|Sound change and alternation|
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth. An archetypal nasal sound is [n].
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, nasalization is indicated by printing a tilde diacritic
U+0303 ◌̃ COMBINING TILDE (HTML
̃) above the symbol for the sound to be nasalized: [ã] is the nasalized equivalent of [a], and [ṽ] is the nasalized equivalent of [v]. A subscript diacritic [ą], called an ogonek or nosinė, is sometimes seen, especially when the vowel bears tone marks that would interfere with the superscript tilde. For example, [ą̄ ą́ ą̀ ą̂ ą̌] are more legible in most fonts than [ã̄ ã́ ã̀ ã̂ ã̌].
Nasal vowels are found in various languages around the world, such as French, Polish, Portuguese, Breton, Hindi, Hmong, Hokkien, Yoruba and Cherokee. Those nasal vowels contrast with oral vowels. Many languages, however, have only oral vowels or do not contrast oral and nasal vowels.
There are occasional cases for vowels showing contrasting degrees of nasality.. One such is Palantla Chinantec.
By far the most common nasal sounds are nasal consonants such as [m], [n] or [ŋ]. Most nasal consonants are occular, and airflow through the mouth is blocked and redirected through the nose. Their oral counterparts are the stops.
Nasalized versions of other consonant sounds also exist but are much rarer than either nasal occlusives or nasal vowels. Some South Arabian languages use phonemic nasalized fricatives, such as /z̃/, which sounds something like a simultaneous [n] and [z]. The Chinese consonant 日 r- ( ) has an odd history; for example, it has evolved into [ʐ] and [ɑɻ] (or [ɻ] and [ɚ] respectively, depending on accents) in Standard Chinese; [z]/[ʑ] and [n] in Hokkien; [z]/[ʑ] and [n]/[n̠ʲ] while borrowed into Japan. It seems likely that it was once a nasalized fricative, perhaps a palatal [ʝ̃].
In Coatzospan Mixtec, fricatives and affricates are nasalized before nasal vowels even when they are voiceless. In the Hupa, the velar nasal /ŋ/ often has the tongue not make full contact, resulting in a nasalized approximant, [ɰ̃]. That is cognate with a nasalized palatal approximant] [ȷ̃] in other Athabaskan languages.
In Umbundu, phonemic /ṽ/ contrasts with the (allophonically) nasalized approximate [w̃] and so is likely to be a true fricative rather than an approximate. In Old and Middle Irish, the lenited ⟨m⟩ was a nasalized bilabial fricative.
Sundanese has an allophonic nasalized glottal stop [ʔ̃]; nasalized stops can occur only with pharyngeal articulation or lower, or they would be simple nasals. Nasal flaps are common allophonically. Many West African languages have a nasal flap [ɾ̃] (or [n̆]) as an allophone of /ɾ/ before a nasal vowel; Pashto, however, has a phonemic nasal retroflex lateral flap.
Other languages, such as the Khoisan languages of Khoekhoe and Gǀui, as well as several of the !Kung languages, include nasal click consonants. Nasalization of the phonemes is denoted with a superscript ⟨ᵑ⟩ preceding the consonant (for example, ⟨ᵑǂ⟩). Nasalized laterals such as [l̃] are easy to produce but rare or nonexistent as phonemes; often when [l] is nasalized, it becomes [n].
True nasal fricatives
Besides nasalized oral fricatives, there are true nasal fricatives, previously called nareal fricatives. They are sometimes produced by people with disordered speech. The turbulence in the airflow characteristic of fricatives is produced not in the mouth but in the nasal cavity. A tilde and trema diacritic (two dots representing the nostrils) is used for this in the extensions to the IPA: [n͋] is a voiced alveolar nasal fricative, with no airflow out of the mouth, and [n̥͋] is the voiceless equivalent; [v͋] is an oral fricative with simultaneous nasal frication. No known language makes use of nasal fricatives in non-disordered speech.
Nasalization may be lost over time. There are also denasal sounds, which sound like nasals spoken with a head cold. They may be found in non-pathological speech as a language loses nasal consonants, as in Korean.
Vowels assimilate to surrounding nasal consonants in many languages, such as Thai, creating nasal vowel allophones. Some languages exhibit a nasalization of segments adjacent to phonemic or allophonic nasal vowels, such as Apurinã.
Contextual nasalization can lead to the addition of nasal vowel phonemes to a language. That happened in French, most of whose final consonants disappeared, but its final nasals made the preceding vowels become nasal, which introduced a new distinction into the language. An example is vin blanc [vɛ̃ blɑ̃] ('white wine'), ultimately from Latin vinum and blancum.
- Juliette Blevins (2004). Evolutionary Phonology: The Emergence of Sound Patterns. Cambridge University Press. p. 203.
- Thurneysen, Rudolf; D. A. Binchy (1946). A Grammar of Old Irish. Translated by Osborn Bergin. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. p. 85. ISBN 1-85500-161-6.
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 134. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 268. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
- The World Atlas of Language Structures Online – Chapter 10 – Vowel Nasalization