Machismo (/məˈzm, mɑː-, -ˈɪ-/; Spanish: [maˈtʃizmo]; Portuguese: [maˈʃizmu] (from Spanish and Portuguese "macho", male[1]) is the sense of being 'manly' and self-reliant, the concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride: an exaggerated masculinity."[2] It is associated with "a man’s responsibility to provide for, protect, and defend his family."[3] In American political usage, William Safire said that it refers to the... "condescension of the swaggering male; the trappings of manliness used to dominate women and keep them 'in their place....'"[4]

The word macho has a long history in both Spain and Portugal as well as in Spanish and Portuguese languages. It was originally associated with the ideal societal role men were expected to play in their communities, most particularly, Iberian language-speaking societies and countries. Macho in Portuguese and Spanish is a strictly masculine term, derived from the Latin mascŭlus meaning male (today hombre or varón, c.f. Portuguese homem and now-obsolete for humans varão; macho and varão, in their most common sense, are used for males of non-human animal species). Machos in Iberian-descended cultures are expected to possess and display bravery, courage and strength as well as wisdom and leadership, and ser macho (literally, "to be a macho") was an aspiration for all boys.

During the women's liberation movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the term began to be used by Latin American feminists to describe male aggression and violence. The term was used by Latina feminists and scholars to criticize the patriarchal structure of gendered relations in Latino communities. Their goal was to describe a particular Latin American brand of patriarchy.[5][6]

The English word "machismo" derives from the identical Spanish and Portuguese word. Portuguese and Spanish machismo refers to the assumption that masculinity is superior to femininity in males, a concept similar to R. W. Connell's hegemonic masculinity.[7] Gender roles make an important part of human identity as we conduct our identities through our historical and current social actions.[8] Machismo's attitudes and behaviours may be frowned upon or encouraged at various degrees in various societies or subcultures – albeit it is frequently associated with more patriarchial undertones, primarily in present views on the past.[5]


"Caballerosidad" in Spanish, or cavalheirismo in Portuguese, or the English mixture of both but not a proper word in any of the previously mentioned languages, caballerismo, is a Latin American understanding of manliness that focuses more on honour and chivalry.[9] The meaning of caballero is "gentleman" (derived from the one who follows a code of honour like knights used to do, or shares certain values and ideals associated with them that included, among others like a particular pride in honour, treating women kindly with especial delicacy and attention). Latin American scholars have noted that positive descriptors of machismo resemble the characteristics associated with the concept of caballerosidad.[5] Understandings of machismo in Latin American cultures are not all negative; they also involve the characteristics of honour, responsibility, perseverance and courage, related to both individual and group interaction.[5][10] Studies show Latin American men understand masculinity to involve considerable childcare responsibilities, politeness, respect for women's autonomy, and non-violent attitudes and behaviors.[11] In this way, machismo comes to mean both positive and negative understanding of Latin American male identity within the immigrant context. Therefore, machismo, like all social constructions of identity, should be understood as having multiple layers.[5][12]

The word caballerosidad originates from the Spanish word caballero, Spanish for "horseman". Caballerosidad refers to a chivalric masculine code of behavior. (Note that the English term also stems from the Latin root caballus, through the French chevalier). Like the English chivalric code, caballerosidad developed out of a medieval socio-historical class system in which people of wealth and status owned horses for transportation and other forms of horsepower whereas the lower classes did not. It was also associated with the class of knights in the feudal system. In Spanish, caballero referred to a land-owning colonial gentleman of high station who was master of estates and/or ranches.[5]

Criticism and controversy

Controversy surrounding colonial connotations

There is controversy surrounding the concept of Machismo as originally from Spanish and Portuguese descent. The use of Spanish and Portuguese produces historical colonial connotations through its promotion of Spanish and Portuguese masculine social construction, when the term should be used to describe specific Latin American historical masculinities.[13][14] However, the word machismo does resemble words in Spanish and Portuguese language which is the cause why it is often associated with Spain and Portugal. In addition, by identifying machismo as a form of Europeanness, it offers legitimacy to the concept of a wicked formed of the same Western hypermasculinity known to Protestant Reforme-derived cultures and subjugates Latin America's understanding of itself and its cultural history and peculiarities.[13]

For example, the use of caballerosidad, Cavalheirismo, to mean only the positive characteristics of machismo contains colonial connotations regarding the historical colonial power relations. This is because the origin of the word caballero to intend for a wealthy Spaniard landlord during the colonial era, exalts[15] European culture in comparison to the so-called Latin American machismo (animalesque, irrational, violent, backward).[5] It cannot be avoided in Portuguese as cavalheirismo, the word for the more acceptable parts of machismo, is itself a loanword from Spanish presenting a palatalization process that Portuguese did not experience (the Portuguese word for a horseman is cavaleiro, and for horsemanship it has cavalaria).

Consequences of a one-sided negative depiction

Researchers are concerned regarding the unbalanced representation of machismo within Latin American cultures; and are now focused on creating a balanced representation.[5] They have repeatedly pointed out the positive characteristics consistent with machismo, or caballerosidad: nurturance, protection of the family and its honor, dignity, wisdom, hard work, responsibility, spirituality, and emotional connectedness.[12] Latin American scholars propose there are really two different constructs within machismo, one positive construct and one negative construct. The negative construct of machismo is based on the traditional Western concept of hypermasculinity, and is predominant within mainstream discourse, without an acknowledgement towards its resemblance towards hypermasculinty. Caballerosidad's characteristics are exalted, while machismo's characteristics are seen as predominantly negative.[5][12]

The other side of machismo, the positive side (caballerosidad, cavalheirismo), refers to a connection to family and chivalry. However, the focus on the negative aspects and avoidance of positive aspects of machismo coincides with the concept of marginalization and powerlessness[16] of Hispanic and Latino, and more broadly Romance-speaking European culture-derived, narratives. This is because the focus on the negative and avoidance of the positive creates a power dynamic that legitimizes mainstream American hegemonic masculinity as the correct masculinity and subjugates machismo as a degenerated "non-white" form of abuse against women and backwardness. As a result, it creates a sense of powerlessness within Latino males in their expression of their masculinity.[7][17]

Academics have noted that there are consequences of only having a negative definition for Hispanic and Latino masculinity in popular literature. Researchers have suggested that, according to the Eurocentric (and to a certain degree anti-Catholic and/or Nordicist) views dominant in mainstream white American culture, Latin American manifestations of machismo represent "all that is wrong in a man".[18] Latino academics have used this argument to explain why Latino male youth struggle in academic institutions and have high rates of criminality.[19] These are the same discourses that argue that Latino masculinity (machismo) is defined by violence, recklessness, and misogyny. Accordingly, they link these expressions as contributing to a lack of interest in academics as well as behavioural struggles in schools for Latino male youth. However, this focus does not reveal the other social forces that drive Hispanic and Latino youth to struggle academically instead of participating in criminal behaviour, or the fact that those cultural myths of the strong Latino male character, famed for its self-assertiveness and dominance, are often perpetuated by Latin Americans and their cultural descendants themselves.

Throughout popular literature, the term has continued to be associated with negative characteristics, such as sexism, misogyny, chauvinism, hypermasculinity, and hegemonic masculinity.[20][21][22] Scholars[23] characterize macho men as violent, rude, womanizing, and prone to alcoholism. Authors from a various disciplines typified macho men as domineering through intimidation, seducing and controlling women and children through violence and intimidation.[20]

For example, in American literature, an example of machismo comes from Tennessee Williams' character Stanley Kowalski, an egotistical brother-in-law, from A Streetcar Named Desire. In the play (and 1951 film adaptation), Stanley epitomizes the tough, alpha-male (hypermasculine) archetype, socially and physically dominating and imposing his will upon his wife and her sister, Blanche Dubois. Bound up with Stanley's aggressive and occasionally misogynistic views is a strong sense of pride and honor which leads to his hatred of Blanche.

In the play A View from the Bridge by Arthur Miller, one of the main characters, Eddie, is a classic type who displays machismo. He wants to be the best of the men around him and when beaten, becomes very agitated and increasingly irrational. The negative stereotypes depicted in American literature are not representative of all the different layers of machismo.


Machismo has been influenced and supported by many different factors. The Catholic religion plays a vital role to many within the Spanish community. For this reason the male dominated world that is often referenced in the Bible is seen among the people. Examples can be found throughout the Bible showing how women should be submissive to their husbands: “Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire [shall be] to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee” (Genesis 3:16).[24] The ideologies that the man is stronger, the moneymaker, and the protector all back up the mindset that wives must listen to their husbands.

Masculinity in context: Chile

The revolution of copper mining sets the tone of traditional masculinity.[25] The industrious labor performed by the working class male is accredited by status amongst peers and ability to provide for the family.[25] Men who work in the mines are often away from their families’ the majority of the time so they engage in homosociality.[25] The homosocial leisure activities that the workers engage in consist of gambling, soccer, and alcohol. Women’s presence in social settings is not prominent, so men’s dominance and inevitable homosocial interactions create kinship and brotherhood. Exploitation of masculinity through the context of miners is prominent and embodied by Chilean males.

Indigenous influence on Mexican culture

In Nahuatl culture, the term macho (having nothing to do with the derivation from the Latin mascŭlus), means, translated into Spanish, ejemplar; in English, an example, "one who is worthy of imitation". The Nahuatl dictionary also states that the word macho means "enlightened one", or "one who had been made to learn".

Puerto Rican machismo and American cultural influences of gender equality.

As a colony of the U.S Puerto Rico tends to take on the same progressive movements as U.S. These movements include LGBTQ rights, minority rights, and equality. In regards to equality and what separates men and women, gender roles determine what is socially acceptable in different geographical areas. In Puerto Rico the machismo culture has or had a strong presence. Men were to work outside the home, manage the finances, and make the decisions. Women were to be subordinate to their husbands and be the homemakers. Women would often would have to be dependent on men for everything. Growing up boys are taught to the machismo code girls are taught the marianismo or machista code. Machismo is a term originating in the early 1930s and 40s best defined as having masculinity and Pride. Machismo is a factor challenged among different groups due to how an ideal man is expected to be portrayed which builds pressure. Mentally men may feel the need to take up more opportunities to meet expectations, such as supporting the home, or maintaining employment leading to stress. This may also take a toll as physically well straining to be strong and overexerting the body, or the opposite of putting on weight by not having the desired physique and feeling inferior. This is further expressed through Puerto Ricans Americans outside the island.[26]

However, the roles are beginning to shift as women’s rights and equality movements sweep the mainland, Puerto Rico is beginning to feel the effects. While Puerto Ricans may be motivated by the progressive of the mainland they base their movements off of their situations in Puerto Rico. Beginning in the 1950s the employment rate for women began to rise as the employment rate fell due to the island’s industrialization. Also, during the 1950s to 1980s the field of the white collar women emerged furthering the rise in women employment. However, women were not released from their homemaker duties because they had a job. In fact, women were now expected to contribute to the household’s finances and be the homemaker. This caused a shift in what was acceptable in households. Men used to be able to come and go as they pleased as the women were dependent on them, however, after contributing to the household, acquiring more education, and being the homemaker women became more independent and conscious. They no longer tolerated unfaithful men, controlling men, and violent men. This caused great inner conflict with the idea of the machismo culture. In present day society this machismo culture is still oppressed as Puerto Rico in 2016 was the only place where women made more than men, at $1.03 for every $1.[27][28][29]

In Chicago where there is a big Puerto Rican community; Puerto Ricans are feeling threatened of their American dream. Young Puerto Rican women are expected to stay at home reproductively, as well as for the cultural reasons of productively being at home. There are rules made by Latin families that young women should not be influenced by the dangers of outside, for the portrayal of young women to be sexualized or vulnerable. They are raised with these strict rules because some women experience pregnancy at a young age, and are not familiar to care for both themselves nor the responsibilities of a new child. Young women may even lack support from their own household families, and are blamed for not being properly educated. Puerto Rican families influenced by American culture; may express to bend traditional rules. These families do what they believe is best for their family, and further educate about sexual education and learn while virginity is valued until marriage.[30]

LGBTQ community is also a conflicting issue to the machismo culture. Puerto Rico is known for its strong Christian community along with having a smaller Jewish and Muslim community as well. Due to changing times and influence from America the LGBTQ has been a strong movement for equality, which in Puerto Rico has not always been accepted; and even harmed in the process due to difference. A new term to differentiate gender is Latinx, and Latine a variant used to pronounce easily throughout Latin America is a gender neutral form of addressing someone compared to the familiar male Latino or female Latina. Minorities are treated differently in Puerto Rico despite the blending of three races. Puerto Ricans face racism amongst themselves in their community and at work solely based on their color of their skin. People with even the slightest pigment were not considered white, and segregation exist within the island; where minorities may live in different regions of the island with others of color.[31][32][33]

Therefore, the pre-Columbian use of the word macho had to do with wisdom and leadership that was worthy of imitation, while gender was not involved. When the Spanish came, their use of the word macho was strictly masculine. Therefore, after the Spanish invasion a new word, idea and concept was born: that a macho was a masculine leader, who was enlightened and worthy of imitation. It was always a positive term. Therefore, in Mexico, the use of the word macho may provoke confusion if it is not used precisely or in context.[34]


Generational cycle

Many women identify that machismo is perpetuated through the pressure to raise children a certain way and instill social constructions of gender throughout a child’s development.[35] This is complemented by the distant father-son relationship in which intimacy and affection are typically avoided. These aspects set up the environment through which the ideology perpetuates itself.[35] It creates a sense of inferiority that drives boys to reach an unattainable level of masculinity, a pursuit often validated by the aggressive and apathetic behavior they observe in the men around them and ultimately leading them to continue the cycle.[35]

Mental health

There is accumulating evidence that supports the relation between the way men are traditionally socialized to be masculine and its harmful mental and physical health consequences.[36] Respectively, machismo, is sociocultural term associated with male and female socialization in Hispanic cultures; it is a set of values, attitudes and beliefs about masculinity.[37] Although the construct of machismo holds both positive and negative aspects of masculinity, emerging research suggests the gender role conceptualization of machismo has associations with negative cognitive-emotional factors (i.e., depression symptoms; trait anxiety and anger; cynical hostility) among Hispanic populations.[37]

Similarly, a well-documented disparity notes Latino adolescents reporting higher levels of depression than other ethnic backgrounds. Research suggests this may be associated to adolescent perceived gender role discrepancies which challenge the traditional perceptions of gender role (i.e., machismo).[38]

Enhanced understanding on associations between the gender role conceptualizations of machismo with negative cognitive-emotional factors may prove invaluable to mental health professionals.[37] According to Fragoso and Kashubeck, "if a therapist notes that a client seems to endorse high levels of machismo, that therapist might explore whether the client is experiencing high levels of stress and depression".[36] Therefore, "conducting a gender role assessment would help a therapist assess a client's level of machismo and whether aspects of gender role conflict are present".[36]

Many counseling psychologists are interested in further studies for comprehending the connection between counseling for males and topics such as sex-role conflicts and male socialization.[39] This high demand stems from such psychologists' abilities to make patients aware how some inflexible and pre-established ideals regarding sex-roles may be detrimental to people's way of regarding new changes in societal expectancies, fostering relationships, and physical and mental health.[39] Professionals such as Thomas Skovholt, psychology professor at the University of Minnesota, claim that more research needs to be done in order to have efficient mediation for men through counseling.[39]

Several elements of machismo are considered psychologically harmful for men.[40] Competition is a widely talked about subject in this area, as studies show that there are both positive and negative connotations to it.[40] Many benefits arise from healthy competition such as team-building abilities, active engagement, pressure handling, critical thinking, and the strive to excel.[41] As these qualities and traits are highly valued by many, they are widely taught to children from a young age both at school and at home.[41] Scholars also argue that men could be mentally harmed from competition, such as the one experienced by many at their job, as their impetus to rise above their peers and fulfill the breadwinner concept in many societies can cause stress, jealousy, and psychological strain.[40]

Negative implications


"Machismo as a cultural factor is substantially associated with crime, violence, and lawlessness independently of the structural control variables"[42] (26-27). One key aspect of Machismo's association to violence is its influence in a man's behavior towards proving his strength[35] (57). While strength and fortitude are recognized as key components to the stereotype of machismo, demonstrations of violence and aggressive actions have become almost expected of men and have been justified as desirable products of being tough and macho. It can be implied that "if you are violent, you are strong and thus more of a man than those who back down or do not fight".[43]

Violent encounters can stem from the desire to protect his family, friends, and particularly his female relatives that are vulnerable to the machismo actions of other men,[35] (59). However, through jealousy, competitiveness, and pride, violent encounters are also often pursued to demonstrate his strength to others. A man's insecurities can be fueled by a number of pressures. These range from societal pressures to "be a man" to internal pressures of overcoming an inferiority complex,[35] (59). This can translate into actions that devalue feminine characteristics and overemphasize the characteristics of strength and superiority attributed to masculinity,[35] (59).

Domestic/sexual violence

In many cases, a man's position of superiority over a female partner can lead him to gain control over different aspects of her life.[44] Since women are viewed as subservient to men in many cultures, men often have power to decide whether his wife can work, study, socialize, participate in the community, or even leave the house. With little opportunity for attaining an income, minimal means to get an education, and the few people they have as a support system, many women become dependent on their husbands financially and emotionally.[44] This leaves many women particularly vulnerable to domestic violence both because it is justified through this belief that men are superior and thus are free to express that superiority and because women cannot leave such an abusive relationship since they rely on their husbands to live.[44]

Gender roles

The power difference in the relationship between a man and a woman not only creates the social norm of machismo, but by consequence also creates the social concept of marianismo.[45] which is the idea that women are meant to be pure and wholesome. Marianismo derives its origins from Spanish Colonization, as many social constructs from Latin America do. It emphasizes the perfect femininity of a woman and her virginity. One could argue that in the similar manner of Patriarchy, the man is the head of the household while the "fragile" woman is submissive and tends to remain behind the scenes. This brings to focus the idea that women are inferior and are thus dependent on their husbands. As a result, they not only rely on their husbands for financial support, but in the social realm are put at the same level as "children under age 12, mentally ill persons, and spendthrifts"[45] (265). By way of tradition, not only are women given limited opportunities in what they are able to do and to be, but they are also viewed as people that cannot even take care of themselves. Getting married provides a woman with security under her husband's success, but also entails a lifelong commitment towards serving her husband and her children.[45]

While social pressures and expectations play huge roles in the perpetuation of the marianismo construct, this ideology is also taught to girls as they grow up.[45] They learn the importance of performing domestic labor and household chores, such as cooking and cleaning, because this will be the role they will play in their future families. They are taught that these must be done well so that they can adequately serve their families and avoid punishment and discipline by their authoritative husbands.[45]

Some experts hypothesize, since there is a lack of empirical research on gender-role conflicts, that men might suffer from such conflicts because of their fear of femininity.[40]

Professionals from several universities in the United States developed a model around this hypothesis with six behavioral patterns.[40]

1. Restrictive emotionality: restraining oneself from expressing feelings or not allowing others to express their feelings.[40]

2. Homophobia: the fear of homosexuals or the fear of being a homosexual, not limited to all the stereotypes associated with that.[40]

3. Socialized control, power, and competition: The desire for the authority of being in charge of the situation, commanding others, and to excel above others.[40]

4. Restrictive sexual and affectional behavior: Showing little to no affection or sexuality to others.[40]

5. Obsession with achievement and success: having an ongoing complex that accomplishment, work, and illustriousness constitutes one's value.[40]

6. Healthcare problems: not sustaining a healthy diet, adequate stress levels, and a healthy lifestyle.[40]

The model was developed around the idea that these six patterns are all influenced by men's the fear of femininity.[40] This theory was then partially supported by a study done by five professionals.[40] Some tools already created to measure gender-role attitudes include the Personal Attitudes Questionnaire, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Attitudes Toward Women Scale, and the Attitudes Toward the Male's Role Scale.[40] Evidence suggests that gender-roles conflicts inflicted by machismo can lead males who were raised with this mentality and or live in a society in which machismo is prevalent to suffer high levels of anxiety and low self-esteem.[46] Additionally, studies found that many males facing such conflicts are subject to experience anger, depression, and substance abuse.[47]

Sexually-transmitted infections

One implication of the Machismo concept is the pressure for a man to be sexually experienced.[44] Male infidelity is of common practice in many cultures, as men are not as expected to hold nearly the same level of chastity as women are. Meanwhile, girls are oftentimes brought up to tolerate an unfaithful partner, since it is a part of the machismo culture.[44] As such, this puts populations at risk for transmitting STIs as men seek out multiple sexual partners with little interference from their wives or from society. The risk is further heightened by the lack of condom use by men who are both miseducated about the effectiveness of a condom's protection against STIs and the belief that this wouldn't happen to them.[44] This mentality also deters men from getting themselves tested to know if they are HIV-positive, which leads them to even spread STIs without even knowing it.[44]

Homosexuality is perceived as negative or weak within the machista ideal. It doesn't fit into the masculine attributes that machismo extols. This often leads homosexual or bisexual men living in machista communities to be reluctant about being open about their sexuality because of the negative connotation associated with it. Familismo, which is an idea in Latin cultures that ties an individual with a commitment to his or her family, and homophobia can sometimes cause in homosexual individuals the repression of sexual identity, family separation, and to hide their sexuality. Such situations may hinder personal shame and secret sexual actions that increases HIV and STD risk in Latino homosexuals. Regularly experiencing homophobia and low self-esteem have a connection with sexual risk. A survey conducted by the Virginia Commonwealth University found that men who had high machismo values or characteristics were more than five times more probable to participate in activities or behave in a way to put them at risk for contracting HIV or an STD.[48]

Sexuality and sexual orientation

For men in many Latin American countries, their perceived level of masculinity determines the amount of respect they receive in society.[49] Because homosexual men are associated with feminine attributes, they are perceived with lower level of masculinity, and as a result, they receive less respect than heterosexual men in society. This, in turn, can limit their "ability to achieve upward social mobility, to be taken seriously, or to hold positions of power".[49] Also, because homosexuality is seen as taboo or even sinful in Christian faiths, homosexual men tend to lack a support system, leaving many unable express their true sexuality. To deal with such oppression, they must make the choice either to conform to heteronormativity and repress their homosexual identity, to assimilate towards masculine ideals and practices while maintaining their homosexual identity in private, or to openly express their homosexuality and suffer ostracization from society.[49] This creates a hierarchy of homosexuality corresponding to how much "respect, power, and social standing" a homosexual man can expect to receive. The more a man acts in accordance with the stereotypical heterosexual hegemonic masculinity, the higher on the social hierarchy they are.[49]

On the lower end of the hierarchy are the locas or maricones.[49] These men are those that are deemed as effeminate because they do not live by the social construct of hegemonic masculinity and also publicize their homosexuality. As such, they receive little respect both in society in general and among the LGBT community. Many homosexual men resist being associated with the "loca" stereotype by either demonstrating overt masculinity or by ridiculing and distancing themselves from other "loca" men.[49] A common Puerto Rican saying demonstrates this resistance: "mejor un drogadicto que un pato" (better a drug addict than a faggot).[49]

Because of the negative connotations that come with identifying as homosexual, the definition of homosexuality has become ambiguous. By genderizing sexual practices, only men who are sexually penetrated during sex, locas are considered homosexual while men who are the sexual penetrators during sex can maintain their heterosexual identity.[49] Also, in many Latin American countries, the media portrayal of homosexual men often play into the stereotype of an effeminate, flamboyant male role. As a result, the idea of a masculine homosexual man remains almost unheard of and privatized by the community and by society, which allows this stereotype of homosexual men as locas to persist.[49]

Positive implications


Machismo can also pressure men to defend the well-being of his loved ones, his community, and his country.[50] It allows him to perform altruistic acts in order to provide protection to others. In the past, and even in many current societies where people rely on subsistence agriculture and economy to survive, machismo helped provide men with the courage to drive off potential threats to protect his land and his crop.[51] Today, this contributes to the substantial gender gap in the makeup of military and armed forces around the world, even considering growing female representation in the military today.[50] Beyond the realm of the armed forces, however, the machismo ideology can also drive men to work towards service because he is in a "superior" position, which enables him to demonstrate his success by offering his own strengths to help others. Their dependence on him can validate his ego and help maintain this difference in power.[50]

Another approach to machismo is that of the "caballerismo" ideology,[52] that because a man is the head of the household, he is responsible for the well-being of the members of his family. This describes the call for a man to be chivalrous, nurturing, and protective of his loved ones.[52] It translates to the belief that a true man would never act violent towards his wife or children, but would instead ensure that no harm come to them. Machismo, seen through this approach, inspires men to create "harmonious interpersonal relationships through respect for self and others".[53] This allows fathers to maintain positive, intimate relationships with his children and share a more egalitarian relationship with his wife.

Female respect and responsibility

In the traditional household, the man is expected to work and provide for his family while his wife stays home to care for the children.[54] As such, fathers are seen as a distant authority figure to his children while mothers assume the majority of responsibility in this domestic realm and thus gain agency and the ultimate respect of her children.[54] With this female empowerment, decisions in the household can take on a more egalitarian approach, where mothers can have equal say in the household. Meanwhile, the machismo mentality in men as a provider and protector of the family can inspire him to persevere through challenges introduced by work.[54]

"Within each of our memories there Is the Image of a father who worked long hours, suffered to keep his family alive, united, and who struggled to maintain his dignity. Such a man had little time for concern over his "masculinity". Certainly he did not have ten children because of his machismo, but because he was a human being, poor, and without "access" to birth control."[55]

"Machismo ideology may be viewed as beneficial to women in that it encourages their husbands to provide for and protect them and their children. Further, by subordinating their needs to those of their family, women earn a lifetime of support from their husbands and children and in this way gain some control in the family"[56] (90). Because fathers are typically more invested in paid labor, mothers typically spend more time with the children and thus gain credibility in important decisions such as a child's schooling or a child's health care. Nevertheless, in these machist households the fathers will have the last word whenever they choose to, as they are the breadwinners, and all the family ultimately depends on them for survival. In case of a separation or divorce, it is typically the mothers who suffer the most, since they did not invest their time in their career, and will probably still have to provide and care for the children.

Men and work

In many cultures in the world, there is a long-standing tradition that the man is the head of the household and is responsible for providing for the family.[57] In some cases, this may mean he is the only parent working in paid-work while in other conditions this may mean both parents are working but the man is expected to be the primary income contributor. In either case, part of the masculine identity and his self-respect is defined by his ability to provide for his family. If he is unable to do so, or if he brings home less money than that of his wife, his position as head of the family is challenged.[57] In some cultures, this may mean ultimate shame for him if he cannot fulfill this role: "that being unable to find work meant that 'there is no recognition even to [his] humanity] ... Those who do not work are like dead people'"[57] (212). Beyond providing economic support for his family, a man engaging in paid-work is seen as honorable because he is sacrificing time and energy that he could be spending with his family. These are costs that cannot be repaid and thus are an priceless investment on his part towards the well-being of his family unit.[57]

Prevalence and acculturation in the 21st century

Despite machismo's documented history in Hispanic and Latin American communities, research throughout the years has shown a shift in prevalence among younger generations. In Brazil, researchers found that while the majority of young men interviewed held traditional attitudes on gender roles and machismo, there was a small sample of men that did not agree with these views.[58]

Acculturation and education have been proposed to be a factor in how machismo is passed down through Hispanic and Latino generations in the United States.[59] According to researchers who measured self-reported levels of machismo among 72 university students, 37 whom identified as Hispanic, the "somewhat unique population of college-educated students who have been heavily influence[d] by egalitarian attitudes, values, and norms" may explain why ethnicity did not directly predict machismo attitudes in two studies.[59] Because education and acculturation of American values in Latino individuals may result in the development of attitudes supporting gender-equality, this demonstrates how machismo may gradually decline over time in the United States.

Moreover, researchers analyzed a large cross-sectional survey among 36 countries, including 6 Latin American countries, from 2009 and discovered countries with less gender inequality had adolescents that supported attitudes of gender-equality, though females were more likely to support non-traditional gender roles than males.[60] While the mean score of gender-equality attitudes was 49.83, with lower scores indicating less gender equality attitudes, Latin American countries scored the following: Chile (51.554), Colombia (49.416), Dominican Republic (43.586), Guatemala (48.890), Mexico (45.596), Paraguay (48.370).[60] Machismo is associated with gender inequality. Therefore, this study suggests that Latino individuals living in their native countries may support more machismo attitudes than Latino immigrants adopting U.S. values of gender equality.

Masuda also studied self-reported measures of sexual relationship power among 40 recently immigrated Latino couples found data against machismo attitudes since women perceived themselves to have greater control and decision-making roles in their relationships.[61] This serves as a stark contrast because machismo traditionally creates a relationship dynamic that relegates women to submissive roles and men to dominant roles. Again, acculturation may play a role in this dynamic shift because the couples averaged about 8 years since immigrating to the United States.[61]

Acculturation has not only been associated with a decline in machismo, it has appeared to affect how it manifests and how it is transferred through generations. Recently, Mexican American adolescents in romantic relationships demonstrated "adaptive machismo", which consist of the positive qualities of machismo, such as "emotional availability, demonstrations of affection, desire to financially care for a female partner, responsibility in child-rearing, and/or to the community or friends", during conflict resolution scenarios.[62] Furthermore, while Mexican American adolescent males were found to have certain values and attitudes, such as caballerismo, passed down by their families, machismo was not one of them.[63] Because families are not teaching machismo, this implies that it may be learned from sources separate from the family unit, such as peers and the media.[22] Ultimately, these findings suggest that machismo is changing in terms of its prevalence, manifestation, and socialization.

Activism Around Machismo

Young Lords

Founded in 1969, the Young Lords were an organization of Puerto Rican revolutionary nationalists in Chicago and New York City.[64] Working toward the liberation of all oppressed people, the Young Lords opposed racism, capitalism, and assimilationist ideologies.[65] Seeking self-determination and community control of institutions and land, the organization's leaders made a distinct choice to denounce machismo in their revised 13-Point Program and Platform. Previously reading, "We want equality for women. Machismo must be revolutionary... Not oppressive.", the organization moved toward a more radical position, stating "We want equality for women. Down with machismo and male chauvinism".[66] This revised version of the organization's ideological platform was published in their newspaper, Palante in November 1970 - thirteen months following the original platform's publication in October 1969.

The Young Lords opposed machismo because, as member Gloria González articulated in her 1971 Palante editorial, it serves to divide members of their movement.[67] Further, the organization believed machismo serves as an extension of capitalism, a system they opposed. They understood the division of labor, including both reproductive labor and productive labor, to perpetuate the marginalization of women. They also understood the sexual objectification of women to be problematic and damaging to potentially revolutionary leaders. Moving toward this platform, however, would not have been possible without the Women of the Young Lords who pressured the organization's leadership to reject machismo during their East Coast Regional Central Committee retreat in May 1970.[68] At this retreat the group studied and theorized, formally denouncing machismo because if power was to be transferred to the people, it would have to be the hands of all the people; and if this were to be possible, the Young Lords must reject "attitudes of superiority that brothers had towards sisters" and the "passivity of sisters toward brothers (allowing brothers to come out of a macho or chauvinist, superior bag)".[69]

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