbolPentagonHexagonHeptagonOctagonNonagon -agon
Braille + (Nemeth Braille of )

[4]

Triangles

SymbolAcuteRightIsoscelesObtuseScalene
Braille

[4]

Other signs

SymbolAcute angleRight angle Obtuse angleHexagon star§
Braille

[4]

Symbolref. indicator<i><b>letter signcomposite function|det| matrix
Braille

[4]

Greek letters and Latin letters

Greek and Latin letters are based on the assignments of International Greek Braille.

Symbolsmall Latin letterscapital Latin letterssmall Greek letterscapital Greek letters
Braille (Braile of the letter) + (Braile of the letter) + (Braile of the letter) + (Braile of the letter)

[4]

See also

References

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