National Anthem of the Republic of China

National Anthem of the Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Mínguó guógē
Sheet music

National anthem of  Taiwan[N 1]
Lyrics Sun Yat-sen, 1924[N 2]
Music Cheng Maoyun, 1928
Adopted 1928 (de facto, by China)
1943 (de jure, by China)
1945 (by Taiwan)
Relinquished 1949 (by China)
Audio sample
《中華民國國歌》
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The National Anthem of the Republic of China is the national anthem of Republic of China (Taiwan). It was originally adopted in 1937 by China as its national anthem and was used as such until the late 1940s. It replaced the "Song to the Auspicious Cloud", which had been used as the Chinese national anthem before. In contemporary China, this national anthem serves a historical role as the current national anthem of China is the "March of the Volunteers". The national anthem was also adopted in Taiwan on 25 October 1945 after the surrender of Japan.

The national anthem's words are adapted from a 1924 speech by Sun Yat-sen, via the partisan anthem of the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) in 1937. The lyrics relate to how the vision and hopes of a new nation and its people can be achieved and maintained. Informally, the song is sometimes known as San Min Chu-i from its opening line which references the Three Principles of the People (Sanmin Zhuyi), but this name is never used in formal or official occasions.

History

The text of was the collaboration between several Kuomintang (KMT) party members: Hu Hanmin, Tai Chi-tao, Liao Zhongkai, and Shao Yuanchong. The text debuted on July 16, 1924, as the opening of a speech by Sun Yat-sen at the opening ceremony of the Whampoa Military Academy. After the success of the Northern Expedition, the Kuomintang party chose the text to be its party anthem and publicly solicited for accompanying music. Cheng Maoyun won in a contest of 139 participants.

On March 24, 1930, numerous Kuomintang party members proposed to use the speech by Sun as the lyrics to the national anthem. The national anthem of the republic was the "Song to the Auspicious Cloud". Due to opposition over using a symbol of a political party to represent the entire nation, the National Anthem Editing and Research Committee (國歌編製研究委員會) was set up, which endorsed the KMT party song. On June 3, 1937, the Central Standing Committee (中央常務委員會) approved the proposal, and in the 1940s, the song formally became the official national anthem of the Republic of China.

Lyrics

National Anthem of the Republic of China
The original Whampoa Military Academy speech in Sun's handwriting.
Traditional Chinese 中華民國國歌
Simplified Chinese 中华民国国歌
Hanyu Pinyin Zhōnghuá Mínguó guógē
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 三民主義
Simplified Chinese 三民主义
Hanyu Pinyin Sānmín Zhǔyì
Literal meaning Three Principles of the People
Traditional ChineseSimplified Chinese
(with Hanyu Pinyin)

ㄙㄢㄇㄧㄣˊㄓㄨˇㄧˋㄨˊㄉㄤˇㄙㄨㄛˇㄗㄨㄥ
ㄧˇㄐㄧㄢˋㄇㄧㄣˊㄍㄨㄛˊㄧˇㄐㄧㄣˋㄉㄚˋㄊㄨㄥˊ
ㄦˇㄉㄨㄛㄕˋㄨㄟˋㄇㄧㄣˊㄑㄧㄢˊㄈㄥ
ㄙㄨˋㄧㄝˋㄈㄟˇㄒㄧㄝˋㄓㄨˇㄧˋㄕˋㄘㄨㄥˊ
ㄕˇㄑㄧㄣˊㄕˇㄩㄥˇㄅㄧˋㄒㄧㄣˋㄅㄧˋㄓㄨㄥ
ㄧˋㄒㄧㄣㄧˋㄉㄜˊㄍㄨㄢˋㄔㄜˋㄕˇㄓㄨㄥ

三民(Sānmín)主义(zhǔyì)()(dǎng)(suǒ)(zōng)
()(jiàn)民国(Mínguó)()(jìn)大同(dàtóng)
()(ěr)多士(duōshì)(wèi)(mín)前锋(qiánfēng)
夙夜(Sùyè)(fěi)(xiè)主义(zhǔyì)(shì)(cóng)
(Shǐ)(qín)(shǐ)(yǒng)()(xìn)()(zhōng)
()(xīn)()()贯彻(guànchè)(shǐ)(zhōng)

The lyrics are in classical literary Chinese. For example,

  • ěr () is a literary equivalent of both singular and plural "you" (which are differentiated in modern Chinese) depending on the context. In this case, it is plural "you".
  • fěi () is a classical synonym of "not" ( fēi). And
  • () is a classical, archaic interjection, and is not used in this sense in the modern vernacular language.

In this respect, the national anthem of the Republic of China stands in contrast to the People's Republic of China's "The March of the Volunteers", which was written a few years later entirely in modern vernacular Chinese.

As well as being written in classical Chinese, the national anthem follows classical poetic conventions. The ancient Fu style follows that of a four-character poem, where the last character of each line rhymes in -ong or -eng, which are equivalent in ancient Chinese.

Phonetic transcription (IPA)

[sán.mǐn t͡ʂù.î ǔ tɑ̀ŋ swò t͡sʊ́ŋ]
[ì t͡ɕjɛ̂n mǐn.kwǒ ì t͡ɕîn tä̂.tʰʊ̌ŋ]
[t͡sɹ̩́ àɚ twó.ʂɻ̩̂ wêɪ̯ mǐn t͡ɕʰjɛ̌n.fɤ́ŋ]
[sû.jê fèɪ̯ ɕjê t͡ʂù.î ʂɻ̩̂ t͡sʰʊ̌ŋ]
[ʂɻ̩̀ t͡ɕʰǐn ʂɻ̩̀ jʊ̀ŋ pî ɕîn pî t͡ʂʊ́ŋ]
[î ɕín î tɤ̌ kwân.t͡ʂʰɤ̂ ʂɻ̩̀ t͡ʂʊ́ŋ]

English translations

The official translation by Du Tingxiu (Theodore B. Tu)[1] appears in English-language guides to the ROC published by the government.

OfficialLiteral
San Min Chu-i,

Our aim shall be:
To found a free land,
World peace, be our stand.
Lead on, comrades,
Vanguards ye are.
Hold fast your aim,
By sun and star.
Be earnest and brave,
Your country to save,
One heart, one soul,
One mind, one goal...

Three Principles of the People,

The foundation of our party.
Using [this], [we] establish the Republic;
Using [this], [we] advance into a state of total peace.
Oh, you, righteous men,
For the people, [be] the vanguard.
Without resting day or night,
Follow the Principles.
Swear [to be] diligent; swear [to be] courageous.
Obliged to be trustworthy; obliged to be loyal.
[With] one heart and one virtue,
[We] carry through until the very end...

Transcription in other Chinese languages

Cantonese YalePe̍h-ōe-jī

Sāam màhn jyú yih, ngh dóng só jūng,
Yíh gin màhn gwok, yíh jeun daaih duhng,
Jī yíh dō sih, wàih màhn chìhn fūng,
Sūk yeh féi gaai, jyú yih haih chùhng,
Chí kàhn chí yúhng, bīt seun bīt jūng,
Yāt sām yāt dāk, gun chit chí jūng!

Sam bîn chú gī, ngô͘ tóng só͘ chong,
Í kiàn Bîn-kok, í chìn tāi tông,
Chu ní to sū, ûi bîn chiân hong,
Siok iā húi hāi, chú gī sī chiông,
Sí khîn sí ióng, pit sìn pit tiong,
i̍t sim i̍t tek, koàn thiat sí tiong!

Notes

  1. Formerly the national anthem of China from 1928 to 1949.
  2. Adapted from a speech.

References

  1. Cassel, Susie Lan (2002). The Chinese in America: A History from Gold Mountain to the New Millennium. Rowman Altamira. p. 279. ISBN 9780759100015. Retrieved 30 August 2016.

Further reading

  • Reed W. L. and Bristow M. J. (eds.) (2002) "National Anthems of the World", 10 ed., London
  • Cassell, p. 526. ISBN 0-304-36382-0
Preceded by
Song to the Auspicious Cloud
(1913–1928)
Three Principles of the People
1943–present
(1943-1949 in the Mainland)
Succeeded by
March of the Volunteers
(1949-1966 and 1976-today), in the Mainland
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