National Radical Camp (1934)
|Founded||14 April 1934|
|Dissolved||10 July 1934 (banned by a decree of the Polish government)|
National radicalism |
|Political position||Third Position|
The National Radical Camp (Polish: Obóz Narodowo Radykalny, ONR) was an illegal Polish Third Positionist, anti-communist, and nationalist political party, formed on 14 April 1934 mostly by the youth radicals who left the National Party of the National Democracy movement.
The party was influenced by the ideas of Italian fascism. It rejected parliamentary democracy and called for the construction of a "national state," based on the principles of hierarchy, one-person leadership, and elimination of national minorities from public life. Some authors do not consider it to be a fascist political movement, while others suggest that its ideology had fascist elements, or even consider it as a 'nazified' movement.
The party was created on the insistence of former members of the Camp of Great Poland (Obóz Wielkiej Polski), most notably Jan Mosdorf, Tadeusz Gluziński and Henryk Rossman. The organization proclaimed changes in the government based on the nationalist ideology. It supported class solidarity, nationalization of foreign and Jewish-owned companies and introduction of anti-semitic laws. At the same time it supported defense of private property and a centralized state. The party favored aggressive eliminationist action against Poland's minorities. The leading members of ONR-ABC included Henryk Rossman, Tadeusz Gluziński, Stanisław Piasecki, Jan Jodzewicz, Wojciech Zaleski, Tadeusz Todtleben and Jan Korolec. The leading members of ONR-Falanga included Bolesław Piasecki, Wojciech Wasiutyński, Wojciech Kwasieborski and Marian Reutt.
The ONR was popular mostly among the students and other groups of urban youth. ONR openly encouraged anti-Jewish pogroms, and became the main force in the organization of attacks against Jews. It organized fighting squads, attacked Jews and leftist politicians, destroyed Jewish property, and provoked clashes with the police. Because of its involvement in boycott of Jewish-owned stores, as well as numerous attacks on left-wing worker demonstrations, the ONR was outlawed after three months of existence, in July 1934. Several leaders were interned in the Bereza Kartuska Detention Camp, where the organization split into two separate factions: the ONR-Falanga (Ruch Narodowo-Radykalny) led by Bolesław Piasecki, and the ONR-ABC (Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny) formed around the ABC journal and led by Henryk Rossman. Both organizations were officially illegal.
During World War II
During World War II, both organizations created underground resistance organizations: ONR-ABC was transformed into Grupa Szańca (Rampart Group), whose military arm became the Związek Jaszczurczy (Lizard Union), while the ONR-Falanga created the Konfederacja Narodu (Confederation of the Nation). They were not supportive of the mainstream Polish Secret State related to the Polish government in exile. During the Nazis' occupation of Poland, many of the former ONR activists belonged to National Armed Forces resistance groups. After World War II, the forced exile of many ONRs was made permanent by the communist regime, which branded them enemies of the state.
- The left and right wing spectrum does not apply to the idea of Fascism, therefore it's technically incorrect to call fascism Right Wing.
- Third Position
- (in Polish) Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny WIEM Encyklopedia
- Marszał, Maciej: Włoski faszyzm w polskiej myśli politycznej i prawnej, 1922-1939. Wrocław 2007, p. 32.
- Lerski, Jerzy J.; Wróbel, Piotr; Kozicki, Richard J. (1996). Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. p. 379. ISBN 978-0-313-26007-0.
- Friszke, Andrzej: O kształt niepodległej. Warszawa 1989, p. 298.
- Joshua A. Fishman (1974) Studies on Polish Jewry, 1919-193 Yivo Institute for Jewish Research
- Wapiński 1980, 308.
- Ajnenkiel 1974, 226.