Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region. The idea of a Mediterranean cuisine originates with the cookery writer Elizabeth David's book, A Book of Mediterranean Food (1950), though she wrote mainly about French cuisine. She and other writers including the Tunisian historian Mohamed Yassine Essid define the three core elements of the cuisine as the olive, wheat, and the grape, yielding olive oil, bread and pasta, and wine; other writers emphasize the diversity of the region's foods and deny that it is a useful concept. The geographical area covered broadly follows the distribution of the olive tree, as noted by David and Essid.
The region spans a wide variety of cultures with distinct cuisines, in particular (going anticlockwise around the region) the Maghrebi, Egyptian, Levantine, Ottoman (Turkish), Greek, Italian, Provençal (French), and Spanish. However, the historical connections of the region, as well as the impact of the Mediterranean Sea on the region's climate and economy, mean that these cuisines share dishes beyond the core trio of oil, bread, and wine, such as roast lamb or mutton, meat stews with vegetables and tomato (for example, Spanish andrajos and Italian ciambotta), and the salted cured fish roe, bottarga, found across the region. Spirits based on anise are drunk in many countries around the Mediterranean.
The cooking of the area is not to be confused with the Mediterranean diet, made popular because of the apparent health benefits of a diet rich in olive oil, wheat and other grains, fruits, vegetables, and a certain amount of seafood, but low in meat and dairy products. Mediterranean cuisine encompasses the ways that these and other ingredients, including meat, are dealt with in the kitchen, whether they are health-giving or not.
By city and country
from Gibraltar to the Bosphorus, down the Rhone Valley, through the great seaports of Marseilles, Barcelona, and Genoa, across to Tunis and Alexandria, embracing all the Mediterranean islands, Corsica, Sicily, Sardinia, Crete, the Cyclades, Cyprus (where the Byzantine influence begins to be felt), to the mainland of Greece and the much disputed territories of Syria, the Lebanon, Constantinople, and Smyrna.
By a key culinary plant
David defines the region as coextensive with the range of the olive tree: "those blessed lands of sun and sea and olive trees". The olive's natural distribution is limited by frost and by availability of water. It is therefore constrained to a more or less narrow zone around the Mediterranean Sea, except in the Maghreb and in Spain, where it is distributed more widely, and on the islands of the Mediterranean, where it is widespread.
Mediterranean cuisine is defined by the presence of fundamental elements which are said to play a more important role than others, reflecting a community of beliefs and practices which transcend religions, languages and even societies. The olive tree, the emblematic tree on more than one account, traces the bounds of a frontier of landscapes and lives on either side of which the Mediterranean begins or ends. Above Montelimar, nicknamed "Gates of Provence", is the limit of the olive.
Essid, as already mentioned, identifies the "trinity" of basic ingredients of traditional Mediterranean cuisine as the olive, wheat, and the grape, yielding oil, bread, and wine respectively. The archaeologist Colin Renfrew calls this the "Mediterranean triad".
The olive appears to come from the region of Persia and Mesopotamia, at least 6,000 years ago. It spread from there to nearby areas, and has been cultivated since the early Bronze Age (up to 3,150 BC) in southern Turkey, the Levant, and Crete. The ten countries with the largest harvests (in 2011) are all near the Mediterranean (Portugal being the tenth largest): together, they produce 95% of the world's olives.
The olive yields bitter fruits, made edible by curing and fermentation, and olive oil. Some 90% of the fruit production (1996) goes into olive oil. The Mediterranean region accounts for the world's highest consumption of olive oil: in 2014, the highest-consuming country, Greece, used 17 kg per head; Italy, 12 kg, Spain, 13 kg; the United States for comparison used only 1 kg per head.
Wheat was domesticated in the Fertile Crescent, in and near the Levant some 10,000 years ago. Its ancestors include wild emmer wheat; this was hybridised, harvested and sown to create domestic strains with larger grains, in ears that shatter less readily than wild forms. It had been spread across the Mediterranean region as far as Spain by 5,000 BC.
Wheat is a staple food in the Mediterranean region. Wheat bread was already critically important in the empire of Ancient Rome, which included the entire region; at that time, around 2,000 years ago, North Africa was the "breadbasket" of the empire. Other staple wheat-based Mediterranean foods include pasta and semolina (wheat middlings) products such as couscous and burgul. In turn, these are made into dishes such as the Greek dessert galaktoboureko (milk börek), consisting of filo pastry parcels around a custard made with semolina. A widespread wheat dish from Turkey and the Levant to Iran and India is halva, a dessert of sweetened semolina with butter, milk, and pine kernels.
The grape was domesticated between 7,000 and 4,000 BC between the Black Sea and Persia; archaeological evidence shows that wine was being made there by 6,000 BC, reaching Greece and Crete in the fifth millennium BC and Spain by the last millennium BC. Winemaking started in Italy in the ninth century BC, and in France around 600 BC.
Grapes are mostly grown for making wine and vinegar as basic components of the Mediterranean diet, as well for drying as raisins or for eating as table grapes. Raisins and table grape varieties are chosen for their flavour. Grape production remains important in the Mediterranean area, with Southern Europe accounting for 21% of the world's harvest. In 2014, Italy produced 6.9 million tonnes (mt) of grapes, Spain 6.2 mt, France 6.2 mt, Turkey 4.2 mt, and Germany 1.2 mt. Wine production for Southern Europe was 37% of the world total in 2014, with Italy producing 4.8 mt, Spain 4.6 mt, France 4.3 mt, and Germany 0.9 mt.
The concept of a Mediterranean cuisine is very recent, probably dating from the publication of David's A Book of Mediterranean Food (1950). David herself did not use the term, speaking instead of Mediterranean "food", "cookery", or "cooking". The usefulness of the concept is disputed. Carol Helstosky, author of the book Food Culture in the Mediterranean (2009), is among the authors who use "Mediterranean cuisine" interchangeably with "Mediterranean food". In the preface to her book she writes
Rules for the preparation and consumption of food are common to the lands that border the Mediterranean. They offer both stability, continuity and reproduction of a specific pattern of eating which resists conquest, invasion, colonisation, social change, industrialisation and urbanisation. Consequently, wherever you go, in southern Europe or the lands bordering the southern Mediterranean, you will find a cuisine and gastronomic ritual which is always familiar.
On the other hand, Sami Zubaida argues in his book Culinary Cultures of the Middle East (1994) that:
The idea of the "standard Mediterranean" ... is a modern construction of food writers and publicists in Europe and North America earnestly preaching what is now thought to be a healthy diet to their audiences by invoking a stereotype of the healthy other on the shores of the Mediterranean. Their colleagues in Mediterranean countries are only too willing to perpetuate this myth. The fact of the matter is that the Mediterranean contains varied cultures.
The cookery author Clifford A. Wright wrote in 1999: "There really is no such thing as 'Mediterranean cuisine'. At the same time, we seem to know what we mean when we use the expression ..." Wright argued that David's book itself was largely about specifically French Mediterranean food, pointing out that "only 4 percent of her recipes come from North Africa or the Levant".
Since David's time, a variety of books on Mediterranean cuisine have been written, including Abu Shihab's 2012 and J. R. Stevens' 2015 books of that name; Helstosky's 2009 book, already mentioned; books by other cookery writers include S. Rowe's Purple Citrus and Sweet Perfume: Cuisine of the Eastern Mediterranean (2011); and Mari-Pierre Moine's Mediterranean Cookbook (2014). There are many more cookbooks covering specific cuisines in the Mediterranean area, such as B. Santich's The Original Mediterranean Cuisine: Medieval Recipes for Today (1995), on Catalan and Italian recipes; and H. F. Ullman's (2006) on the cooking of Tunisia, Spain and Italy, each one subtitled "Mediterranean Cuisine".
The ingredients of Mediterranean cuisine are to an extent different from those of the cuisine of Northern Europe, with olive oil instead of butter, wine instead of beer. The list of available ingredients has changed over the centuries. One major change was the introduction of many foods by the Arabs to Portugal, Spain and Sicily in the Middle Ages. Those foods included aubergines, spinach, sugar cane, rice, apricots and citrus fruits, creating the distinctive culinary tradition of Al-Andalus.
Another major change was the arrival of foods from the Americas in Early Modern times (around the sixteenth century), notably the incorporation of the potato into Northern European cuisine, and the eager adoption of the tomato into Mediterranean cuisine. The tomato, so central now to that cuisine, was first described in print by Pietro Andrea Mattioli in 1544. Similarly, many of the species of Phaseolus beans now used around the Mediterranean, including P. vulgaris (the French or haricot bean), were brought back from the Americas by Spanish and Portuguese explorers.
David's introduction to her 1950 book characterises the cooking of the Mediterranean countries as "conditioned naturally by variations in climate and soil and the relative industry or indolence of the inhabitants."
David identifies "the ever recurring elements" in the food of this extensive region as olive oil, saffron, garlic, "pungent" local wines, as well as the "aromatic perfume" of herbs, especially rosemary, wild marjoram, and basil, and the bright colours of fresh foods in the markets, "pimentos, aubergines, tomatoes, olives, melons, figs" and "shiny fish, silver, vermilion, or tiger-striped". She includes cheeses of "sheep's or goat's milk", "figs from Smyrna on long strings" and "sheets of apricot paste which is dissolved in water to make a cooling drink."
With common ingredients including the olive, wheat, and grape; a shared climate; and a long period for cultural exchange, it might be expected that a single, pan-Mediterranean cuisine would have developed. Certain items, such as olive oil, bread, wine, roast lamb or mutton (for example, Maghreb méchoui, Greek kleftiko and souvlaki, Turkish shish kebab), bottarga, and stews of meat with vegetables and tomato (such as Spanish andrajos, French estouffade à la Provençale, Italian ciambotta, Turkish buğu kebabı), are indeed found all around the Mediterranean. Despite this, however, the lands bordering the Mediterranean sea have distinct regional cuisines, from the Maghreb, Levant and Ottoman to the Italian, French, and Spanish. Each of those, in turn, has national and provincial variations.
Maghrebi cuisine includes the cuisines of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. One of the most characteristic dishes of the region is couscous, a steamed, small-grained wheat semolina, served with a stew. The dish is ancient, mentioned by the Medieval traveller Ibn Battuta, and found for example also in the Western Sicilian cuisine, especially in the province of Trapani, where it was re-introduced after 1600.
One stew that may be served with couscous is the Moroccan tagine, a hearty, somewhat dry dish of meat and vegetables, cooked slowly in a pot (called a tagine) with a tall conical lid. Dishes from the Maghreb region of North Africa are often coloured and flavoured with the hot spice mixtures harissa and ras el hanout (containing such spices as cumin, coriander, saffron, cinnamon, cloves, chillies, and paprika). Other characteristic flavourings of the region are preserved lemons and dried apricots and raisins.
Egyptian cuisine has ancient roots, with evidence that, for example, cheese has been made in Egypt since at least 3,000 BC. Falafel are small fried croquettes of bean or chickpea flour, eaten across the Levant and the West, but originating in Egypt; they are claimed as theirs by Coptic Christians. Ful medames, a stew of fava beans with oil and cumin, is popular in Egypt and has become widespread across the Arab world. Duqqa is a dip made of pounded herbs, hazelnuts and spices, eaten with bread. Kushari is a foreign-derived 19th century dish of rice, lentils and pasta, variously garnished; it began as food for the poor, but has become a national dish.
Levantine cuisine is the cooking of the Levant (including the Middle Eastern Mediterranean coast, east of Egypt). Among the most distinctive foods of this cuisine are traditional small meze dishes such as tabbouleh, hummus, and baba ghanoush. Tabbouleh is a dish of bulgur cracked wheat with tomatoes, parsley, mint and onion, dressed with olive oil and lemon juice. Baba ghanoush, sometimes called "poor man's caviar", is a puree of aubergine with olive oil, often mixed with chopped onion, tomato, cumin, garlic, lemon juice, and parsley. The dish is popular across the whole of the Eastern Mediterranean and North Africa.
Ful medames, originally from Egypt and still a national dish there, consists of fava beans with oil and cumin; it is popular throughout the Levant. The dish may be ancient: dried beans of Neolithic age have been found near Nazareth.
Ottoman cuisine has given rise to the cuisines of modern Turkey, parts of the Balkans, Cyprus, and Greece. A distinctive element is the family of small flaky pastries called börek. These are popular and widespread across the Eastern Mediterranean region, and date as far back as ancient Roman times. Börek are made of thin sheets of filo pastry, filled with mixtures such as meat, caramelised onion and sweet peppers.
Another widespread and popular dish is moussaka, a baked dish of aubergine or potato with various other ingredients: often minced meat and tomatoes, sometimes a layer of egg custard or béchamel sauce on top. In its Greek variant, well known outside the region, it includes layers of aubergine and minced meat with custard or béchamel sauce on top, but that version is a relatively recent innovation, introduced by the chef Nikolaos Tselementes in the 1920s.
Much of Greek cuisine is part of the larger tradition of Ottoman cuisine, the names of the dishes revealing Arabic, Persian or Turkish roots: moussaka, tzatziki, yuvarlakia, keftes and so on. Many dishes' names probably entered the Greek vocabulary during Ottoman times, or earlier in contact with the Persians and the Arabs. However, some dishes may be pre-Ottoman, only taking Turkish names later; the historians of food John Ash and Andrew Dalby, for example, speculate that grape-leaf dolmadhes were made by the early Byzantine period, while Alan Davidson traces trahana to the ancient Greek tragos and skordalia to the ancient Athenian skorothalmi. Greek cookery makes wide use of vegetables, olive oil, grains, fish, wine and meat (white and red, including lamb, poultry, rabbit and pork). Other important ingredients include olives, cheese, aubergine, courgette, lemon juice, vegetables, herbs, bread and yoghurt. Some dishes can be traced back to ancient Greece: lentil soup, fasolada, retsina (white or rosé wine flavoured with pine resin) and pasteli (sesame seeds baked with honey); some to the Hellenistic and Roman periods: loukaniko (dried pork sausage); and Byzantium: feta cheese, avgotaraho (bottarga) and paximadhia (rusk). Lakerda, mizithra cheese and desserts like diples, koulourakia, moustokouloura and melomakarono also date back to the Byzantine period, while the variety of different pitas probably dates back to the ancient times.
Mediterranean Italian cuisine includes much of Italy outside the north and the mountainous inland regions. It is a diverse cuisine, but among its best-known and most characteristic foods are risotto, pizza in Neapolitan and Sicilian styles, and pasta dishes such as spaghetti.
Risotto is a dish made using Italian short-grain rice, which is both highly absorbent and resistant to turning into a pudding when cooked with stock and flavoured with onions and garlic, cooked in butter. Anna Gosetti della Salda's book of Italian regional cookery lists 37 risotto recipes, 18 of them from the Veneto. Variations among Veneto risottos include additions of fish and white wine; chicken; eel; mushrooms and grated Parmesan cheese; quails; small pieces of beef; courgettes (zucchini); clams; ragù; beans; mussels; prawns; cuttlefish; and asparagus.
Pizza, or as David notes "pissaladina or pissaladière" in Provence (the cuisines of Mediterranean France and Italy having something in common), is a piece of bread dough rolled out thin, with a topping which varies from place to place, but is generally much simpler than those in the English-speaking world. In Naples this is tomato, anchovies and buffalo mozzarella. In San Remo it is onions cooked in olive oil, with salted sardines. The Provençal variety uses onions, black olives, and anchovies.
Spaghetti dishes also vary. It may be eaten as David says "simply with olive oil and garlic", without cheese, or with a sauce of "very red and ripe peeled tomatoes", cooked briefly and flavoured with garlic and either basil or parsley. One Sicilian variant includes pieces of bacon, onions fried in fat, garlic, stoned olives, and anchovies, served with olive oil and grated Parmesan cheese.
Mediterranean French cuisine includes the cooking styles of Provence, Occitania, and the island of Corsica. Distinctive dishes that make use of local ingredients include bouillabaisse and salade niçoise.
Bouillabaisse is a substantial dish from the French port of Marseille, capital of Provence. It is a stew for at least eight people, because it should contain many kinds of fish such as crayfish, gurnard, weever, John Dory, monkfish, conger eel, whiting, sea bass, and crab. These are cooked with Mediterranean vegetables and herbs, namely onions, garlic, tomatoes, thyme, fennel, parsley, bay, and orange peel.
Spain's varied Mediterranean cuisines includes the cooking of Andalusia, Murcia, Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic islands. Paella is a characteristic Spanish dish, originally from Valencia, radiating early on to Catalonia and Murcia along Spain's Mediterranean coast. It comes in many versions, and may contain a mixture of chicken, pork, rabbit, or shellfish, sautéed in olive oil in a large shallow pan, with vegetables, and typically round-grain rice (often of the local albufera, arròs bomba, sénia varieties or similar) cooked to absorb the water and coloured with saffron. The dish may be varied with artichoke hearts, peas, sweet peppers, lima beans, string beans, or sausages.
Anise is used around the Mediterranean to flavour spirits including French pastis and absinthe; Greek ouzo; Bulgarian mastika; Italian sambuca; Spanish anísado; Turkish rakı; Lebanese, Libyan, Syrian, Jordanian, Israeli and Palestinian arak; and Algerian anisette cristal.
Mediterranean diet and cuisine
The Mediterranean diet, popularised in the 1970s, is inspired by the cuisine of parts of Greece and Italy in the early 1960s. The American Diabetes Association writes about "Mediterranean-Style Eating", mentioning "the traditional Mediterranean lifestyle ... of ... eating healthfully ... together among family and friends", and asserting that "Mediterranean cuisine is plant-based", citing the ingredients "whole grains, fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, beans, nuts, seeds, and olive oil", and stating that most foods "in a Mediterranean diet come from plants".
The 1984 Guida all'Italia gastronomica states that "around 1975, under the impulse of one of those new nutritional directives by which good cooking is too often influenced, the Americans discovered the so-called Mediterranean diet. The name even pleased Italian government officials, who made one modification: changing from diet—a word which has always seemed punitive and therefore unpleasant—to Mediterranean cuisine."
A changing cuisine
Since David wrote about Mediterranean food in 1950, and indeed since dietary researchers showed in the 1950s that people around the Mediterranean had less coronary heart disease than the peoples of northern Europe, the traditional Mediterranean ways of life and of eating have changed. Increased wealth and busy lives have led people to eat more meat and less vegetables: their diet is becoming more northern European, with more convenience foods and with less of a preventative effect on cardiovascular disease.
- A kilogram is about 2.2 pounds in weight.
- The Greek version of döner, meat roasted on a vertical spit.
- Barrels of potatoes were exported from the Canary Islands to Antwerp in 1567.
- The chickpea is the usual base in Egypt; it has been grown in the region for 7,500 years.
- Elizabeth David stated that "mousaká" was "well known all over the Balkans, Turkey, and the Middle East."
- David's recipe is from M. Reboul's La Cuisinière Provençale.
- Oteros, Jose (2014). "Modelización del ciclo fenológico reproductor del olivo". Universidad de Córdoba (PhD Thesis). Retrieved 29 April 2016.
- David, 1988, Introduction, pp.16–17
- Essid, 2012, p.29
- Renfrew, Colin (1972). The Emergence of Civilization; The Cyclades and the Aegean in the Third Millennium B.C. Taylor & Francis. p. 280.
- Boskou, D., ed. (1996). Olive Oil. Chemistry and Technology. AOCS Press.
- Vossen, Paul (2007). "Olive Oil: History, Production, and Characteristics of the World's Classic Oils". HortScience. 42 (5): 1093–1100.
- Lanza, Fabrizia (2011). Olive: a global history. Reaktion. p. 15.
- FAOSTAT Archived January 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., 2011
- World Olive Encyclopedia. International Olive Council. 1996. ISBN 84-01-61881-9.
- Terazono, Emiko (14 January 2015). "Olive oil demand falls in Europe homelands". Financial Times. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- Tanno, K. Willcox; Willcox, G. (2006). "How fast was wild wheat domesticated?". Science. 311 (5769): 1886. doi:10.1126/science.1124635. PMID 16574859.
- Jared Diamond (1997). Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13,000 years. Viking. ISBN 0-09-930278-0.
- Essid, 2012, p.51 and passim
- Abis, Sebastien (2012). "Wheat in the Mediterranean Region: Societies, Trade and Strategies" (PDF). International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM). Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- Ozner, Michael (2014). The Complete Mediterranean Diet. Benbella Books. pp. 573–576. ISBN 978-1-939529-96-1.
- Stein, Rick. "Galaktoboureko with orange syrup". BBC. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- "Divine Semolina Dessert - Suji Halva". Food.com. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- This, Patrice; Lacombe, Thierry; Thomash, Mark R. (2006). "Historical Origins and Genetic Diversity of Wine Grapes". Trends in Genetics. 22 (9): 511–519. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2006.07.008. PMID 16872714. More detail is given in Evolution and history of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) under domestication: new morphometric perspectives to understand seed domestication syndrome and reveal origins of ancient European cultivars.
- Sauer, Jonathan D. (1993). Historical Geography of Crop Plants: A Select Roster. CRC Press. pp. 167–174. ISBN 978-0-8493-8901-6.
- "Production Quantities by Country 2014". United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- Wright, 1999, p.xv
- David, 1950, whole book
- Helstosky, 2009, p.x
- Essid, 2012, p.51
- Sami Zubaida, "National, Communal and Global Dimensions in Middle Eastern Food Cultures" p. 43 in Sami Zubaida and Richard Tapper, [A Taste of Thyme:] Culinary Cultures of the Middle East, London and New York, 1994 and 2000, ISBN 1-86064-603-4. The book has been published with and without the "A Taste of Thyme" prefix.
- Wright, 1999, p.1
- Wright, 1999, Introduction, note 2: "it really is not about Mediterranean food but rather about French food".
- Abu Shihab, 2012
- Stevens, 2015
- Rowe, 2011
- Moine, 2014
- Santich, 1995
- Ullman, H. F. (2006). Tunisia (Mediterranean Cuisine). Konemann. ISBN 978-3-8331-2344-3.
- Ullman, H. F. (2006). Spain (Mediterranean Cuisine). Konemann. ISBN 978-3-8331-2035-0.
- Ullman, H. F. (2006). Italy (Mediterranean Cuisine). Konemann. ISBN 978-3-8331-2031-2.
- Schwabe, Calvin W. (1979). Unmentionable Cuisine. University of Virginia Press. p. 414. ISBN 978-0-8139-1162-5.
- "Arab Influence". Spanish Food. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- Hawkes, J. G.; Francisco-Ortega, J. (1993). "The early history of the potato in Europe". Euphytica. 70 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1007/BF00029633.
- Smith, A. F. (1994). The Tomato in America: Early History, Culture, and Cookery. University of South Carolina Press. p. 13. ISBN 1-57003-000-6.
- Kaplan, Lawrence (1965). "Archeology and Domestication in American Phaseolus (Beans)". Economic Botany. 19 (4): 358–368. doi:10.1007/bf02904806. JSTOR 4252645.
- Hayes, Dayle; Laudan, Rachel (2009). Food and Nutrition. Marshall Cavendish. p. 646. ISBN 978-0-7614-7825-6.
- Coroneo, V. (2009). Brandas, V., Sanna, A., Sanna, C., Carraro, V., Dessi, S., Meloni, M. "Microbiological characterization of botargo. Classical and molecular microbiological methods". Industrie Alimentari. 48 (487): 29–36.
- "An Introduction to Mediterranean Cuisine". TableAgent. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- Virbila, S. Irene (7 September 2013). "Bottarga, a briny Mediterranean delicacy worth smuggling". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
Bottarga is hardly a new ingredient: It has been traded up and down the Mediterranean for thousands of years.
- David, Elizabeth (1980) . French Country Cooking. Dorling Kindersley [John Lehmann]. pp. 121–122.
- Nestle, Marion (1995). "Mediterranean diets: historical and research overview". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 61 (supplement): 131S–1320S.
- Naylor, Phillip C. (2015). Historical Dictionary of Algeria. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-8108-7919-5.
- Soletti, Francesco; Selmi, Luca (2006). Turismo gastronomico in Italia, Volume 1. Touring Club Italiano. p. 250.
- Kindstedt, Paul (2012). Cheese and Culture: A History of Cheese and its Place in Western Civilization. Chelsea Green Publishing. p. 34.
- Davidson, Alan (2014) . The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. pp. 294–295. ISBN 978-0191040726.
- McCann, James C. (2009). Stirring the Pot: A History of African Cuisine. Ohio University Press. p. 99.
- Sortun, Ana (2013). Spice: Flavors of the Eastern Mediterranean. Harper Collins. p. 6. ISBN 978-0062336514.
- Davidson, Alan (2014) . The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. p. 269. ISBN 978-0191040726.
- Parvi, Shahrokh (6 March 2016). "Cheap, healthy and oh so tasty: the best kushari in Cairo". The Guardian.
- Burum, Linda (October 2005). Los Angeles Magazine. Emmis Communications. p. 186.
- Davidson, Alan (2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-19-967733-7.
- Sami Zubaida, "National, Communal and Global Dimensions in Middle Eastern Food Cultures" in Sami Zubaida and Richard Tapper, A Taste of Thyme: Culinary Cultures of the Middle East, London and New York, 1994 and 2000, ISBN 1-86064-603-4, p. 35, 37; Claudia Roden, A Book of Middle Eastern Food, p. 86; Anissa Helou, Oxford Companion to Food, s.v. Lebanon and Syria; Maan Z. Madina, Arabic-English Dictionary of the Modern Literary Language, 1973, s.v. تبل
- Oxford Companion to Food, s.v. tabbouleh
- Cotter, Charis (2008). One Thousand and One Foods. Pavilion. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-86205-785-2.
- McCann, James C. (2009). Stirring the Pot: A History of African Cuisine. Ohio University Press. p. 99.
- Marks, Gil (2010). Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. Wiley. p. 191.
- Davidson, Alan (2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-19-967733-7.
- Marcoux, P. (2014). Cooking with Fire. Storey. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-61212-158-1.
- David, 1988, p.43
- Kremezi, Aglaia (13 July 2010). "'Classic' Greek Cuisine: Not So Classic". The Atlantic.
- Dalby, Andrew (1996). Siren Feasts: A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece. Routledge. p. 190. ISBN 0-415-11620-1.
- Ash, John (2006). A Byzantine Journey. Tauris Parke. ISBN 978-1-84511-307-0.
- Davidson, Alan (2014) . The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. pp. 362–363. ISBN 978-0191040726.
- David 1988, Introduction, pp.101–103
- David 1988, pp.45–46
- David 1988, pp.109–111
- Gosetti della Salda, Anna (1993). Le Ricette Regionali Italiane (11th ed.). Solares. pp. 377–384 and passim.
- Altomari, Dawn (2005). The Everything Italian Cookbook: 300 Authentic Recipes to Help You Cook Up a Feast!. Everything Books. p. 11. ISBN 1-59337-420-8.
- Smith, Andrew F. (2007). The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink. Oxford University Press. p. 463. ISBN 978-0-19-988576-3.
- David 1988, pp.66–68
- "Recette de Salade niçoise traditionnelle". L'Atelier des Chefs. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
- "Regional Cuisine in Spain". Spain.info. 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- "Arròs negre de Palafrugell", Cassoles de Girona: La cuina tradicional de les comarques gironines (in Catalan). [Accessed 29 August 2017]
- David 1988, Introduction, pp.104–106
- Jack S. Blocker, Jr.; David M. Fahey; Ian R. Tyrrell (2003). Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: An Global Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 478–. ISBN 978-1-57607-833-4. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- Dealberto, Clara; Desrayaud, Lea (25 July 2017). "Le pastis, elixir provencal". Le Monde. Le Monde. p. 28.(subscription required)
- Willett, W.C.; Sacks, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Drescher., G.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.; Helsing, E.; Trichopoulos, D. (June 1995). "Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 61 (6): 1402S–6S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/61.6.1402s. PMID 7754995.
We present a food pyramid that reflects Mediterranean dietary traditions, which historically have been associated with good health. This Mediterranean diet pyramid is based on food patterns typical of Crete, much of the rest of Greece, and southern Italy in the early 1960s, where adult life expectancy was among the highest in the world and rates of coronary heart disease, certain cancers, and other diet-related chronic diseases were among the lowest.
- "The Basics of Mediterranean-Style Eating". The American Diabetes Association.
- Alberini, Massimo; Mistretta, Giorgio (1984). Guida all'Italia gastronomica. Touring Club Italiano. p. 37.
- Rumm-Kreuter, D. (May 2001). "Comparison of the eating and cooking habits of northern Europe and the Mediterranean countries in the past, present and future". Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 71 (3): 141–148. doi:10.1024/0300-9822.214.171.124. PMID 11582834.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mediterranean Cuisine.|
- David, Elizabeth (1988) . A Book of Mediterranean Food. Dorling Kindersley [John Lehmann].
- Essid, Mohamed Yassine (2012). Chapter 2. History of Mediterranean Food. MediTerra: The Mediterranean Diet for Sustainable Regional Development. Presses de Sciences Po. pp. 51–69. ISBN 978-2-7246-1248-6.
- Helstosky, C. (2009). Food Culture in the Mediterranean. Food culture around the world. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-34626-2.
- Moine, Mari-Pierre (2014). Mediterranean Cookbook. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-1-4093-4724-8.
- Stevens, J. R. (2015). Mediterranean Cuisine:Recipes from Southern Europe to the Middle East. CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-5194-6111-7.
- Rowe, S. (2011). Purple Citrus and Sweet Perfume: Cuisine of the Eastern Mediterranean. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-210220-1.
- Santich, Barbara (1995). The Original Mediterranean Cuisine: Medieval Recipes for Today. Wakefield Press. ISBN 978-1-86254-331-7.
- Abu Shihab, Sana Nimer (2012). Mediterranean Cuisine. Authorhouse. ISBN 978-1-4772-8309-7.
- Wright, Clifford A. (1999). A Mediterranean Feast: The Story of the Birth of the Celebrated Cuisines of the Mediterranean from the Merchants of Venice to the Barbary Corsairs, with More than 500 Recipes. William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-15305-4.