Mid back rounded vowel

Mid back rounded vowel
ɔ̝
IPA number 307 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal) o̞
Unicode (hex) U+006FU+031E
Braille
Listen
source · help

The mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. While there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid back rounded vowel between close-mid [o] and open-mid [ɔ], it is normally written o. If precision is desired, diacritics may be used, such as or ɔ̝, the former being more common. A non-IPA letter is also found.

Just because a language has only one non-close non-open back vowel, it still may not be a true-mid vowel. There is a language in Sulawesi, Indonesia, with a close-mid [o], Tukang Besi. Another language in Indonesia, in the Maluku Islands, has an open-mid [ɔ], Taba. In both languages, there is no contrast with another mid (true-mid or close-mid) vowel.

Kensiu, in Malaysia and Thailand, is highly unusual in that it contrasts true-mid vowels with close-mid and open-mid vowels without any difference in other parameters, such as backness or roundedness.

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AfrikaansStandard[1]bok[bɔ̝k]'goat'Typically transcribed in IPA with ɔ. The height varies between mid [ɔ̝] and close-mid [o].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
ArabicHejazi[2]لـون[lo̞ːn]'color'See Hejazi Arabic phonology
BavarianAmstetten dialect[3]Contrasts close-mid /o/, true-mid /o̞/ and open-mid /ɔ/ back rounded vowels.[3]
ChineseMandarin[4] /  [wo̞˨˩˦˥] 'I' See Standard Chinese phonology
Shanghainese[5][kö̞¹]'tall'Near-back. Realization of /ɔ/ in open syllables and /ʊ/ in closed syllables.[5]
Czech[6][7]oko[ˈo̞ko̞]'eye'In Bohemian Czech, the backness varies between back and near-back, whereas the height varies between mid [o̞] and close-mid [o].[6] See Czech phonology
DanishStandard[8][9]måle[ˈmɔ̝̈ːlə]'measure'Near-back;[8][9] typically transcribed in IPA with ɔː. See Danish phonology
DutchAmsterdam[10]och[ɔ̝̈χ]'alas'Near-back;[10] corresponds to open-mid [ɔˁ] in standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[11]mot[mɔ̝t]'well'Typically transcribed in IPA with ɔ.
EnglishCultivated South African[12]thought[θɔ̝ːt]'thought'Close-mid [] for other speakers. See South African English phonology
Maori[13]Closer [] in other New Zealand accents.[13]
Scouse[14]Typically transcribed in IPA with ɔː.
Some Cardiff speakers[15]Other speakers use a more open, advanced and unrounded vowel [ʌ̈ː].[15]
Received Pronunciation[16]May be as open as [ɔː] for older speakers, and is most often transcribed as such. See English phonology
Estuary[17]coat[kʰo̞ːʔ]'coat'Rare; commonly a diphthong.[17] It corresponds to /əʊ/ in other British dialects. See English phonology
Yorkshire[18][kʰo̞t]Corresponds to /əʊ/ in other British dialects. See English phonology
Finnish[19][20]kello[ˈke̞llo̞]'clock'See Finnish phonology
FrenchParisian[21]pont[pɔ̝̃]'bridge'Nasalized; typically transcribed in IPA with ɔ̃. See French phonology
GermanStandard[22]Fond[fõ̞ː]'background'Nasalized; also described as open-mid [ɔ̃ː].[23][24] Transcribed in IPA with either õː or ɔ̃ː. Present only in loanwords. See Standard German phonology
Bernese dialect[25]Òve[ˈɔ̝v̥ə]'oven'Typically transcribed in IPA with ɔ. See Bernese German phonology
GreekModern Standard[26][27]πως / pos[po̞s̠]'how'See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew[28]שלום[ʃäˈlo̞m]'peace'Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script. See Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Ibibio[29][dó̞]'there'
Icelandic[30]loft[ˈlɔ̝ft]'air'Typically transcribed in IPA with ɔ. The long allophone is often diphthongized to [oɔ].[31] See Icelandic phonology
InuitWest Greenlandic[32]Allophone of /u/ before and especially between uvulars.[32] See Inuit phonology
ItalianStandard[33]forense[fo̞ˈrɛnse]'forensic'Common realization of the unstressed /o/.[33] See Italian phonology
Northern accents[34]Local realization of /ɔ/.[34] See Italian phonology
Japanese[35]/ko[ko̞]'child'See Japanese phonology
Korean[36]보리 / bori[po̞ˈɾi]'barley'See Korean phonology
LimburgishHasselt dialect[37]mok[mɔ̝k]'mug'Typically transcribed IPA with ɔ.[37]
NorwegianUrban East[38][39]lov[lɔ̝ːʋ]'law'May be diphthongized to [ɔ̝ə̯]. See Norwegian phonology
Romanian[40]acolo[äˈko̞lo̞]'there'See Romanian phonology
Russian[41]сухой [s̪ʊˈxo̞j] 'dry'Some speakers realize it as open-mid [ɔ].[41] See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[42]čvȏr / чво̑р[t͡ʃʋô̞ːr]'knot'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Shipibo[43]koni[ˈkö̞ni̞]'eel'Near-back.[43]
SlovakStandard[44][45]ohúriť[ˈɔ̝ɦu̞ːri̞c̟]'to stun'See Slovak phonology
Slovene[46]oglas[o̞ˈɡlá̠s̪]'advertisement'Unstressed vowel,[46] as well as an allophone of /o/ before /ʋ/ when a vowel does not follow within the same word.[47] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[48]todo[ˈt̪o̞ð̞o̞]'all'See Spanish phonology
Tera[49]zo[zo̞ː]'rope'
Turkish[50][51]kol[kʰo̞ɫ]'arm'See Turkish phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[52]do[d̪o̞]'corn tassel'

Notes

  1. 1 2 Wissing (2016), section "The rounded mid-high back vowel /ɔ/".
  2. Abdoh (2010:84)
  3. 1 2 Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. Lee & Zee (2003), p. 110.
  5. 1 2 Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  6. 1 2 Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  7. Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), pp. 228–230.
  8. 1 2 Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  9. 1 2 Basbøll (2005), p. 47.
  10. 1 2 Collins & Mees (2003), p. 132.
  11. Peters (2010), p. 241.
  12. Lass (2002), p. 116.
  13. 1 2 Warren & Bauer (2004), p. 617.
  14. Watson (2007), p. 357.
  15. 1 2 Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  16. Roach (2004), p. 242.
  17. 1 2 Przedlacka (2001), p. 44.
  18. Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 180.
  19. Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 60, 66.
  20. Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 21.
  21. Collins & Mees (2013), p. 226.
  22. Mangold (2005), p. 37.
  23. Hall (2003), pp. 106–107.
  24. Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  25. Marti (1985), p. 27.
  26. Arvaniti (2007), p. 28.
  27. Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  28. Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  29. Urua (2004), p. 106.
  30. Brodersen (2011).
  31. Árnason (2011), pp. 57–60.
  32. 1 2 Fortescue (1990), p. 317.
  33. 1 2 Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), pp. 137–138.
  34. 1 2 Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), p. 137.
  35. Okada (1991), p. 94.
  36. Lee (1999), p. 121.
  37. 1 2 Peters (2006), p. 119.
  38. Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 17.
  39. Popperwell (2010), pp. 16, 25.
  40. Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  41. 1 2 Jones & Ward (1969), p. 56.
  42. Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  43. 1 2 Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001), p. 282.
  44. Pavlík (2004), pp. 94–95.
  45. Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 375.
  46. 1 2 Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. "On the vowel system in present-day Slovene" (PDF).
  47. Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999), p. 138.
  48. Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 256.
  49. Tench (2007), p. 230.
  50. Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
  51. Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 11.
  52. Merrill (2008), p. 109.

References

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.