Masbateño language

Masbateño
Minasbate
Native to Philippines
Region Masbate province (almost whole portion of Masbate island proper, entire Ticao island and southern half of Burias island)
Ethnicity Masbateño people
Native speakers
350,000 (2002)[1]
250,000 L2 speakers
Total: 600,000+ speakers
Language codes
ISO 639-3 msb
Glottolog masb1238[2]
Areas where Masbateño is spoken

Masbateño or Minasbate is a Bicol-Visayan language spoken by more than 600,000 people, primarily in the province of Masbate in the Philippines. It is very close to Capiznon, Hiligaynon/Ilonggo and Waray-Waray, all three spoken in Visayas. It is considered a Bisakol language, meaning a language intermediate between Visayan languages and Bicolano languages.

Sounds

Masbateño has sixteen consonants: /p, t, k, ʔ, b, d, g, m, n, ŋ, s, h, l, ɾ, w, j/. There are three vowels: /i/, /a/, /e/, and /u,o/. The vowels u and o are allophones, with u always being used when it is the beginning and sometimes end of a syllable, and o always used when it ends a syllable. The sounds /e/ and /o/ could be borrowed from Spanish[3]. This is one of the Philippine languages which is excluded from [ɾ]-[d] allophone.

Examples

Masbateño Basic Mathematical Operations

By Ronaldo Z. Ongotan

  • one plus one equals two (1 + 1 = 2) - An usad gindagdagan san usad, duha/duwa ka bilog
  • two times two equals four (2 x 2 = 4) - An duwa ginpilô san duwa na bes, nagin upat
  • eight minus five equals three (8 - 5 = 3) - An walo gin-ibanan san lima, tulo an nabilin
  • nine divided by three equals three (9 ÷ 3 = 3) - An siyam ginbarahin sa tulo, tig-turulo

Advanced Algebraic Operations

  • x raised to the power of y, or in symbols, (x^y). In Minasbate, an x piluon sa y na beses.
  • square root of x, or in symbols, sqrt(x). In Minasbate, an ikaduha na gamot san x o an numero na pinilo sa duwa na beses na nagin x.
  • x over y, or in symbols, x/y. In Minasbate, x kada y.
  • one and a half plus two and one-fourth equals three and three-fourths, or in symbols, 1 1/2 + 2 1/4 = 3 3/4. In Minasbate, an usad kag katunga gindagdagan san duha kag kaupat, tulo kag tulo-kaupat tanan.

W-H Questions

  • What? - Nano?
  • Who? - Sin-o?
  • Where? - Diin?
  • When? - San-o?
  • Why? - Kay? Nano kay?
  • How? - Pan-o? Papan-o?
  • Who are you? - Sin-o ka?
  • What is your name? - Nano/Ano an pangaran mo?
  • When is your Birthday - San-o ka nabuhay?
  • Where do you live? - Diin ka naga-estar? Taga diin ka?

Animals

  • Cat - Miya/Misay/Kuting (Ticao Island)
  • Dog - Ido / Ayam (Ticao Island)
  • Cow - Baka
  • Carabao - Karabaw
  • Tinday- may refer to any young animals like horse, cow, goat, carabao
  • Pig - Orig (piglet) Anay (mother pig) Butakal/Takal (Male brooding pig)
  • Rat - Iraga
  • Ant - Sorum/Hantik/Amamaknit/Kutitob (Masbate Ticao Island)
  • Ant- Subay (Masbate Main Land)
  • Ant- Amimitas (Masbate Main Land)
  • Ant - Hornigas (Masbate Main Land)
  • Ant - Hamorigas ( Palanas,Masbate Main Land )
  • Chicken - Umagak (hen); Siyo/piso (chic)
  • Lizard - Tiki
  • Gecko - Tuko
  • Snake - Sawa
  • Bird - Sapat (Masbate);Pispis (Mandaon);Langgam (Ticao Island)

Common Phrases

  • I hate you! - Urit ako sa imo! / Habo ko sa imo!
  • I love you. - Namomo-ot ako sa imo. Namumot-an ta ikaw. (Bicolano-influenced)
  • I love you. - Palangga ta ikaw. (Masbate Mainland)
  • Let's talk. - Mag-istoryahan kita.
  • Can I join? - Pwede ako kaintra?
  • Pleased to meet you. - Malipay ako na nagbagat kita.
  • How you doin'? - Matiano ka dida?
  • Please let me know. - Ipaaram la sa akon.
  • Please help me. - Buligi man ako.
  • Can you teach me? -Pwede mo ba ako matukduan? Pwede magpatukdo?
  • I want to learn Masbatenyo. - Gusto ko makaaram mag-istorya san Masbatenyo.
  • Good morning! - Maayo na aga!
  • Good afternoon! - Maayo na hapon!
  • Good evening! - Maayo na gab-i!
  • Good night! - Turog maayo.
  • Let's eat. - Karaon na kita.
  • You're (really) beautiful. - Kaganda mo (gayud).
  • Please call me. - Tawagi tabi ako.
  • Can I ask you a favor? - Pwede mangayo pabor (o bulig)?
  • IMPATCHO- IMPLATCHO

Counting

[4]

  • One - Isad/Usad
  • Two - Duwa/Duha
  • Three - Tulo
  • Four - Upat
  • Five - Lima
  • Six - Unom
  • Seven - Pito
  • Eight - Walo
  • Nine - Siyam
  • Ten - Napulo
  • Eleven - Onse
  • Twenty - Baynte
  • Twenty-one - Baynte uno
  • One hundred - Usad ka gatos or syen
  • One hundred thirty-five (135) - Syento traynta i singko
  • Two hundred - Duwa kagatos or dos syentos
  • One thousand - Usad karibo or uno mil
  • Two thousand - Duwa karibo or dos mil
  • Two thousand and ten - Dos mil dyes

Colors

  • Blue - Blu
  • Red - Pula
  • Yellow - Dulaw
  • Green - Grin or kolor-dahon
  • Orange - Oreyns or kahel
  • Violet - Tapul
  • Brown - Brawn
  • White - Puti
  • Black - Itom
  • Gray - Abuhon

Shapes

  • Circle - Bilog
  • Square - Kwadrado
  • Rectangle - Rektanggul
  • Triangle - Trayanggul
  • Oval - Lipid
  • Cone - Basuso
  • Sphere - Talimon
  • Cube - Kubiko

Common Adjectives

  • Beautiful - Maganda
  • Ugly - Maraot / Pangit
  • Hot - Mainit / Maalingahot
  • Cold - Mayamig / Matugnaw
  • Good - Maayo / Matahom
  • Bad - Maraot / Malain
  • Great - Matibay
  • Sick - Maysakit / May ginabatyag
  • Fast - Matulin / Madasig
  • Slow - Mahinay / Maluya
  • High - Hataas / Hitaas
  • Low - Hamubo
  • Deep - Hadarom
  • Wide - Halapad
  • Loose - Mahaluga
  • Narrow - Masiot
  • Long - Halaba
  • Short - Halip-ot
  • Light - Lasaw (color) / Magaan (weight)
  • Heavy - Mabug-at
  • Dark - Makutom / Madulom / Maitom

Masbatenyo Orthography

Rosero and Balbuena (2016) prepared the draft Masbatenyo working orthography after the first orthography congress on July 16, 2016. [5]

The following are the orthographic rules:

1. The following symbols are used in the native Minasbate orthography: Aa, Bb, Dd, Gg, Hh, Ii, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, NGng, Pp, Rr, Ss, Tt, Uu, Ww, Yy, ` (for glottal stop)


2. Minasbate has three phonemic vowels (V): Aa, Ii, Uu and 16 consonants (C): Bb, Dd, Gg, Hh, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, NGng, Pp, Rr, Ss, Tt, Ww, Yy, ` (for glottal stop).


3. The glottal stop is a distinct consonant sound in Minasbate and part of its alphabet. The grave accent ( ` ) will be used to represent the glottal stop.

• The glottal stop may occur between a C and V, e.g pus`on, bag`o

• It may also occur in the final position of the word, e.g. túro`, pakó`

• The glottal may also occur between two V, e.g ti`il, di`in, gu`ol,

• The glottal stop is also the obligatory onset of the syllable that begins with a vowel. It will be symbolized when the word begins with a vowel, e.g `adlaw, `ako, `amó`


4. The syllable pattern of Minasbate words is CV and CVC, e.g. ba.láy = CV.CVC.

• All C can occur in the beginning of a word (onset) or ending (coda).

• All V are used to form a syllable nucleus, e.g. ba.lay, `a.ku.


5. In writing stress or accent, the acute accent ( ‘ ) above the V is used, e.g. buháy, íya, sílhig, dakó`.

• In phonetics, a stressed syllable is usually lengthened. For example, in the case of búhay ‘life’ vs buháy ‘alive’, the syllable bú in ‘life‘ is longer than the syllable bu in ‘alive’.

• It is possible to have more than one stress in a word, e.g hámabáw, `ámamáknit.

• Stress is symbolized by the acute accent ( ‘ ) if it falls on the last syllable, e.g. hubág, sulód. The stress is not symbolized if it falls on the penultimate syllable, e.g. gab`i ‘night’, kiray ‘eyebrow’.

• In early grades, it is suggested to mark the stress in all the necessary places to assist the learners/users of the language in learning the language.


6. The Minasbate orthography will be used in teaching the learners to read, write, listen and comprehend the native words.

• In the case of borrowed terms, the extended orthography, including the vowels Ee and Oo and consonants Cc, Ff, Jj, Ññ, Qq, Vv, Xx, Zz, will be used.

• These letters will be used in writing names of a person (e.g. Juan Dela Cruz), place (e.g. Jose Zurbito Elementary School), and scientific/technical terms (e.g. quadratic equation).


Extended Orthography

The inclusion of borrowed terms in our native vocabulary has resulted to the change in the structure of our language. There is a need to develop an extended orthography to accommodate these words.


1. The extended orthography will consist of the following:

Aa “ey”, Bb “bi”, Cc “si”, Dd “di”, Ee “I”, Ff “ef”, Gg “ji”, Hh “eych”, Ii “ay”, Jj “jey”, Kk “key”, Ll “el”, Mm “em”, Nn “en”, Ññ “enye”, NGng “en ji”, Oo “o”, Pp “pi”, Qq “kyu”, Rr “ar”, Ss “es”, Tt “ti”, Uu “yu”, Vv “vi”, Ww “dobol yu”, Xx “eks”, Yy “way”, Zz “zi”, [`] (for glottal stop)


2. All Minasbate words (native and borrowed) use the vowels a, i, e, o and u.


3. The use of u and o:

• If the word has only one /u/ sound that occurs in the ultimate position, o is used. Examples: pito, lisod, liog, didto, amo, itom, nano, kaaralo Exceptions: kun, agud

• If the word has more than one /u/ sound, u is used in the second or third to the last syllable and o is used in the final syllable Examples: kudkod, bukbok, gu`ól, pumuluyo`, burubaruto, uru`adlaw, alu`alo, tudló`

• O will be used in writing borrowed words that begin in /o/ sound. Example: ospital, obra, oro


4. The use of i and e:

• All Minasbate words with /i/ sound will be written as i. Examples: kilmi`, di`ín, didí, silhig, `ikog, tindog, `ini, sin

• e will be used in writing /e/ sound in borrowed words. Examples: eroplano, ahente, karne, onse, dose, nwebe, kwento,

• e will be used to represent the /e/ sounds in borrowed words that originally have /e/ sounds Examples: `espeho for espejo; `eskwela for escuela; `ehemplo for ejemplo, `edukado for educado

• i will be used to represent the /i/ sounds that are not actually present in the original form of the borrowed words: Examples: istorya for storia, isponsor for sponsor, ismagol for smuggle


4. The hyphen will be used in the following instances:

• Reduplication of full word, e.g. tawu-tawo ‘toy’, balay-balay ‘little house’, kalan-kalan ‘improvised stove’

• Compound words, e.g tagum-mata ‘conjunctivitis’, supa`-tulon ‘very easy’

• Affixation of borrowed words that are proper names, e.g. pa-LBC, pa-Manila

• Time expressions, e.g. alas-dose, ala-una, alas-diyes

• Expressions derived from Spanish that use de- affix which denotes ‘through’ or ‘made through the process’, e.g de-kolor, de-kalidad,


5. The hyphen will NOT be used in the following instances:

• Partial reduplication of the word, e.g. burubaruto, not *buru-baruto; burubugsay, not *buru-bugsay

• Affixation of native root words, e.g. ginaka`on, not *gina-kaun; ginsusog, not *gin-susog

• Affixation of borrowed verbs and nouns, e.g. magtext, not *mag-text; pamerkado, not *pa-merkado

• Linkers, duha ka bilog, not duha ka-bilog.


6. In writing borrowed words, the equivalent sounds in the native Minasbate will be used to represent the borrowed sounds.


7. Consonant clusters exist in both native and borrowed words in Minasbate.

• In representing the offglides or the sequence of u and w, and i and y, the vowels are dropped and the w and y are used, e.g. pwede instead of puwede, sya instead of siya, kwento instead of kuwento.

References

  1. Masbateño at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Masbatenyo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. Wolfenden, 2001, p.4
  4. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED565635.pdf
  5. https://www.academia.edu/27040039/Draft_Minasbate_Working_Orthography
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