Mid front rounded vowel

Mid front rounded vowel
ø̞
œ̝
IPA number 310 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ø̞
Unicode (hex) U+00F8U+031E
X-SAMPA 2_o or 9_r
Braille

The mid front rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a mid front-central rounded vowel.[1]

Although there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the "exact" mid front rounded vowel between close-mid [ø] and open-mid [œ], ø is generally used. If precision is desired, diacritics can be used, such as ø̞ or œ̝.

Mid front compressed vowel

The mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ø̞ or œ̝. This article uses the first symbol for simplicity. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter β̞ as e̞͡β̞ / ɛ̝͡β̞ (simultaneous [e̞] / [ɛ̝] and labial compression) or e̞ᵝ / ɛ̝ᵝ ([e̞] / [ɛ̝] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic   ͍ may also be used with a rounded vowel letters ø͍˕ / œ͍˔ as an ad hoc symbol, though technically 'spread' means unrounded.

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence

Note: Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
BavarianAmstetten dialect[2]Contrasts close-mid /ø/, true-mid /ø̞/ and open-mid /œ/ front rounded vowels.[2]
CatalanNorthern[3]fulles[ˈfø̞jəs]'leaves'Found in Occitan and French loanwords and interferences. See Catalan phonology
DanishStandard[4]høne[ˈhœ̝ːnə]'hen'Also described as close-mid [øː];[5] typically transcribed in IPA with œː See Danish phonology
DutchOrsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[6]mùl[mœ̝ɫ]'well'Typically transcribed in IPA with œ.
EnglishCockney[7]bird[bœ̝ːd]'bird'Occasional realization of /ɜː/; can be unrounded [ɛ̝̈ː] or, more often, unrounded central [ɜ̝ː] instead.[7] May be transcribed in IPA with ɜː or œː.
General New Zealand[8][9]May be open-mid [œː] instead. In broader varieties, it is close-mid or higher.[8][9][10] Typically transcribed in IPA with ɵː. See New Zealand English phonology
South African[11]Used in General and Broad accents; may be close-mid [øː] instead. In the Cultivated variety, it is realized as mid central unrounded [ɜ̝ː].[11] See South African English phonology
Southern Welsh[12]Also described as open-mid [œː][13] and close-mid [øː].[14][15]
West Midlands[16]
Finnish[17][18]rölli[ˈrø̞lːi]'Common bent'See Finnish phonology
GermanStandard[19]schön [ʃø̞ːn] 'beautiful'Also described as close-mid [øː].[20][21] See Standard German phonology
GreekTyrnavos[22]κοριός / koreos[ko̞ˈɾø̞s]'bedbug'Corresponds to /jo/ and /eo/ in Standard Modern Greek.[22]
Vevendos[22]
Hungarian[23]öl[ø̞l]'kill'See Hungarian phonology
Icelandic[24]öld[œ̝l̪t̪]'age'Typically transcribed in IPA with œ. The long allophone is often diphthongized to [øœ].[25] See Icelandic phonology
Korean[26] soe[sø̞ː]'iron'Typically transcribed in IPA with ø. Diphthongized to [we] in modern standard Korean. See Korean phonology
LimburgishMaastrichtian[27]bös[bœ̝s]'bus'Typically transcribed in IPA with œ.[27]
Romanian[28]bleu[blø̞]'light blue'Found only in loanwords.[28] See Romanian phonology
Turkish[29][30]göz[ɟø̞z̪]'eye'May be transcribed in IPA with œ. See Turkish phonology
Võro

Mid front protruded vowel

Mid front protruded vowel
ø̫˕
œ̫˔
ø̞ʷ
œ̝ʷ
e̞ʷ
ɛ̝ʷ

Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian ones, have protruded front vowels. One of these, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, ø̞ʷ (a mid front rounded vowel modified by endolabialization) will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded mid front vowels.

Acoustically, this sound is "between" the more typical compressed mid front vowel [ø̞] and the unrounded mid front vowel [].

Features

  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
NorwegianUrban East[31]nøtt[nø̞ʷtː]'nut'Ranges from mid front [ø̞ʷ] to open-mid front [œ̫].[31] Also described as open-mid front [œ̫][32][33] and mid central [ə].[34] See Norwegian phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[35][36]nött [n̪œ̝ʷt̪ː] 'worn' (past part. s.)Typically transcribed in IPA with œ. See Swedish phonology

Notes

References

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