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Note: Varies by jurisdiction
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Mass murder is the act of murdering a number of people, typically simultaneously or over a relatively short period of time and in close geographic proximity. The FBI defines mass murder as murdering four or more persons during an event with no "cooling-off period" between the murders. A mass murder typically occurs in a single location where one or more people kill several others. Many acts of mass murder end with the perpetrator(s) dying by suicide or suicide by cop.
A mass murder may be committed by individuals or organizations whereas a spree killing is committed by one or two individuals. Mass murderers differ from spree killers, who kill at two or more locations with almost no time break between murders and are not defined by the number of victims, and serial killers, who may kill people over long periods of time. Mass murder is a hypernym of genocide, which requires additional criteria.
Mass murder is also defined as the intentional and indiscriminate murder of a large number of people by government agents; for example, shooting unarmed protesters, throwing grenades into prison cells, and randomly executing civilians. The largest mass killings in history have been governmental attempts to exterminate entire groups or communities of people, often on the basis of ethnicity or religion because of dislike or intolerance. Some of these mass murders have been found to be genocides and others to be crimes against humanity, but often such crimes have led to few or no convictions of any type.
The concept of state-sponsored mass murder covers a range of potential killings. It is defined as the intentional and indiscriminate murder of a large number of people by government agents. Examples are shooting of unarmed protesters, lobbing of grenades into prison cells, and random execution of civilians. Other examples of state-sponsored mass murder include:
- Deliberate massacres of captives or civilians during wartime or periods of civil unrest by the state's military forces, such as those committed by Genghis Khan, the Golden Horde, the troops of Vlad the Impaler, the Empire of Japan, the Soviet Union, and Nazi Germany during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II, the Nanjing Massacre, the Katyn Forest Massacre of Polish citizens in 1940 and the massacres of political prisoners after the launch of Operation Barbarossa, the Three Alls Policy, the massacre of Soviet Jews at Babi Yar, the mass murder of the Hungarian, Serbian and German population in Vojvodina in the "Vengeance of Bacska", the murder of 24 unarmed villagers by British troops in the Batang Kali massacre during the Malayan Emergency, the mass killings in Indonesia during Suharto's rise to power, the murder of suspected leftists during Operation Condor in South America, the murder of Vietnamese civilians by American soldiers in the My Lai Massacre during the Vietnam War, the genocidal massacres of the Maya population during the Guatemalan Civil War, the massacre at El Mozote during the Salvadoran Civil War, and repeated attacks on civilians during the Syrian Civil War including the Al-Qubeir massacre.
- Actions in which the state indirectly caused the death of large numbers of people, dubbed as "democide" by political scientist R. J. Rummel. This includes, in addition to the cases above, man-made disasters caused by the state, such as the Holodomor famine in the Soviet Union, the Khmer Rouge years in Cambodia, and the famines and poverty caused by the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution in the People's Republic of China.
- Some commentators classify some or all the uses of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear weapons, chemical weapons, and biological weapons) during wartime as a war crime (or crime against humanity if widespread) because they kill civilians (who are protected by the laws of war) indiscriminately or are specifically prohibited by international treaties (which have become more comprehensive over time). Proponents of use say that specific uses of such weapons have been necessary for defense or to avoid more deaths in a protracted war. The tactic of terror bombing from aircraft, and generally targeting cities with area bombardment or saturation carpet bombing has also been criticized, defended, and prohibited by treaty in the same way; the destructive effect of conventional saturation bombing is similar to that of a nuclear weapon.
By terrorist organizations
Many terrorist groups in recent times have used the tactic of killing many victims to fulfill their political aims. Such incidents have included the Beirut barracks bombings in October 1983 by IJO, the Başbağlar attack by the PKK in 1993, the September 11 attacks in September 2001 and the 2004 Madrid train bombings in May 2004 by Al-Qaeda, and the November 2015 Paris attacks in November 2015 by ISIL.
Certain cults, especially religious cults, have committed a number of mass killings and mass murder-suicides. These include Jim Jones' Peoples Temple in Jonestown, Guyana, where 919 people died in 1978; the Order of the Solar Temple in Canada, Switzerland, and France, where 75 died in 1994, 1995, and 1997; Shoko Asahara's Aum Shinrikyo, which killed 12 in Tokyo, Japan, in 1995; Marshall Applewhite's Heaven's Gate in San Diego, California, where 39 died in 1997; and the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God in Uganda, where 778 died in 2000.
Mass murderers may fall into any of a number of categories, including killers of family, of coworkers, of students, and of random strangers. Their motives for murder vary. A notable motivation for mass murder is revenge, but other motivations are possible, including the need for attention or fame.
Examples of mass murderers include Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, Anders Behring Breivik, Timothy McVeigh, Jack Gilbert Graham, Adam Lanza, Seung-Hui Cho, Devin Patrick Kelley, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, Julio González, Robert Steinhäuser, Pekka-Eric Auvinen, Matti Juhani Saari, Thomas Watt Hamilton, Tim Kretschmer, Marc Lépine, Aaron Alexis, William Unek, Friedrich Leibacher, Campo Elías Delgado, Derrick Bird, Jeff Weise, Jiverly Antares Wong, Farda Gadirov, Michael McLendon, Woo Bum-kon, Martin Bryant, Ahmed Ibragimov, Alexandre Bissonnette, Baruch Goldstein, Wellington Menezes de Oliveira, Robert Bales, Jared Lee Loughner, David A. Burke, Omar Thornton, James Huberty, Andrew Kehoe, Christopher Harper-Mercer, George Hennard, Stephen Paddock, Omar Mateen, Nidal Hasan, James Holmes, Dylann Roof, Andreas Lubitz, Nikolas Cruz, Dimitrios Pagourtzis, and Elliot Rodger.
Acting on the orders of Joseph Stalin, Vasili Blokhin's war crime killing of 7,000 Polish prisoners of war, shot in 28 days, is notable as one of the most organized and protracted mass murders by a single individual on record.
Law enforcement response and countermeasures
Analysis of the Columbine High School massacre and other incidents where law enforcement officers waited for backup has resulted in changed recommendations regarding what victims, bystanders, and law enforcement officers should do. Average response time by law enforcement to a mass shooting is typically much longer than the time the shooter is engaged in killing. While immediate action may be extremely dangerous, it may save lives which would be lost if victims and bystanders involved in the situation remain passive, or law enforcement response is delayed until overwhelming force can be deployed. It is recommended that victims and bystanders involved in the incident take active steps to flee, hide, or fight the shooter and that law enforcement officers present or first arriving at the scene attempt immediately to engage the shooter. In many instances, immediate action by victims, bystanders, or law enforcement officers has saved lives.
Criticism of the analytical category "mass murder"
Commentators have pointed out that there are a wide variety of ways that homicides with more than several victims might be classified. Such incidents can be, and have been even in recent decades, classified many different ways including "as a mass shooting; as a school shooting; as mass murder; as workplace violence...; as a crime involving an assault rifle; as a case of a mentally ill person committing acts of violence; and so on."
How such rarely occurring incidents of homicide are classified tends to change significantly with time. "In the 1960s and 1970s,... it was understood that the key feature of [a number of such] cases was a high body count. These early discussions of mass murder lumped together [a variety of] cases that varied along what would come to be seen as important dimensions:
- Time: Did the killings occur more or less simultaneously, or did they extend over several days, months, or years?
- Place: Did the killings occur in a single location, or in a variety of places?
- Method: How were the victims killed?"
In the late decades of the 20th century and early years of the 2000s, the most popular classifications moved to include method, time and place. While such classifications may assist in gaining human meaning, as human-selected categories, they can also carry significant meaning and reflect a particular point of view of the commentator who assigned the descriptor.
- Duwe, Grant (2007). Mass Murder in the United States. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7864-3150-2.
- Aggrawal, A. (2005). "Mass Murder". In Payne-James JJ; Byard RW; Corey TS; Henderson C. Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine (PDF). 3. Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-547970-7. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- "Serial Murder - Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives for Investigators" (PDF). Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2005. Retrieved March 17, 2016.
- Clues to Mass Rampage Killers: Deep Backstage, Hidden Arsenal, Clandestine Excitement, Randall Collins, The Sociological Eye, September 1, 2012
- R. J. Rummel, Irving Louis Horowitz, Death by Government, Page 35, ISBN 1-56000-927-6
- Mark Aarons (2007). "Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide." In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9004156917 pp. 80–81.
- McSherry, J. Patrice (2011). "Chapter 5: "Industrial repression" and Operation Condor in Latin America". In Esparza, Marcia; Henry R. Huttenbach; Daniel Feierstein. State Violence and Genocide in Latin America: The Cold War Years (Critical Terrorism Studies). Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 0415664578.
- The Secrets in Guatemala’s Bones. The New York Times. June 30, 2016.
- Maslin, Sarah Esther (December 13, 2016). "Remembering El Mozote, the Worst Massacre in Modern Latin American History". The Nation. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
- R.J. Rummel. Chapter 1: 61,911,000 Victims: Utopianism Empowered
- Akbar, Arifa (17 September 2010). "Mao's Great Leap Forward 'killed 45 million in four years'". The Independent. London. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
- See List of weapons of mass destruction treaties.
- See Debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki for various perspectives on the only combat use of nuclear weapons. The Khabarovsk War Crime Trials sentenced some members of the Japanese army to jail terms for the use of biological and chemical weapons during World War II. The Halabja poison gas attack was determined a war crime by Dutch and Iraqi courts, resulting in the execution of Ali Hassan al-Majid.
- See Aerial bombardment and international law.
- The Bombing of Dresden in World War II in particular has been referred to as mass murder: Volkery, Carsten. "War of Words" Archived 9 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Der Spiegel, 2 February 2005
- In addition to previous treaties on bombardment of civilian areas generally, carpet bombing of cities, towns, villages, or other areas containing a concentration of civilians was specifically designated a war crime by the 1977 Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
- Kluger, Jeffrey (April 19, 2007). "Inside a Mass Murderer's Mind". Time. Archived from the original on April 22, 2007. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- "ABC News: What Pushes Shooters to Mass Murder?". Abcnews.go.com. 2008-02-09. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- "Notoriety Drives Mass Shooters". Newser. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- "ABC News: Psychiatrist: Showing Video Is 'Social Catastrophe'". Abcnews.go.com. 2007-04-19. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- Farhi, Paul (December 20, 2012). "Adam Lanza, and others who committed mass shootings, were white males". The Washington Post.
- Mendick, Robert. "Andreas Lubitz: inside the mind of a mass killer". The Telegraph.
- 2014 Isla Vista killings
- Sebag Montefiore, Simon (2004). Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. Knopf. p. 334. ISBN 1-4000-4230-5.
- Erica Goode (April 6, 2013). "In Shift, Police Advise Taking an Active Role to Counter Mass Attacks". The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
Best, Joel (2013-06-16). "How Should We Classify the Sandy Hook Killings? : The social construction of a mass shooting epidemic". Reason. Retrieved 2013-06-18.
it is possible to characterize Newtown as an instance of a lot of different social problems: as a mass shooting; as a school shooting; as mass murder; as workplace violence (remember the staff members who were killed were at work); as a crime involving an assault rifle; as a case of a mentally ill person committing acts of violence; and so on. We expect journalists to have a sort of sociological imagination, to help us understand incidents as instances. And we can understand why advocates for gun control, mental health, or other causes might favor particular labels but we need to appreciate there is no One True Classification, that the categories we use are merely tools that may help us better understand what [is] happening in our society.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mass murderers.|
- What makes a Mass Killer?
- Mass Murder: A Small Person's Way to Immortality
- Mass shootings interactive map
- Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
- The real causes of mass murder by James Alan Fox. Boston.com, January 16, 2011.