|Region||Masbate province (almost whole portion of Masbate island proper, entire Ticao island and southern half of Burias island)|
250,000 L2 speakers
Total: 600,000+ speakers
Areas where Masbateño is spoken
Masbateño or Minasbate is a Bicol-Visayan language spoken by more than 600,000 people, primarily in the province of Masbate in the Philippines. It is very close to Capiznon, Hiligaynon/Ilonggo and Waray-Waray, all three spoken in Visayas. It is considered a Bisakol language, meaning a language intermediate between Visayan languages and Bicolano languages.
Masbateño has sixteen consonants: /p, t, k, ʔ, b, d, g, m, n, ŋ, s, h, l, ɾ, w, j/. There are three vowels: /i/, /a/, /e/, and /u,o/. The vowels u and o are allophones, with u always being used when it is the beginning and sometimes end of a syllable, and o always used when it ends a syllable. The sounds /e/ and /o/ could be borrowed from Spanish. This is one of the Philippine languages which is excluded from [ɾ]-[d] allophone.
Masbateño Basic Mathematical Operations
By Ronaldo Z. Ongotan
- one plus one equals two (1 + 1 = 2) - An usad gindagdagan san usad, duha/duwa ka bilog
- two times two equals four (2 x 2 = 4) - An duwa ginpilô san duwa na bes, nagin upat
- eight minus five equals three (8 - 5 = 3) - An walo gin-ibanan san lima, tulo an nabilin
- nine divided by three equals three (9 ÷ 3 = 3) - An siyam ginbarahin sa tulo, tig-turulo
Advanced Algebraic Operations
- x raised to the power of y, or in symbols, (x^y). In Minasbate, an x piluon sa y na beses.
- square root of x, or in symbols, sqrt(x). In Minasbate, an ikaduha na gamot san x o an numero na pinilo sa duwa na beses na nagin x.
- x over y, or in symbols, x/y. In Minasbate, x kada y.
- one and a half plus two and one-fourth equals three and three-fourths, or in symbols, 1 1/2 + 2 1/4 = 3 3/4. In Minasbate, an usad kag katunga gindagdagan san duha kag kaupat, tulo kag tulo-kaupat tanan.
- What? - Nano?
- Who? - Sin-o?
- Where? - Diin?
- When? - San-o?
- Why? - Kay? Nano kay?
- How? - Pan-o? Papan-o?
- Who are you? - Sin-o ka?
- What is your name? - Nano/Ano an pangaran mo?
- When is your Birthday - San-o ka nabuhay?
- Where do you live? - Diin ka naga-estar? Taga diin ka?
- Cat - Miya/Misay/Kuting (Ticao Island)
- Dog - Ido / Ayam (Ticao Island)
- Cow - Baka
- Carabao - Karabaw
- Tinday- may refer to any young animals like horse, cow, goat, carabao
- Pig - Orig (piglet) Anay (mother pig) Butakal/Takal (Male brooding pig)
- Rat - Iraga
- Ant - Sorum/Hantik/Amamaknit/Kutitob (Masbate Ticao Island)
- Ant- Subay (Masbate Main Land)
- Ant- Amimitas (Masbate Main Land)
- Ant - Hornigas (Masbate Main Land)
- Ant - Hamorigas ( Palanas,Masbate Main Land )
- Chicken - Umagak (hen); Siyo/piso (chic)
- Lizard - Tiki
- Gecko - Tuko
- Snake - Sawa
- Bird - Sapat (Masbate);Pispis (Mandaon);Langgam (Ticao Island)
- I hate you! - Urit ako sa imo! / Habo ko sa imo!
- I love you. - Namomo-ot ako sa imo. Namumot-an ta ikaw. (Bicolano-influenced)
- I love you. - Palangga ta ikaw. (Masbate Mainland)
- Let's talk. - Mag-istoryahan kita.
- Can I join? - Pwede ako kaintra?
- Pleased to meet you. - Malipay ako na nagbagat kita.
- How you doin'? - Matiano ka dida?
- Please let me know. - Ipaaram la sa akon.
- Please help me. - Buligi man ako.
- Can you teach me? -Pwede mo ba ako matukduan? Pwede magpatukdo?
- I want to learn Masbatenyo. - Gusto ko makaaram mag-istorya san Masbatenyo.
- Good morning! - Maayo na aga!
- Good afternoon! - Maayo na hapon!
- Good evening! - Maayo na gab-i!
- Good night! - Turog maayo.
- Let's eat. - Karaon na kita.
- You're (really) beautiful. - Kaganda mo (gayud).
- Please call me. - Tawagi tabi ako.
- Can I ask you a favor? - Pwede mangayo pabor (o bulig)?
- IMPATCHO- IMPLATCHO
- One - Isad/Usad
- Two - Duwa/Duha
- Three - Tulo
- Four - Upat
- Five - Lima
- Six - Unom
- Seven - Pito
- Eight - Walo
- Nine - Siyam
- Ten - Napulo
- Eleven - Onse
- Twenty - Baynte
- Twenty-one - Baynte uno
- One hundred - Usad ka gatos or syen
- One hundred thirty-five (135) - Syento traynta i singko
- Two hundred - Duwa kagatos or dos syentos
- One thousand - Usad karibo or uno mil
- Two thousand - Duwa karibo or dos mil
- Two thousand and ten - Dos mil dyes
- Blue - Blu
- Red - Pula
- Yellow - Dulaw
- Green - Grin or kolor-dahon
- Orange - Oreyns or kahel
- Violet - Tapul
- Brown - Brawn
- White - Puti
- Black - Itom
- Gray - Abuhon
- Circle - Bilog
- Square - Kwadrado
- Rectangle - Rektanggul
- Triangle - Trayanggul
- Oval - Lipid
- Cone - Basuso
- Sphere - Talimon
- Cube - Kubiko
- Beautiful - Maganda
- Ugly - Maraot / Pangit
- Hot - Mainit / Maalingahot
- Cold - Mayamig / Matugnaw
- Good - Maayo / Matahom
- Bad - Maraot / Malain
- Great - Matibay
- Sick - Maysakit / May ginabatyag
- Fast - Matulin / Madasig
- Slow - Mahinay / Maluya
- High - Hataas / Hitaas
- Low - Hamubo
- Deep - Hadarom
- Wide - Halapad
- Loose - Mahaluga
- Narrow - Masiot
- Long - Halaba
- Short - Halip-ot
- Light - Lasaw (color) / Magaan (weight)
- Heavy - Mabug-at
- Dark - Makutom / Madulom / Maitom
The following are the orthographic rules:
1. The following symbols are used in the native Minasbate orthography: Aa, Bb, Dd, Gg, Hh, Ii, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, NGng, Pp, Rr, Ss, Tt, Uu, Ww, Yy, ` (for glottal stop)
2. Minasbate has three phonemic vowels (V): Aa, Ii, Uu and 16 consonants (C): Bb, Dd, Gg, Hh, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, NGng, Pp, Rr, Ss, Tt, Ww, Yy, ` (for glottal stop).
3. The glottal stop is a distinct consonant sound in Minasbate and part of its alphabet. The grave accent ( ` ) will be used to represent the glottal stop.
• The glottal stop may occur between a C and V, e.g pus`on, bag`o
• It may also occur in the final position of the word, e.g. túro`, pakó`
• The glottal may also occur between two V, e.g ti`il, di`in, gu`ol,
• The glottal stop is also the obligatory onset of the syllable that begins with a vowel. It will be symbolized when the word begins with a vowel, e.g `adlaw, `ako, `amó`
4. The syllable pattern of Minasbate words is CV and CVC, e.g. ba.láy = CV.CVC.
• All C can occur in the beginning of a word (onset) or ending (coda).
• All V are used to form a syllable nucleus, e.g. ba.lay, `a.ku.
5. In writing stress or accent, the acute accent ( ‘ ) above the V is used, e.g. buháy, íya, sílhig, dakó`.
• In phonetics, a stressed syllable is usually lengthened. For example, in the case of búhay ‘life’ vs buháy ‘alive’, the syllable bú in ‘life‘ is longer than the syllable bu in ‘alive’.
• It is possible to have more than one stress in a word, e.g hámabáw, `ámamáknit.
• Stress is symbolized by the acute accent ( ‘ ) if it falls on the last syllable, e.g. hubág, sulód. The stress is not symbolized if it falls on the penultimate syllable, e.g. gab`i ‘night’, kiray ‘eyebrow’.
• In early grades, it is suggested to mark the stress in all the necessary places to assist the learners/users of the language in learning the language.
6. The Minasbate orthography will be used in teaching the learners to read, write, listen and comprehend the native words.
• In the case of borrowed terms, the extended orthography, including the vowels Ee and Oo and consonants Cc, Ff, Jj, Ññ, Qq, Vv, Xx, Zz, will be used.
• These letters will be used in writing names of a person (e.g. Juan Dela Cruz), place (e.g. Jose Zurbito Elementary School), and scientific/technical terms (e.g. quadratic equation).
The inclusion of borrowed terms in our native vocabulary has resulted to the change in the structure of our language. There is a need to develop an extended orthography to accommodate these words.
1. The extended orthography will consist of the following:
Aa “ey”, Bb “bi”, Cc “si”, Dd “di”, Ee “I”, Ff “ef”, Gg “ji”, Hh “eych”, Ii “ay”, Jj “jey”, Kk “key”, Ll “el”, Mm “em”, Nn “en”, Ññ “enye”, NGng “en ji”, Oo “o”, Pp “pi”, Qq “kyu”, Rr “ar”, Ss “es”, Tt “ti”, Uu “yu”, Vv “vi”, Ww “dobol yu”, Xx “eks”, Yy “way”, Zz “zi”, [`] (for glottal stop)
2. All Minasbate words (native and borrowed) use the vowels a, i, e, o and u.
3. The use of u and o:
• If the word has only one /u/ sound that occurs in the ultimate position, o is used. Examples: pito, lisod, liog, didto, amo, itom, nano, kaaralo Exceptions: kun, agud
• If the word has more than one /u/ sound, u is used in the second or third to the last syllable and o is used in the final syllable Examples: kudkod, bukbok, gu`ól, pumuluyo`, burubaruto, uru`adlaw, alu`alo, tudló`
• O will be used in writing borrowed words that begin in /o/ sound. Example: ospital, obra, oro
4. The use of i and e:
• All Minasbate words with /i/ sound will be written as i. Examples: kilmi`, di`ín, didí, silhig, `ikog, tindog, `ini, sin
• e will be used in writing /e/ sound in borrowed words. Examples: eroplano, ahente, karne, onse, dose, nwebe, kwento,
• e will be used to represent the /e/ sounds in borrowed words that originally have /e/ sounds Examples: `espeho for espejo; `eskwela for escuela; `ehemplo for ejemplo, `edukado for educado
• i will be used to represent the /i/ sounds that are not actually present in the original form of the borrowed words: Examples: istorya for storia, isponsor for sponsor, ismagol for smuggle
4. The hyphen will be used in the following instances:
• Reduplication of full word, e.g. tawu-tawo ‘toy’, balay-balay ‘little house’, kalan-kalan ‘improvised stove’
• Compound words, e.g tagum-mata ‘conjunctivitis’, supa`-tulon ‘very easy’
• Affixation of borrowed words that are proper names, e.g. pa-LBC, pa-Manila
• Time expressions, e.g. alas-dose, ala-una, alas-diyes
• Expressions derived from Spanish that use de- affix which denotes ‘through’ or ‘made through the process’, e.g de-kolor, de-kalidad,
5. The hyphen will NOT be used in the following instances:
• Partial reduplication of the word, e.g. burubaruto, not *buru-baruto; burubugsay, not *buru-bugsay
• Affixation of native root words, e.g. ginaka`on, not *gina-kaun; ginsusog, not *gin-susog
• Affixation of borrowed verbs and nouns, e.g. magtext, not *mag-text; pamerkado, not *pa-merkado
• Linkers, duha ka bilog, not duha ka-bilog.
6. In writing borrowed words, the equivalent sounds in the native Minasbate will be used to represent the borrowed sounds.
7. Consonant clusters exist in both native and borrowed words in Minasbate.
• In representing the offglides or the sequence of u and w, and i and y, the vowels are dropped and the w and y are used, e.g. pwede instead of puwede, sya instead of siya, kwento instead of kuwento.
- Masbateño at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Masbatenyo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Wolfenden, 2001, p.4