National Curriculum (England, Wales and Northern Ireland)
The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act (1988). Notwithstanding its name, it does not apply to independent schools. Academies and free schools may also set their own curricula, though many choose to follow the National Curriculum. Whilst only certain subjects were included at first, in subsequent years the curriculum grew to fill the entire teaching time of most state schools.
The National Curriculum was developed to standardise content taught across schools, as a response to the disparities in educational experience offered to the nation's children. Prior to the National Curriculum, decision on content and pedagogy were made locally, at either local authority or school level. Whilst excellent education was possible under this system, there was a perception of and potential for poor education provision to remain unchecked. The National Curriculum was intended to form a floor, guaranteeing minimum standards to children who might otherwise suffer from poor education. Schools have additionally been challenged to go beyond the requirements of the National Curriculum, in search of higher standards. The arguments for its introduction are exemplified in the "Ruskin speech" of then Prime Minister James Callaghan. It has been supported by successive governments.
The requirement for state schools to teach Religious Education predates the National Curriculum as this was introduced in the Education Act (1944).
Principal aims and purposes
- Aim 1: The school curriculum should aim to provide opportunities for all pupils to learn and to achieve.
- The school curriculum should develop enjoyment of, and commitment to, learning as a means of encouraging and stimulating the best possible progress and the highest attainment for all pupils.
- It should build on pupils' strengths, interests and experiences and develop their confidence in their capacity to learn and work independently and collaboratively.
- It should equip them with the essential learning skills of literacy, numeracy, and information and communication technology, and promote an enquiring mind and capacity to think rationally.
- The school curriculum should contribute to the development of pupils' sense of identity through knowledge and understanding of the spiritual, moral, social and cultural heritages of Britain's diverse society and of the local, national, European, Commonwealth and global dimensions of their lives.
- It should encourage pupils to appreciate human aspirations and achievements in aesthetic, scientific, technological and social fields, and prompt a personal response to a range of experiences and ideas.
- By providing rich and varied contexts for pupils to acquire, develop and apply a broad range of knowledge, understanding and skills, the curriculum should enable pupils to think creatively and critically, to solve problems and to make a difference for the better.
- It should give them the opportunity to become creative, innovative, enterprising and capable of leadership to equip them for their future lives as workers and citizens.
- It should also develop their physical skills and encourage them to recognise the importance of pursuing a healthy lifestyle and keeping themselves and others safe.
- Aim 2: The school curriculum will aim to promote pupils' spiritual, moral, social and cultural development and prepare all pupils for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of life.
- The school curriculum should promote pupils' spiritual, moral, social and cultural development and, in particular, develop principles for distinguishing between right and wrong.
- It should develop their knowledge, understanding and appreciation of their own and different beliefs and cultures, and how these influence individuals and societies.
- The school curriculum should pass on enduring values, develop pupils' integrity and autonomy and help them to be responsible and caring citizens capable of contributing to the development of a just society.
- It should promote equal opportunities and enable pupils to challenge discrimination and stereotyping.
- It should develop their awareness and understanding of, and respect for, the environments in which they live, and secure their commitment to sustainable development at a personal, local, national and global level.
- It should also equip pupils as consumers to make informed judgements and independent decisions and to understand their responsibilities and rights.
- The school curriculum should promote pupils' self-esteem and emotional wellbeing and help them to form and maintain worthwhile and satisfying relationships, based on respect for themselves and for others, at home, school, work and in the community.
- It should develop their ability to relate to others and work for the common good.
- It should enable pupils to respond positively to opportunities, challenges and responsibilities, to manage risk and to cope with change and adversity.
- It should prepare pupils for the next steps in their education, training and employment and equip them to make informed choices at school and throughout their lives, enabling them to appreciate the relevance of their achievements to life and society outside school, including leisure, community engagement and employment.
- Purpose 1: To establish an entitlement
- Purpose 2: To establish standards
- Purpose 3: To promote continuity and coherence
- Purpose 4: To promote public understanding
It should be noted that even though the national curriculum sets compulsory scholastic and educational national standards; parents who decide for their children to follow home-schooling may opt for alternative curricula.
Core and foundation subjects
|Subject||Key Stage 1
|Key Stage 2
|Key Stage 3
|Key Stage 4|
|Art & Design|
|Design & Technology|
|Modern Foreign Languages4|
|Welsh (Wales only)|
1 English is not statutory in Key Stage 1 in Welsh-medium schools in Wales
2 New Computing curriculum replaced ICT in schools (computing is now counted as a science in EBACC).
3 Computing is not statutory at KS4 in Wales or Northern Ireland.
4 Simply "Foreign Languages" at KS2.
In all maintained schools, provision is made for the requirement to offer a course in Religious Education under the Education Act. Parents have the right to withdraw pupils from this if they wish. In addition, at all Key Stages, the Department for Children, Schools and Families suggests that pupils are offered provision in Personal, Social and Health Education, although this is not statutory.
The National Curriculum in the Primary Phase provides a broad and balanced curriculum which is relevant to children. Incorporating the subject areas listed above the curriculum design ensures:
- the curriculum meets the needs and interests of all learners
- a broad and balanced curriculum is an entitlement for all learners
- the curriculum is integrated with effective teaching, learning and assessment
- the curriculum is at the heart of schools' strategies to raise achievement and improve outcomes for all their learners
The Education Act requires that all pupils in secondary education are provided with a programme of Sex education, including education about AIDS, HIV and other sexually-transmitted diseases. While a statutory provision, this does not form part of the National Curriculum, and parents have a right to remove their children from this provision.
The Education Act (as amended) requires that all students in Key Stages 3 and 4 be provided with a programme of Careers education. This does not form part of the National Curriculum but is a statutory entitlement for all pupils.
Schools are required, under the amendments to the Education Act, to provide at least one course for those pupils who wish to study it, in each of the entitlement areas at Key Stage 4. These are: the Arts; Design and Technology; the Humanities; and a Modern Foreign Language.
National Curriculum assessment
Assessments are carried out at two ages: seven (school year 2, at the end of Key Stage 1) and eleven (Year 6, the end of Key Stage 2). The requirement to test students at fourteen (Year 9, the end of Key Stage 3) was removed in 2010 . Some aspects of subjects are teacher-assessed, whilst others involve sitting an examination paper. The results are considered when school and LEA performance league tables are being compiled, but they do not lead to any formal qualification for the candidates taking them.
The study of most subjects under the National Curriculum would usually culminate in the sitting of a GCSE at the end of Key Stage 4 (Year 11). Although the GCSE examinations replaced the earlier, separate GCE O Level and CSE examinations, the syllabuses were still initially devised entirely by the examination boards, whereas since the implementation of the National Curriculum the syllabus outline is determined by law. Thus much of the attention surrounding the claimed dumbing down of GCSEs is, indirectly, a criticism of the National Curriculum.
Public schools are free to choose their own curriculum and examinations and many have opted for the more demanding IGCSEs , which are not tied to the National Curriculum. It is claimed that this is creating a two-tier system with state school pupils losing out. From time to time ministers have suggested that state schools may be given funding to enter pupils for IGCSE examinations but a study was undertaken by QCA, which concluded that IGCSEs do not follow the programmes of study required by the Key Stage Four of the National Curriculum and therefore could not be offered as a state-funded alternative.
Failure and adverse effects of the 'free market' objective
Although the primary purpose for the National Curriculum was to enable league tables and inform parental choice, many parents or guardians still fail to get the school of their choice and there is concern that the league tables have a detrimental effect on pupils:
"The focus on league tables had resulted in pupils being pressured to attain high grades and so opt for subjects that are seen as easier to get good marks in such as art, drama and history."
But not only the drop of mathematics as a subject has been a major issue; according to the BBC, Scotland's Education Secretary Angela Constance has also expressed her concern over "poor pupil literacy" within the education system and the National Curriculum of England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
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- "National curriculum". Teachernet website. Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2007. Archived from the original on 23 February 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- Secretary of State for Education and Skills (2003). "Education (Amendment of the Curriculum Requirements for Fourth Key Stage) (England) Order 2003". Statutory Instruments. Her Majesty's Government. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- "Statutory requirements for the key stage 4 curriculum". Secondary Curriculum website. Qualifications & Curriculum Authority. 2008. Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
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- Secretary of State for Education and Skills (2003). "The Education (Extension of Careers Education) (England) Regulations 2003". Statutory Instrument 2003/2645. Her Majesty's Government. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- Polly Curtis (2008). "The Guardian". News Article. The Guardian. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
- The Telegraph: GCSEs fail to stretch brightest pupils
- The Guardian: Private schools seek recognition for tougher GCSE exam
- The Guardian: Government urged to follow Sweden in adopting international GCSEs
- BBC: 'Give schools freedom of choice', 2006
- GCSEs and IGCSEs compared, Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2006 Archived 7 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- The Telegraph: Turned away at the school gates
- The Telegraph: Science lessons are failing to produce next generation of top British scientists