Mandailing language

Mandailing Language
Saro Mandailing
Native to Indonesia
Region Sumatra
Ethnicity Mandailing people
Native speakers
1.1 million (2000 census)[1]
Latin, Mandailing
Language codes
ISO 639-3 btm
Glottolog bata1291[2]

Mandailing or Batak Mandailing is an Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, the northern island of Sumatra. It is spoken mainly in Mandailing Natal Regency, North Padang Lawas Regency, Padang Lawas Regency, and eastern parts of Labuhan Batu Regency, North Labuhan Batu Regency, South Labuhan Batu Regency and northwestern parts of Riau Province. It is written using the Latin script but historically used Batak script.

Literature

Classical

Mandailing literary art is transmitted through a distinctive tradition, for example through the following media: [3]

1. Marturi Tradition tells the story in the social context Mandailing is done verbally. Stories are transmitted from generation to generation. The plot uses advanced grooves and a lot of content about manners.

2. Ende Ungut-Ungut Distinguished Differentiated on the theme. Ende is an expression of the heart, a change due to various things, such as the misery of life due to death, abandonment, and others. It also contains knowledge, advice, moral teachings, kinship system, and so on. Ende laments use the pattern of rhymes with ab-ab or aa-aa. Attachments usually use a lot of plant names, because the language leaves.

Example :

Mandailing
tu sigama pe so lalu
madung donok tu Ujung Gading
di angan-angan pe so lalu
laing tungkus abit partinggal

English
To Sigama was not up
It's close to Ujung Gading
What not even in the imagination
Keep the memorable cloth

Colonial period

Some of the literary milestones that developed in the colonial period include:

1.Willem Iskander (1840-1876) wrote the book

  • "Hendrik Nadenggan Roa, Sada Boekoe Basaon ni Dakdanak" (Translations). Padang: Van Zadelhoff and Fabritius (1865).
  • "Leesboek van W.C. Thurn in het Mandhelingsch Vertaald. "Batavia: Landsdrukkerij (1871).
  • "Si Bulus-bulus Si Rumbuk-rumbuk" (1872).
  • "Taringot ragam ni Parbinotoan dohot Sinaloan ni Alak Eropa." This text is adapted from the book "The Story of the Science of the White Persons" written by Abdullah Munsyi, a Malay linguist and linguist (1873).

2. Soetan Martua Raja (Siregar). He was born from an aristocratic family in Bagas Lombang Sipirok, an educated HIS, an elite school in Pematang Siantar. His work is:

  • "Hamajuon" (Elementary School Reading Material).
  • "Doea Sadjoli: Boekoe Siseon ni Dakdanak di Sikola." (1917). This book raises the critique of children's thinking. Written in Latin script (Soerat Oelando) which is relatively developed secular pedagogy. This book adopts a poda, a kind of storyteller that contains advice, moral teaching in the context of children's thinking level.
  • "Ranto Omas" (Golden Chain), 1918.

3. Soetan Hasoendoetan (Sipahutar), novelist and journalist. His works:

  • Turi-Turian (story tells, tells the relationship of interaction between man and the ruler of the sky).
  • "Sitti Djaoerah: Padan Djandji na Togoe." (1927-1929), an Angkola Mandailing-language series which is chained in 457 pages. The series is published in the weekly "Pustaha" published in Sibolga. This story is believed to be the reason readers buy the newspaper. The series adopts epic tales, turi-turian, and various social terminology of Angkola-Mandailing society and is written in novel style. This is in line with the development of Malay-language novels published by the colonial government. In the history of Indonesian literature, this period is known as the Angkatan Balai Pustaka or Angkatan 20's. Soetan Hasundutan said that he wrote the novel because it was inspired by the novel "Siti Nurbaja" (Marah Rusli, 1922) which was very popular at that time.
  • "Datoek Toengkoe Adji Malim Leman." (1941), published by Sjarief, Pematang Siantar.

4. Mangaradja Goenoeng Sorik Marapi, wrote the book “Turian-turian ni Raja Gorga di Langit dohot Raja Suasa di Portibi.” This book is published Pustaka Murni, Pematang Siantar titled 1914.

5.Sutan Pangurabaan. His work, "Ampang Limo Bapole." (1930), "Parkalaan Tondoeng" (1937), "Parpadanan" (1930), and a Malay book "Mentjapai Doenia Baroe" (1934). In addition to books written by Willem Iskander, his books also became a reading book for colonial school.

6. Soetan Habiaran Siregar explores the languages, dances, and songs that come from Angkola-Mandailing. He writes several royalties, among others: : “Turi-turian ni Tunggal Panaluan”, “Panangkok Saring-Saring tu Tambak na Timbo” (1983), and others. In addition, he also made a composition of songs made using the composition of cha-cha rhythmic beat.

In addition to Mandailing Angkola's literary language, it is important to note the growth of Malay-language Indonesian literature but by adopting local color. For example the novel "Azab dan Sengsara" (1921) written by Merari Siregar. This novel lifts contextual customs and cultures such as forced marriage, inheritance, kinship relations, and the local traditions of Mandailing-Angkola.[3]

Contemporary

Contemporary Mandailing literature is no longer developed since pre-independence, as the changing national education curriculum using the National language by itself erodes the use of Mandailing languages.[3]

Entertainment

Literature in lyrics and musical drama Mandailing language include:

  • The musical drama of the 1970s in a tape cassette recorder.
  • Drama "Sampuraga namaila marina".
  • Mandailing song album in vcd fragment of early period.
  • Album of Tapsel, Madina, Palas and Paluta.[3]

Variety

Based on the classification of language offered by Slamet Mulyana, the Mandailing Language includes the Austronesian language family. Pangaduan Lubis is argued that in the Mandailing language there are five languages of each vocabulary different from each other:[4]

1 Hata somal is the variety of language that is used in everyday life.

2. Hata andung is a variety of literary languages used in the tradition of mangandung (wailing) at traditional ceremonies of marriage or death.

3. Hata teas dohot jampolak is the kind of language used in quarrels or berate.

4 Hata si baso is a variety of languages used specifically by the baso (figure shaman) or datu.

5. Hata parkapur is the kind of language that Mandailing people used in the past when they searched for camphor.[5]

Examples of vocabulary:

EnglishIndonesiaHata somalHata andungHata teasHata si basoHata parkapur
EyeMataMataSimanyolongLoncot-
Betel leafDaun sirihBurangirSimanggurak-Situngguk
TigerHarimauBabiat---Ompungi/Namaradati

In the past Mandailing people also had a particular communication tool or kind of language called Hata bulung-bulung (foliage language). This language is not a symbol of sound but uses the leaves of plants as a symbol.[6][4]

Numbers

EnglishIndonesiaMandailing
OneSatuSada
TwoDuaDua
ThreeTigaTolu
FourEmpatOpat
FiveLimaLima
SixEnamOnom
SevenTujuhPitu
EightDelapanSalapan
NineSembilanSambilan
TenSepuluhSapulu


Question

EnglishIndonesiaMandailing
WhatApaAha
HowBagaimanaSongondia/Biadoma
How manyBerapaSadia
WhereDi manaIdia
KemanaTudia
Dari manaTingondia/Ngundia
ManaIdia
WhoSiapaIse
WhyMengapaAso
WhenKapanAndigan
HowKenapaMaoa/Mangoa

Sources

  • (in English) Adelaar, Alexander, The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar: A Historical Perspective, The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar, pp. 1–42, Routledge Language Family Series, Londres: Routledge, 2005, ISBN 0-7007-1286-0
  • (in Indonesian) Siregar, Ahmad Samin, Kamus Bahasa Angkola/Mandailing Indonesia, Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan Dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Departemen Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan, 1977.

References

  1. Mandailing Language at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Batak Mandailing". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Askolani Nasution (27 January 2014). "Kesusatraan Mandailing". www.jendelasastra.com.
  4. 1 2 Edi Nasution (2007). "Bahasa Mandailing". Tulilla, Muzik bujukan Mandailing. Arecabooks. p. 31. ISBN 9789834283445. |first1= missing |last1= in Editors list (help)
  5. Basyral Hamidy Harahap (17 November 2018). "Mengenal Bahasa Mandailing-bagian 1". www.mandailingonline.com.
  6. Basyral Hamidy Harahap (21 November 2016). "Mengenal Bahasa Mandailing-bagian 4". www.mandailingonline.com. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
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