Marcus Claudius Tacitus
Bust of the Emperor Tacitus
|Emperor of the Roman Empire|
|Reign||September 25, 275 – June 276|
June 276 (aged 76)|
Antoniana Colonia Tyana, Cappadocia
Tacitus (//; Latin: Marcus Claudius Tacitus Augustus; c. 200 – June 276), was Roman Emperor from 275 to 276. During his short reign he campaigned against the Goths and the Heruli, for which he received the title Gothicus Maximus.
Tacitus was born in Interamna (Terni), in Italia. He circulated copies of the historian Gaius Cornelius Tacitus' work, which was barely read at the time, perhaps contributing to the partial survival of the historian's work; however, modern historiography rejects his claimed descent from the historian as a fabrication. In the course of his long life he discharged the duties of various civil offices, holding the consulship twice, once under Valerian and again in 273, earning universal respect.
After the assassination of Aurelian, the army, apparently in remorse at the effects of the previous centuries' military license, which had brought about the death of the well-liked emperor, relinquished the right of choosing his successor to the senate. Initially, the Senate hesitated to accept the responsibility, but when the delay had gone on eight months from Aurelian's death it at last determined to settle the matter and offered the throne to the aged Princeps Senatus, Tacitus.
Tacitus, after ascertaining the sincerity of the Senate's regard for him, accepted their nomination, and the choice was cordially ratified by the army. This was the last time the Senate elected a Roman Emperor. The interregnum between Aurelian and Tacitus had been quite long, and there is substantial evidence that Aurelian's wife, Ulpia Severina, ruled in her own right before the election of Tacitus. Tacitus had been living in Campania before his election, and returned only reluctantly to the assembly of the senate in Rome, where he was elected. He immediately asked the Senate to deify Aurelian, before arresting and executing Aurelian's murderers.
Amongst the highest concerns of the new reign was the restoration of the ancient powers of the senate. He granted substantial prerogatives to the senate, securing to them by law the appointment of the emperor, of the consuls, and the provincial governors, as well as supreme right of appeal from every court in the empire in its judicial function, and the direction of certain branches of the revenue in its long-abeyant administrative capacity. However, after the reforms of Diocletian in the succeeding decades not a vestige would be left of these rights to the senate, though Tacitus' later successor, Probus, respected them.
Next he moved against the barbarian mercenaries that had been gathered by Aurelian to supplement Roman forces for his Eastern campaign. These mercenaries had plundered several towns in the Eastern Roman provinces after Aurelian had been murdered and the campaign cancelled. His half-brother, the Praetorian Prefect Florianus, and Tacitus himself won a victory against these tribes, among which were the Heruli, gaining the emperor the title Gothicus Maximus.
On his way back to the west to deal with a Frankish and Alamannic invasion of Gaul, according to Aurelius Victor, Eutropius and the Historia Augusta, Tacitus died of fever at Tyana in Cappadocia in June 276. It was reported that he began acting strangely, declaring that he would alter the names of the months to honor himself, before succumbing to a fever. In a contrary account, Zosimus claims he was assassinated, after appointing one of his relatives to an important command in Syria.
In popular culture
He appears in Harry Sidebottom's historical fiction novel series Warrior Of Rome.
- In Classical Latin, Tacitus' name would be inscribed as MARCVS CLAVDIVS TACITVS AVGVSTVS.
- Jones, pg. 873
- Historia Augusta, Vita Taciti, 15:1
- McMahon, http://www.roman-emperors.org/tacitus.htm#N_3_
- Edward Gibbon, The Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire, (The Modern Library, 1932), chap. XII., p. 276
- Gibbon, chap. XII., pp. 274-278
- Gibbon, p. 277; He was then 75 years old.
- Watson, Alaric (1999). Aurelian and the Third Century. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07248-4.
- Körner, Christian (December 23, 2008). "Aurelian (A.D. 270–275)". De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
- Southern, pg. 127
- Gibbon, p. 279
- Gibbon, Ibid. p. 280
- Aurelius Victor, 36:1
- Historia Augusta, Vita Taciti, 13:5
- Zosimus, I:63:2
- Historia Augusta, Vita Taciti, English version of Historia Augusta
- Eutropius, Breviarium ab urbe condita, ix. 16, English version of Breviarium ab Urbe Condita
- Aurelius Victor, "Epitome de Caesaribus", English version of Epitome de Caesaribus
- Zosimus, "Historia Nova", Historia Nova
- Joannes Zonaras, Compendium of History extract: Zonaras: Alexander Severus to Diocletian: 222–284
- McMahon, Robin, "Tacitus (275–276 A.D)", De Imperatoribus Romanis
- Jones, A.H.M., Martindale, J.R. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I: AD260-395, Cambridge University Press, 1971
- Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001
- Gibbon. Edward Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire (1888)
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Tacitus, Marcus Claudius". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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- Constantine P. Cavafy, The Complete Poems, Harcourt, Brace & World (1961), p. 201
- Alan Dugan, Poems 2, Yale University Press (1963), p. 33
| Roman Emperor
Titus Flavius Postumius Quietus,
| Consul of the Roman Empire
| Consul of the Roman Empire