Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor

Matthias
Matthias with the Imperial Crown
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Germany
Reign 13 June 1612 – 20 March 1619
Coronation 26 June 1612, Frankfurt
Predecessor Rudolf II
Successor Ferdinand II
King of Bohemia
Reign 11 March 1611 – 16 May 1617
Coronation 23 May 1611, Prague
Predecessor Rudolf II
Successor Ferdinand II
Archduke of Austria
Reign 25 June 1608 – 20 March 1619
Predecessor Rudolf II
Successor Ferdinand II
King of Hungary and Croatia
Reign 25 June 1608 – 1 July 1618
Coronation 19 November 1608, Pressburg
Predecessor Rudolf II
Successor Ferdinand II
Born 24 February 1557
Vienna, Austria
Died 20 March 1619(1619-03-20) (aged 62)
Vienna, Austria
Spouse Anna of Austria-Tyrol
House House of Habsburg
Father Maximilian II
Mother Maria of Austria
Religion Roman Catholicism

Matthias (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1608 (as Matthias II) and King of Bohemia from 1611. He was a member of the House of Habsburg.[1]

Biography

Matthias was born in the Austrian capital of Vienna to Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria of Spain.

Matthias married Archduchess Anna of Austria, daughter of his uncle Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria, whose successor in Further Austria Matthias became in 1595. Their marriage did not produce surviving children.

In 1578, Matthias was invited to the Netherlands by the States-General of the rebellious provinces, who offered him the position of Governor-General. Matthias accepted the appointment, although the position was not recognized by his uncle, Philip II of Spain, the hereditary ruler of the provinces. He set down the rules for religious peace within most of the United Provinces. His work is noted in Article 13 of the 1579 Union of Utrecht, which established freedom of religion as a locally determined issue.[2] Matthias continued as titular governor for the rebels until they deposed Philip II and declared full independence in 1581, at which point he returned home to Austria.

In 1593 he was appointed governor of Austria by his brother, Emperor Rudolf II. He formed a close association there with the Bishop of Vienna, Melchior Klesl, who later became his chief adviser. In 1605 Matthias forced the ailing emperor to allow him to deal with the Hungarian Protestant rebels. The result was the Peace of Vienna of 1606, which guaranteed religious freedom in Hungary and guaranteed the right of Transylvanians to elect their own independent princes in the future. In the same year Matthias was recognized as head of the House of Habsburg and as the future Holy Roman Emperor, as a result of Rudolf's illness. Allying himself with the estates of Hungary, Austria, and Moravia, Matthias forced his brother to yield rule of these lands to him in 1608; Rudolf later ceded Bohemia in 1611. Matthias's army then held Rudolf prisoner in his castle in Prague, until 1611, when Rudolf was forced to cede the crown of Bohemia to his brother.

After Matthias's accession as Holy Roman Emperor, his policy was dominated by Klesl, who hoped to bring about a compromise between Catholic and Protestant states within the Holy Roman Empire in order to strengthen it. Matthias had already been forced to grant religious concessions to Protestants in Austria and Moravia, as well as in Hungary, when he had allied with them against Rudolf. Matthias imprisoned Georg Keglević who was the Commander-in-chief, General, Vice-Ban of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia and since 1602 Baron in Transylvania, but soon left him free again. At that time the Principality of Transylvania was a fully autonomous area of Hungary, but under the nominal suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, where it was the time of the Sultanate of Women.

Matthias's conciliatory policies were opposed by the more intransigent Catholic Habsburgs, particularly Matthias's brother Archduke Maximilian, who hoped to secure the succession for the inflexible Catholic Archduke Ferdinand (later Emperor Ferdinand II). The start of the Bohemian Protestant revolt in 1618 provoked Maximilian to imprison Klesl and revise his policies. Matthias, old and ailing, was unable to prevent a takeover by Maximilian's faction. Ferdinand, who had already been crowned King of Bohemia (1617) and of Hungary (1618), succeeded Matthias as Holy Roman Emperor.

Names

Names in other languages:

Ancestry

Titles

Matthias, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Luxemburg, Württemberg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Prince of Swabia, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau, Moravia, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Princely Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia, Landgrave of Alsace, Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone and Salins, etc. etc.

See also

References

  1. Matthias (Holy Roman emperor) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  2. Union of Utrecht
  3.  Holland, Arthur William (1911). "Maximilian I. (emperor)". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  4. Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Philipp I. der Schöne von Oesterreich" (in German). Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire]. 7. Wikisource. p. 112.
  5.  Poupardin, René (1911). "Charles, called The Bold, duke of Burgundy". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  6. 1 2 Press, Volker (1990), "Maximilian II.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 16, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 471–475; (full text online)
  7. 1 2 3  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Joanna". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  8. 1 2 Vladislas II, King of Bohemia and Hungary at Encyclopædia Britannica
  9. Boureau, Alain (1995). The Lord's First Night: The Myth of the Droit de Cuissage. Translated by Cochrane, Lydia G. The University of Chicago Press. p. 96.
  10. Cazacu, Matei (2017). Reinert, Stephen W., ed. Dracula. Brill. p. 204.
  11. Noubel, P., ed. (1877). Revue de l'Agenais [Review of the Agenais]. 4. Société académique d'Agen. p. 497.
  12. 1 2 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor at Encyclopædia Britannica
  13. 1 2 Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria von Spanien" (in German). Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire]. 7. Wikisource. p. 19.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Stephens, Henry Morse (1903). The story of Portugal. G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 125, 139, 279. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  15. 1 2 Harris, Carolyn (2017). Raising Royalty: 1000 Years of Royal Parenting. Dundurn Press. p. 78.
Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: 24 February 1557 Died: 20 March 1619
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Rudolf II
King of Bohemia
16111619
Succeeded by
Emperor Ferdinand II
King of Hungary and Croatia
16081619
King in Germany
16121618
Holy Roman Emperor
16121619
Archduke of Austria
16081619
Succeeded by
Albert VII
Preceded by
Ferdinand II
Archduke of Further Austria
16081619
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.