Namaste (//, Devanagari: नमस्ते,
Hindi: [nəməsteː] (
Etymology, meaning and origins
Namaste (Namah + te, Devanagari: नम:+ ते = नमस्ते) is derived from Sanskrit and is a combination of the word namah and the second person dative pronoun in its enclitic form, te. The word namaḥ takes the Sandhi form namas before the sound t.
Namaḥ means 'bow', 'obeisance', 'reverential salutation' or 'adoration' and te means 'to you' (singular dative case of 'tvam'). Therefore, Namaste literally means "bowing to you". In Hinduism, it also has a spiritual import reflecting the belief that "the divine and self (atman, soul) is same in you and me", and connotes "I bow to the divine in you". In the U.S., this underlying Hindu belief is often combined with the word meanings to produce the translation, "the divine in me, bows to the divine in you". See also, for example, blog and Instagram posts with this usage.
A less common variant is used in the case of three or more people being addressed namely Namo vaḥ which is a combination of namaḥ and the enclitic 2nd person plural pronoun vaḥ. The word namaḥ takes the Sandhi form namo before the sound v.
An even less common variant is used in the case of two people being addressed, namely, Namo vām, which is a combination of namaḥ and the enclitic 2nd person dual pronoun vām.
The gesture is widely used throughout India, Nepal, Bangladesh, parts of Asia and beyond where people of South and Southeast Asian origins have migrated. Namaste or namaskar is used as a respectful form of greeting, acknowledging and welcoming a relative, guest or stranger. In some contexts, namaste is used by one person to express gratitude for assistance offered or given, and to thank the other person for his or her generous kindness.
Namaskar is also part of the 16 upacharas used inside temples or any place of formal Puja (worship). Namaste in the context of deity worship, scholars conclude, has the same function as in greeting a guest or anyone else. It expresses politeness, courtesy, honor, and hospitality from one person to the other. It is used in goodbyes as well. This is sometimes expressed, in ancient Hindu scriptures such as Taittiriya Upanishad, as Atithi Devobhava (literally, may the guest be god).
Namaste is one of the six forms of pranama, and in parts of India these terms are used synonymously.
In the Hindi and Nepalese speaking populations of South Asia, Namaste (Hindi: [nəməsteː] (
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