Names of God in Islam

According to a hadith, there are at least 99 names of God in Islam, known as the ʾasmāʾu llāhi l-ḥusnā (Arabic: أسماء الله الحسنى Beautiful Names of God). The names are also called 99 Attributes of Allah.

Origin

According to Sahih Bukhari Hadith[1]:

Abu Hurairah reported that Allah has ninety-nine Names, i.e., one hundred minus one, and whoever believes in their meanings and acts accordingly, will enter Paradise; and Allah is witr (one) and loves 'the witr' (i.e., odd numbers).

Sahih Bukhari - Vol. 8, Book 75, Hadith 419

There's another Sahih Muslim Hadith[2]:

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "Allah has ninety-nine Names, one-hundred less one; and he who memorized them all by heart will enter Paradise." To count something means to know it by heart.

Sahih Bukhari - Vol. 9, Book 93, Hadith 489

The Qur'an refers to God's Most Beautiful Names (al-ʾasmāʾ al-ḥusná) in several Surahs.[3] Gerhard Böwering refers to Surah 17 (17:110) as the locus classicus to which explicit lists of 99 names used to be attached in tafsir. A cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets which are included in such lists is found in Surah 59.[4] Mystic philosopher Ibn Arabi surmised that the 99 names are "outward signs of the universe's inner mysteries".[5]

Lists of names

There is no universal agreement among Muslims as to what exactly counts as a name of God, and what does not. Additionally, while some names are only in the Quran, and others are only in the hadith, there are some names which appear in both. Different sources give different lists of the 99 names.[5]

The following list is based on the one found in the Jamiʿ at-Tirmidhi (9th century). Other hadith, such as those of al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi or Ibn ʿAsākir, have variant lists. All attribute the original compilation of the list of names to Abu Hurairah.

al-Tirmidhi comments on his list: "This (version of the) hadith is gharib [unusual, scarce]; it has been narrated from various routes on the authority of Abu Hurairah, but we do not know of the mention of the Names in the numerous narrations, except this one." Various early Muslim exegetes, including Jaʿfar al-Sadiq, Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah, Ibn Hazm, al-Qurtubi, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, have given their own versions of lists of 99 names.[6]

ٱ = The waṣla (hamzatu l-waṣli (هَمْزَةُ ٱلْوَصْلِ "hamza of connection")) denoting of ٱلْ is "ʾal/ ʾul/ ʾil" depending on the last vowel of the previous word/sentence structure:

e.g. سُوْرَةُ ٱلْرَّحْمَـٰنُ Suratu r-Raḥmān [Surah ar-Rahman].

Please note the written Arabic spelling of the names written in Arabic in the table are in the vowelled Classical/ Quranic form (proper = in the Quran and Ahādith) with the square bracketed "[.]" variant of the written Arabic forms given in common or modern texts - usually in media, some long vowels and punctuations are omitted for the easier typing and reading.

Classical Arabic

(Quranic/ classical written forms)

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

(Variant with vowels/ without vowels)

Proper Transliteration

[IPA]

Romanization

[Various Spellings]

TranslationaReferencegrammatical typeb
 1\* ٱلْرَّحْمَـٰنُ

ٱلْرَّحْمَـانُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الرّحمـٰن

\ الرّحمان

\* الرحمـٰن

الرحمان

[* = classical written form]

ar-Raḥmān/ ar-Raḥmānar-Raḥmān

[Ar-Rahmaan]

The Most GraciousQuran: Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places. The first verse ('ayat) of Surah ar-Rahman (Surah 55) consists only of this Name.D
 2ٱلْرَّحِيْمُ \ الرّحيم

الرحيم

ar-Raḥiym/

ar-Raḥīm

ar-Raḥīm

[Ar-Raheem]

The Most MercifulQuran: Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places (there are a total of 114 Surahs in the Quran.)D
 3\* ٱلْمَـٰلِكُ

ٱلْمَـالِكُ

[* = classical written form]

\* المـٰلك

المالك

[* = classical written form]

al-Mālik/

al-Mālik

al-Mālik

[al-Maalik]

The King59:23, 20:114, 23:116D
 4ٱلْقُدُّوسُ \ القدّوس

القدوس

al-Quddūs/

al-Quddūs

al-Quddus

[al-Quddous,

al-Quddoos]

The Holy59:23, 62:1D
 5\* ٱلْسَّلَـٰمُ

ٱلْسَّلَامُ

[* = classical written form]

\* السّلـٰم

\ السّلام

\* السلـٰم

السلام

[* = classical written form]

as-Salām/

as-Salām

As-Salam

[As-Salaam]

The Peace59:23D
 6ٱلْمُؤْمِنُ المؤمن al-Muʿumin/

al-Muʿmin

al-MuʿminThe Granter of Security59:23D
 7ٱلْمُهَيْمِنُ المهيمن al-Muhayminal-MuhayminThe Controller59:23D
 8ٱلْعَزِيزُ العزيز al-aziyz/ al-ʿAzīz

[al-Azeez]

The Powerful3:6, 4:158, 9:40, 48:7, 59:23D
 9ٱلْجَبَّارُ \ الجبّار

الجبار

al-Jabbār/

al-Jabbār

al-Jabbar

[al-Jabbaar]

The Strong59:23D
 10ٱلْمُتَكَبِّرُ \ المتكبّر

المتكبر

al-Mutakabbir al-MutakabbirThe Supreme59:23D
mutafaʿʿil
 11\* ٱلْخَـٰلِقُ

ٱلْخَالِقُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الخـٰلق

الخالق

[* = classical written form]

al-Khāliq/

al-Khāliq

al-Khaliq

[al-Khaaliq]

The Creator6:102, 13:16,[7] 36:81, 39:62, 40:62, 59:24D
 12ٱلْبَارِئُ البارئ al-Bāriʿ/

al-Bāriʿ

al-Bariʿ[al-Baari’/ al-Baarie] The Evolver, The Maker59:24D
 13ٱلْمُصَوِّرُ \ المصوّر

المصور

al-Muṣawwir al-Musawwir

[al-Mussawwir/

al-Muswawwir]

The Fashioner, The Shaper, The Designer59:24D
 14\* ٱلْغَفَّـٰرُ

ٱلْغَفَّارُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الغفّـٰر

\ الغفّار

\* الغفـٰر

الغفار

[* = classical written form]

al-Ghaffār/

al-Ghaffār

al-Ghaffar

[al-Ghaffaar]

The Repeatedly Forgiving20:82, 38:66, 39:5, 40:42, 71:10D
 15\* ٱلْقَهَّـٰرُ

ٱلْقَهَّارُ

[* = classical written form]

\* القهّـٰر

\ القهّار

\* القهـٰر

القهار

[* = classical written form]

al-Qahhār/

al-Qahhār

al-Qahhar

[al-Qahhaar]

The Subduer12:39, 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4, 40:16D
 16ٱلْوَهَّابُ \ الوهّاب

الوهاب

al-Wahhāb/

al-Wahhāb

al-Wahhab

[al-Wahhaab]

The Bestower38:9, 38:35D
 17ٱلْرَّزَّاقُ \ الرّزّاق

الرزاق

ar-Razzāq/

ar-Razzāq

Ar-Razzaq

[Ar-Razzaaq]

The Provider, The Sustainer51:58D
 18ٱلْفَتَّاحُ \ الفتّاح

الفتاح

al-Fattāḥ/

al-Fattāḥ

al-Fattah

[al-Fattaah]

The Opener, The Victory Giver34:26D
 19ٱلْعَلِيمُ العليم al-aliym/

al-alīm

al-Alim

[al-Aleem]

The Knowing2:158, 3:92, 4:35, 24:41, 33:40D
 20ٱلْقَابِضُ القابض al-Qābiḍ/

al-Qābiḍ

al-Qabid/ al-Qabidh

[al-Qaabid/

al-Qaabidh]

The Restrainer, The Straightener2:245V
 21ٱلْبَاسِطُ الباسط al-Bāsiṭ/

al-Bāsiṭ

al-Basit/ al-Basitt

[al-Baasit/ al-Baasitt]

The Extender / Expander2:245V
 22ٱلْخَافِضُ الخافض al-Khāfiḍ/

al-Khāfiḍ

al-Khafid/ al-Khafidh

[al-Khaafid/

al-Khaafidh]

The Abaser, The Humiliator, The Downgrader56:3; al-Kafʿamī (1992:38)O
 23ٱلْرَّافِعُ \ الرّافع

الرّافع

ar-Rāfiʿ/

ar-Rāfiʿ

Ar-Rafiʿ/ Ar-Rafee

[Ar-Raafiʿ/ Ar-Raafee]

The Exalter, The Upgrader58:11, 6:83V
 24ٱلْمُعِزُّ \ المعزّ

المعز

al-Muʿizzal-Muʿizz

[al-Muʿeizz]

The Giver of Honor3:26V
 25ٱلْمُذِلُّ \ المذلّ

المذل

al-Muḏill/al-Mudhill al-Muzill

[al-Mudzhill]

The Giver of Dishonor3:26V
 26ٱلْسَّمِيعُ \ السّميع

السميع

as-Samiyʿ/as-Samīʿ As-Samiʿ/ As-Samie

[As-Sameeʿ]

The Hearing2:127, 2:256, 8:17, 49:1D
 27ٱلْبَصِيرُ البصير al-Baṣīr/al-Baṣīr al-Basir/ al-Bassir/

al-Baswir [al-Baseer/ al-Basseer/ al-Basweer]

The All-Seeing4:58, 17:1, 42:11, 42:27D
 28ٱلْحَكَمُ الحكم al-Ḥakam al-HakamThe Judge, The Arbitrator22:69V
 29ٱلْعَدْلُ العدل al-ʿAdl al-ʿAdl/ al-EdlThe JustNot Quranic, see al-Kafʿamī (1992:40)
 30ٱلْلَّطِيفُ \ اللّطيف

اللطيف

al-Laṭiyf/

al-Laṭīf

al-Latif / al-Lattif/

al-Latwif [al-Lateef/ al-Latteef/ al-Latweef]

The Gentle, The Subtly Kind22:63, 31:16, 33:34D
 31ٱلْخَبِيرُ الخبير al-Khabiyr/

al-Khabīr

al-Khabir

[al-Khabeer]

The All-Aware6:18, 17:30, 49:13, 59:18D
 32ٱلْحَلِيمُ الحليم al-Ḥaliym/

al-Ḥalīm

al-Halim

[al-Haleem]

The Forbearing, The Indulgent2:235, 17:44, 22:59, 35:41A
 33ٱلْعَظِيمُ العظيم al-ʿAẓiym/

al-ʿAẓīm

al-ʿAzim, al-ʿAzzim, al-ʿAzwim/ al-Ezim,

al-Ezzim, al-Ezwim [al-ʿAzzeem, al-ʿAzweem/

al-Ezzeem,

al-Ezweem]

The Great, The Magnificent2:255, 42:4, 56:96D
 34ٱلْغَفُورُ الغفور al-Ghafūr/

al-Ghafūr

al-Ghafur

[al-Ghafour, al-Ghafoor]

The Much-Forgiving2:173, 8:69, 16:110, 41:32D
 35ٱلْشَّكُورُ \ الشّكور

الشكور

ash-Shakūr/

ash-Shakūr

Ash-Shakur

[Ash-Shakour, Ash-Shakoor]

The Grateful35:30, 35:34, 42:23, 64:17A
 36ٱلْعَلِىُّ *\ ٱلْعَلِيُّ

[* = classical written form]

\* العلىّ

\ العليّ

\* العلى

العلي

[* = classical written form]

al-alī */

al-aliyy

[* = classical written form]

al-ʿAliThe Sublime4:34, 31:30, 42:4, 42:51 34:23D
 37ٱلْكَبِيرُ الكبير al-Kabiyr/

al-Kabīr

al-Kabir

[al-Kabeer]

The Great13:9, 22:62, 13:30, 34:23D
 38ٱلْحَفِيظُ الحفيظ al-Ḥafiyẓ/

al-Ḥafīẓ

al-Hafiz

[al-Hafeez]

The Preserver11:57, 34:21, 42:6A
 39ٱلْمُقِيتُ المقيت al-Muqiyt/

al-Muqīt

al-Muqit

[al-Muqeet]

The Nourisher4:85I
 40ٱلْحَسِيبُ الحسيب al-Ḥasiyb/

al-Ḥasīb

al-Hasib

[al-Haseeb]

The Bringer of Judgment4:6, 4:86, 33:39I
 41ٱلْجَلِيلُ الجليل al-Jaliyl/

al-Jalīl

al-Jalil

[al-Jaleel]

The Majestic, The Exalted55:27, 7:143A, V
 42ٱلْكَرِيمُ الكريم al-Kariym/

al-Karīm

al-Karim

[al-Kareem]

The Bountiful, The Generous27:40, 82:6D
 43ٱلْرَّقِيبُ \ الرّقيب

الرقيب

ar-Raqiyb/

ar-Raqīb

Ar-Raqib

[Ar-Raqeeb]

The Watchful4:1, 5:117D
 44ٱلْمُجِيبُ المجيب al-Mujiyb/

al-Mujīb

al-Mujib

[al-Mujiyb]

The Responsive, The Answerer11:61A
 45\* ٱلْوَٰسِعُ

ٱلْوَاسِعُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الوٰسع

الواسع

[* = classical written form]

’al-Wāsi‘/

’al-Wāsi‘

al-Wasi‘/ al-Wasie

[al-Waasi‘/ al-Waasie]

The Vast, The All-Embracing, The Omnipresent, The Boundless2:268, 3:73, 5:54A
 46ٱلْحَكِيمُ الحكيم al-Ḥakiym/

al-Ḥakīm

al-Hakim

[al-Hakeem]

The Wise31:27, 46:2, 57:1, 66:2D
 47ٱلْوَدُودُ الودود al-Wadūd/

al-Wadūd

al-Wadud

[al-Wadoud/ al-Wadood]

The Affectionate11:90, 85:14D
 48ٱلْمَجِيدُ المجيد al-Majiyd/

al-Majīd

al-Majid

[al-Majeed]

The All-Glorious, The Majestic11:73A
 49ٱلْبَاعِثُ الباعث al-Bāʿith/

al-Bāʿith

al-Baʿith / al-Baʿeith

[al-Baaʿith/ al-Baaʿeith]

The Resurrector22:7V
 50ٱلْشَّهِيدُ \ الشّهيد

الشهيد

ash-Shahiyd/

ash-Shahīd

Ash-Shahid

[Ash-Shaheed]

The Witness4:166, 22:17, 41:53, 48:28A
 51ٱلْحَقُّ \ الحقّ

الحق

ʾal-Ḥaqq al-HaqqThe Truth, The Reality6:62, 22:6, 23:116, 24:25D
 52ٱلْوَكِيلُ الوكيل al-Wakiyl/

al-Wakīl

al-Wakil

[al-Wakeel]

The Trustee, The Dependable, The Advocate3:173, 4:171, 28:28, 73:9A
 53ٱلْقَوِيُّ \ القويّ

القوي

al-Qawiyyal-Qawi

[al-Qawee]

The Strong22:40, 22:74, 42:19, 57:25D
 54ٱلْمَتِينُ المتين al-Matiyn/

al-Matīn

al-Matin

[al-Mateen]

The Firm, The Steadfast51:58D
 55ٱلْوَلِيُّ \ الوليّ

الولي

al-Waliyyal-Wali

[al-Walee]

The Friend, Helper4:45, 7:196, 42:28, 45:19D
 56ٱلْحَمِيدُ الحميد al-Ḥamiyd/

al-Ḥamīd

al-Hamid

[al-Hameed]

The All Praiseworthy14:8, 31:12, 31:26, 41:42D
 57\* ٱلْمُحْصِىُ

ٱلْمُحْصِيُ

[* = classical written form]

\* المحصى

المحصي

[* = classical written form]

al-Muḥṣiy/

al-Muḥṣī

al-Muhsi

[al-Muhsee]

The Accounter, The Numberer of All72:28, 78:29V
 58ٱلْمُبْدِئُ المبدئ ’al-Mubdi’

[’al-Mubdiy]

al-Mubdiʾ

[al-Mubdie]

The Originator, The Producer, The Initiator10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13V
 59ٱلْمُعِيدُ المعيد al-Muʿiyd/

al-Muʿīd

al-Muʿid

[al-Muʿeid/ al-Muʿeyd]

The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13V
 60\* ٱلْمُحْىِ

\ ٱلْمُحْيِى

ٱلْمُحْيِي

[* = classical written form]

\* المحى

\ المحيى

المحيي

[* = classical written form]

al-Muḥ·yi */

al-Muḥ·yiy

[* = classical written form]

al-Muhyi

[al-Muhyee]

The Giver of Life7:158, 15:23, 30:50, 57:2V
 61ٱلْمُمِيتُ المميت al-Mumiyt/

al-Mumīt

al-Mumit

[al-Mumeet]

The Bringer of Death3:156, 7:158, 15:23, 57:2V
 62ٱلْحَىُّ \ الحىّ

الحى

al-Ḥayyal-HayyThe Living2:255, 3:2, 20:111, 25:58, 40:65D
 63ٱلْقَيُّومُ \ القيّوم

القيوم

al-Qayyūm/

al-Qayyūm

al-Qayyum

[al-Qayyoum/

al-Qayyoom]

The Subsisting, The Independent2:255, 3:2, 20:111D
 64\* ٱلْوَٰجِدُ

ٱلْوَاجِدُ

[* = classical written form]

\ الوٰجد

الواجد

al-Wājid/

al-Wājid

al-Wajid

[al-Waajid]

The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing38:44V
 65ٱلْمَاجِدُ الماجد al-Mājid/

al-Mājid

al-Majid

[al-Maajid]

The Illustrious, The Magnificent85:15, 11:73; al-Kafʿamī (1992:48)A
 66\* ٱلْوَٰحِدُ

ٱلْوَاحِدُ

[* = classical written form]

\ الوٰحد

الواحد

al-Wāḥid/

al-Wāḥid

al-Wahid

[al-Waahid]

The Unique, The Single13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4D
 67ٱلْأَحَد \ الأحد

الاحد

al-ِِِʿAḥadal-AhadThe One, The Indivisible112:1A
 68ٱلْصَّمَدُ \ الصّمد

الصمد

aṣ-ِِِṢamadAs-Samad

[As-Ssamad/ As-Swamad]

The Eternal, The Absolute, The Self-Sufficient112:2D
 69\* ٱلْقَـٰدِرُ

ٱلْقَادِرُ

[* = classical written form]

\ القـٰدر

القادر

al-Qādir/

al-Qādir

al-Qadir

[al-Qaadir]

The All-Powerful, He Who is able to do Everything6:65, 46:33, 75:40D
 70ٱلْمُقْتَدِرُ المقتدر al-Muqtadiral-MuqtadirThe Determiner, The Dominant18:45, 54:42, 6:65A
 71ٱلْمُقَدِّمُ \ المقدّم

المقدم

al-Muqaddimal-MuqaddimThe Expediter, He Who Brings Forward16:61V
 72ٱلْمُؤَخِّرُ \ المؤخّر

المؤخر

al-Muʿakh·khiral-Muʾakhkhir

[al-Moʾakhkhir]

The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away71:4V
 73ٱلأَوَّلُ \ الأوّل

الاول

al-ʿAwwalal-AwwalThe First, The Beginning-less57:3D
 74ٱلْأَخِرُ *\ ٱلْآخِرُ

[* = classical written form]

\الأخر*\ الآخر

الاخر

[* = classical written form]

al-ʿAkhir */

al-ʿĀkhir [variant]

[* = classical written form]

al-Akhir */

al-Aakhir

[* = classical written form]

The Last, The Endless57:3D
 75ٱلْظَّـٰهِرُ *\ ٱلْظَّاهِرُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الظـٰهر

الظاهر

[* = classical written form]

aẓ-Ẓāhir/

aẓ-Ẓāhir

Az-Zahir/ Az-ZZahir/ Az-Zwahir

[Az-Zaahir/

Az-Zzaahir/

Az-Zwaahir]

The Manifest, The Evident, The Outer57:3D
 76ٱلْبَاطِنُ الباطن al-Bāṭin/

al-Bāṭin

al-Batin/ al-Battin/ al-Batwin

[al-Baatin/ al-Baattin/ al-Baatwin]

The Hidden, The Unmanifest, The Inner57:3D
 77\* ٱلْوَالِى

ٱلْوَالِي

[* = classical written form]

\* الوالى

الوالي

[* = classical written form]

al-Wāliy/

al-Wālī

al-Wali

[al-Waali]

The Patron, The Protecting Friend, The Friendly Lord13:11I
 78\* ٱلْمُتَعَالِى

ٱلْمُتَعَالِي

[* = classical written form]

\* المتعالى

المتعالي

[* = classical written form]

al-Mutaʿāliy/

al-Mutaʿālī

al-Mutaʿali

[al-Muta'aali]

The Supremely Exalted, The Most High13:9D
 79ٱلْبَرُّ \ البرّ

البر

al-Barral-BarrThe Good, The Beneficent52:28D
 80ٱلْتَّوَّابُ \ التّوّاب

التواب

at-Tawwāb/

at-Tawwāb

At-Tawwab

[At-Tawwaab]

The Ever-Returning, Ever-Relenting2:128, 4:64, 49:12, 110:3D
 81ٱلْمُنْتَقِمُ المنتقم al-Muntaqimal-MuntaqimThe Avenger32:22, 43:41, 44:16P
 82ٱلْعَفُوُّ \ العفوّ

العفو

al-ʿAfuww/

al-ʿAfūw

al-ʿAfu

[al-ʿAfou]

The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver4:43, 4:99, 4:149, 22:60, 58:2V, I
 83\* ٱلْرَّءُوفُ

ٱلْرَّؤُفُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الرّءوف

\ الرّؤف

\* الرءوف

الرؤف

[* = classical written form]

ar-Raʿwūf/

ar-Raʿūf

Ar-Rauf

[Ar-Raʿouf/ Ar-Rawʿouf]

The Kind, The Pitying9:117, 57:9, 59:10I
 84\* مَـٰلِكُ ٱلْمُلْكُ

مَالِكُ ٱلْمُلْكُ

[* = classical written form]

\* مـٰلك الملك

\ مالك الملك

\* مـٰلك الملك

مالك الملك

[* = classical written form]

Māliku ʼl-Mulk/

Māliku ʼl-Mulk

Malik ul-Mulk

[Maalik ul-Mulk]

The Owner of all Sovereignty3:26D
 85\* ذُو ٱلْجَلَـٰلِ وَٱلْإِكْرَامُ

ذُو ٱلْجَلَالِ وَٱلْإِكْرَامُ

[* = classical written form]

\* ذو الجلـٰل ولإكرام

ذو الجلال ولإكرام

[* = classical written form]

Ḏuʼl-Jalāli waʼl-ʼIkrām, Dhuʼl-Jalāli waʼl-ʼIkrām/

Ḏuʼl-Jalāli waʼl-ʼIkrām, Dhuʼl-Jalāli waʼl-ʼIkrām/

Zul-Jalali wal-Ikram/ Dzhul-Jalali wal-Ikram
[Zul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam/ Dzhul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam]
The Owner, Lord of Majesty and Honour55:27, 55:78D
 86ٱلْمُقْسِطُ المقسط al-Muqsiṭal-Muqsit

[al-Muqsitt]

The Equitable, The Requiter3:18; al-Kafʿamī (1992:58f)O
 87ٱلْجَامِعُ الجامع al-Jāmiʿ/

al-Jāmi

al-Jamiʿ/ al-Jamie

[al-Jaamiʿ/ al-Jaamie]

The Gatherer, The Unifier3:9I
 88\* ٱلْغَنىُّ

ٱلْغَنيُّ

[* = classical written form]

\* ّالغنى

\ الغنيّ

\* الغنى

الغني

[* = classical written form]

al-Ghāniyy/

al-Ghānī

al-Ghani

[al-Ghaani]

The Rich, The Independent39:7, 47:38, 57:24I, A, D
 89\* ٱلْمُغْنِىُّ

ٱلْمُغْنِيُّ

[* = classical written form]

\* المغنىّ

\ المغنيّ

\* المغنى

المغني

[* = classical written form]

al-Mugh·niyy/

al-Mugh·nī

al-MughniThe Enricher, The Emancipator9:28V
 90ٱلْمَانِعُ المانع al-Māniʿ/

al-Mānīʿ

al-Maniʿ/ al-Manie

[al-Maaniʿ/ al-Maanie]

The Preventer, The Withholder, The Shielder, The DefenderSee al-Kafʿamī (1992:61)
 91ٱلْضَّارُ \ الضّار

الضار

aḍ-Ḍārr/

aḍ-Ḍārr

Adh-Dharr

[Adh-Dhaarr]

The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor6:17; al-Kafʿamī (1992:58)
 92ٱلْنَّافِعُ \ النّافع

النافع

an-Nāfiʿ/

an-Nāfīʿ

An-Nafi‘/ An-Nafie

[An-Naafiʿ/ al-Naafie]

The Propitious, The Benefactor, The Source of Good30:37
 93ٱلْنُّورُ \ النّور

النور

an-Nūr/

an-Nūr

An-Nur

[An-Nour]

The Light24:35I
 94\* ٱلْهَادِى

ٱلْهَادِي

[* = classical written form]

\* الهادى

الهادي

[* = classical written form]

al-Hādiy/

al-Hādī

al-Hadi

[al-Haadi]

The Guide, The Way22:54I
 95ٱلْبَدِيعُ البديع al-Badiyʿ/

al-Badīʿ

al-Badiʿ[al-Badiyʿ/ al-Badiye] The Originator, The Incomparable, The Unattainable, The Beautiful2:117, 6:101I
 96\* ٱلْبَاقِى

ٱلْبَاقِي

[* = classical written form]

\* الباقى

الباقي

[* = classical written form]

al-Bāqiy/

al-Bāqī

al-Baqi

[al-Baaqi]

The Immutable, The Infinite, The Everlasting55:27; al-Kafʿamī (1992:64)V
 97\* ٱلْوَٰرِثُ

ٱلْوَارِثُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الوٰرث

الوارث

[* = classical written form]

al-Wārith/

al-Wārith

al-Warith

[al-Waarith]

The Heir, The Inheritor of All15:23, 57:10P
 98ٱلْرَّشِيدُ \ الرّشيد

الرشيد

ar-Rashiyd/

ar-Rashīd

Ar-Rashid

[Ar-Rasheed]

The Guide to the Right Path2:256, 72:10
 99ٱلْصَّبُورُ \ الصّبور

الصبور

aṣ-Ṣabūr/

aṣ-Ṣabūr

As-Sabur/ As-Ssabur/ As-Swabur

[As-Sabour/ As-Ssabour/ As-Swabour]

The Timeless, The Patient2:153, 3:200, 103:3I
[* = classical calligraphic short written form]
a.      b D = Direct; V = from Verb; A = from Adjective or Adjectival Phrase; I = from Indefinite noun;

P = from Plural noun; O = Other

Islamic mysticism

There is a tradition in Sufism to the effect the 99 names of God point to a mystical "Most Supreme and Superior Name" (ismu l-ʾAʿẓam (ٱلْإِسْمُ ٱلْأَعْظَم).[8] This "Greatest Name of God" is said to be "the one which if He is called (prayed to) by it, He will answer."[9]

According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Masud, some of the names of God have also been hidden from mankind.[10] More than 1000 names of God are listed in the Jawshan Kabir (جَوْشَنُ ٱلْكَبِير - literally "the Great Cuirass") invocations.

Theophoric given names

The Arabic names of God are used to form theophoric given names commonly used in Muslim cultures throughout the world, including non-Arabic speaking societies.

While the names of God themselves are reserved to God and their use as a person's given name is considered religiously inappropriate, theophoric names can however be formed by either removing the definite article al (ال), or prefixing the term ˁabdu (عَبْدُ - "servant of") to the name. For example, a person may not be named Al-Karīm (ٱلْكَرِيمُ - "the Generous") or Al-Mālik (ٱلْمَـٰلِك - "the King"), but may be named simply Karīm (كَرِيمُ - "Generous") or Mālik (مَـٰلِك - "King"), as well as ˤAbd ul-Karīm (عَبْدُ ٱلْكَرِيمُ - "servant of the Generous") or ˤAbd ul-Mālik (عَبْدُ ٱلْمَـٰلِك - "servant of the King").[11]

This distinction is established out of respect for the sanctity of Divine names, which denote attributes (of love, kindness, mercy, compassion, justice, power, etc.) that are believed to be possessed in a full and absolute sense only by God, while human beings, being limited creatures, are viewed by Muslims as being endowed with the Divine attributes only in a limited and relative capacity. The prefixing of the definite article would indicate that the bearer possesses the corresponding attribute in an exclusive sense, a trait reserved to God.

Quranic verse 3:26 is cited as evidence against the validity of using Divine names for persons, with the example of Mālik ul-Mulk (مَـٰلِكُ ٱلْمُلْكُ - "Lord of Power" or "Owner of all Sovereignty"):

"Say: "O God! Lord of Power, You give power to whom You please, and You strip off power from whom You please. You endue with honour whom You please, and You bring low whom You please. In Your hand is all Good." Verily, over all things You have power." [Qur'an 3:26]

The two parts of the name starting with ˁabdu may be written separately (as in the previous example) or combined as one in the transliterated form; in such a case, the vowel transcribed after ˁabdu is often written as u when the two words are transcribed as one: e.g., Abdur-Rahman, Abdul-Aziz, Abdul-Jabbar, or even Abdullah (عَبْدُ ٱللّٰه - "Servant of God"). (This has to do with Arabic case vowels, the final u vowel showing the normal "quote" nominative/vocative case form.)

Examples of Muslim theophoric names include:

  • Rahmān, such as Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais (عَبْدُ ٱلْرَّحْمَان ٱلْسُّدَيْس) - Imam of the Grand Mosque of Makkah, KSA
  • Salām, such as Salam Fayyad (سَلَام فَيَّاض) - Palestinian politician
  • Jabbār, such as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (كَرِيم عَبْدُ ٱلْجَبَّار) - American basketball player
  • Hakīm, such as Sherman "Abdul Hakim" Jackson (عَبْدُ ٱلْحَكِيم - ˁabdu ʼl-Ḥakiym) - American Islamic Studies scholar
  • Ra'ūf, such as Ra'ouf Mus'ad (رَؤُوف مُسَعد) - Egyptian-Sudanese novelist
  • Mālik, such as Mālik bin ʼAnas (مَـٰلِك بِن أَنَس) - classical Sunni Muslim scholars after whom the Maliki school of fiqh was named
  • Abdul Muqtedar as in Muhammad Abdul Muqtedar Khan (مُحَمَّد عَبْدُ ٱلمُقْتَدِر خَان) - Indian-American academic

Use in Bahá'í

Bahá'í sources state that the 100th name was revealed as "Bahá’" (Arabic: بهاء "glory, splendor"), which appears in the words Bahá'u'lláh and Bahá'í. They also believe that it is the greatest name of God.[12][13] The Báb wrote a noted pentagram-shaped tablet with 360 morphological derivation of the word "Bahá'" used in it.[12]

According to Bahá'í scholar ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávari, Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī adopted the Persian poetic pen name "Bahāʾ" after being inspired by the words of the fifth Twelver Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir, and the sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who stated that the greatest name of God was included in either the Duʿāʾu l-Bahāʾ, a dawn prayer for Ramadan, or the ʾAʿmal ʿam Dawūd.[12] In the first verse of the duʿāʾu l-Bahāʾ, the name "Bahāʾ" appears four times.[14]

See also

References

  1. "Hadith - Book of Invocations - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2018-06-15.
  2. "Hadith - Book of Oneness, Uniqueness of Allah (Tawheed) - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2018-06-15.
  3. See the Surah "al-A'raf" (7:180 ), "Al-Isra" (17:110 ), "Ta-Ha" (20:8 ) and "al-Hashr" (59:24 ).
  4. http://quran.com/59/22-24 (59:2224)
  5. 1 2 Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-313-36025-1.
  6. Suhaib Hassan, Introduction to the Science of Hadith Classification (ahya), cited after Richard Shelquist (wahiduddin.net) Archived 2012-05-30 at WebCite
  7. "al-Quran (القرآن) :: Online Quran Project :: Translation and Tafsir". Archived from the original on 2009-01-29.
  8. Schimmel, Annemarie (1993). The Mystery of Numbers. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. p. 271. ISBN 0-19-508919-7.
  9. Momen, Moojan (2000). Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. George Ronald. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-85398-446-7. The endnote states: "Ibn Májah, Sunan, 34. (Kitáb ad-Du'á), ch. 9, no. 3856, vol. 2, p. 1267. See also: Ad-Dárimí, Sunan, 23 (Fada'il al-Qur'án), ch. 15, no. 3296, vol. 2, pp. 324-5. Similar statements in Shi'i tradition include: Majlisí, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 26. p. 7."
  10. Taymiyyah, ibn, Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad. The Goodly Word: al-Kalim al-Ṭayyib. Islamic Texts Society. p. 72. ISBN 1-903682-15-0.
  11. Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. 1 2 3 Lambden, Stephen (1993). "The Word Bahá': Quintessence of the Greatest Name". Bahá'í Studies Review. 3 (1). Archived from the original on 2010-09-19.
  13. Smith, Peter (2000). "greatest name". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 167–8. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  14. Khadem, Dhikru'llah (March 1976). "Bahá'u'lláh and His Most Holy Shrine". Bahá'í News (540): 4–5. Archived from the original on 2017-06-20.
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