Monoethnicity is the existence of a single ethnic group in a given region or country. It is the opposite of polyethnicity.

China is the largest monoethnic country; 91.6% of the population are Han Chinese. An example of a largely monoethnic country is Japan. It is a common belief in Japan that the entire country is monoethnic, but a few ethnic minorities live in Japan (e.g. Koreans, Ainus and Ryukyuans).[1] They represent around 1% of the whole population.[2]

South Koreans regard themselves as a monoethnic society, although there are small ethnic minorities that exist in South Korea, where they account for around 1% of the South Korean population. These include around 650,000 Chinese immigrants.[3]

Most Sub-Saharan African countries have what would be considered a mono-racial society, but it's common to find dozens of ethnic groups within the same country.

The Yugoslav Wars are noted as having made territories "de facto and de jure monoethnic nation-states".[4]

Monoethnic countries

Country Population Dominant group % Ref
 Lesotho 2,203,821 Sothos 99.7% [5]
 Japan[6] 126,702,133 Japanese 98.5% [7]
 Armenia[8] 3,018,854 Armenians 98.1% [9]
 Albania 2,876,591 Albanians 98% [10]
 Hungary 9,937,628 Hungarians 98% [11]
 Bangladesh 162,951,560[12] Bengalis 98% [13]
 Mongolia 3,081,677 Mongols 97% [14]
 Thailand 68,863,514 Thai 97% [15]
 Poland[16] 38,523,261 Poles 96.9% [17]
 South Korea 51,446,201 Koreans 96% [18]
 Portugal 10,839,514 Portuguese 95.9% [19]
 Czech Republic 10,610,947 Czechs >95% [20]
 Iceland 332,529 Icelanders 94% [21]
 Greece 11,183,716 Greeks 93% [22]

See also


  1. Osamu Arakaki (2008). Refugee Law and Practice in Japan. Ashgate Publishing. p. 36. ISBN 0754670090.
  2. (in Japanese) 平成24年末現在における外国人登録者統計について].
  3. "Trying to teach South Korea about discrimination", The Los Angeles Times, 2009-02-24.
  4. Gary Dempsey (2002). Exiting the Balkan Thicket. Cato Institute. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-1-930865-17-4.
  5. "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Retrieved 2017-10-12.
  6. Haarmann, Harald (1986). Language in Ethnicity: A View of Basic Ecological Relations. Walter de Gruyter. p. 209. ISBN 9783110862805. Japan is widely believed to be a monolingual country with a monoethnic population...
    • Henders, Susan J. (2006). Democratization and Identity: Regimes and Ethnicity in East and Southeast Asia. Lexington Books. p. 117. ISBN 9780739107676. Many Japanese take it for granted that they live in a monoethnic society...
    • Fackler, Martin (29 May 2015). "Biracial Beauty Queen Challenges Japan's Self-Image". The New York Times. ...a country that still regards itself as mono-ethnic.
  7. "Japan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  8. Abrahamian, Levon (2006). Armenian identity in a changing world. Mazda Publishers. p. 19. ISBN 9781568591858. ...the practically monoethnic Armenian Republic...
    • Department of International Relations Association (1997). Gotchev, Atanas, ed. The New European security architecture and issues of early warning and conflict prevention. Albatros. p. 110. Thus Armenia became the most mono-ethnic country in the CIS and the Middle East.
    • Cornell, Svante (2005). Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus. Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 9781135796693. Whereas Armenia is now basically a mono- ethnic state...
  9. "2011թ. հոկտեմբերի 12-21-ը Հայաստանի Հանրապետությունում անցկացված մարդահամարի արդյունքները [Results of the 2011 October 12-21 census in the Republic of Armenia]" (PDF). (in Armenian). National Statistical Service of Republic of Armenia. p. 144. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 March 2016.
  10. "Minority Rights and the Republic of Albania: Missing the Implementation". p. 11. From the ethnic point of view, according to the Albanian government’s reports, 98 percent of the population is Albanian and only two percent consist of Greek, Macedonian, Montenegrin recognized as national Minorities and Roma, Aromaninan recognized as ethnic - linguistic Minorities by the Albanian state.
  11. "Hungarian census 2011 - final data and methodology" (PDF). Hungarian Central Statistical Office.
  14. Skutsch, Carl (2013-11-07). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. Routledge. ISBN 9781135193881.
  15. "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Retrieved 2017-10-12.
  16. Fishman, Joshua A. (1993). The Earliest Stage of Language Planning: The "first Congress" Phenomenon. Walter de Gruyter. p. 219. ISBN 9783110135305. After World War II Poland has become a primarily monoethnic...
  17. "Poland". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  18. "Ethnic Minorities And Immigrants In South Korea". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
  19. "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Retrieved 2017-11-07.
  20. O'Regan, David (2004-01-27). International Auditing: Practical Resource Guide. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471476955.
  21. "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Retrieved 2017-10-12.
  22. "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Retrieved 2017-10-12.
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