Lucknow Pact

The Lucknow Pact was an agreement reached between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at the joint session of both the parties held in Lucknow in December 1916. Through the pact, the two parties agreed to allow overrepresentation to religious minorities in the provincial legislatures. The Muslim League leaders agreed to join the Congress movement demanding Indian autonomy. Scholars cite this as an example of a consociational practice in Indian politics.[1]


The British had announced, in order to satisfy the Indians, that they will be considering a series of proposals that would lead to at least half of the members of the Executive Council being elected and the Legislative Council having a majority of elected members. Both the Congress and the Muslim League supported these. Both had realized that for further concessions to be gained, greater cooperation was required.[2]

Agreements by the Congress

The Congress agreed to separate electorates for Muslims in electing representatives to the Imperial and Provincial Legislative Councils. Although the Muslims were given this right in the Indian Councils Act of 1909, the Indian National Congress opposed it. The Congress also agreed to the idea of one-third seats for the Muslims in the Councils despite the fact that the Muslim population represented less than a third. Apart from that, the Congress agreed that no act affecting a community should be passed unless three-quarters of that community's members on the council supported it. After the signing of this pact the rivalry between moderates and extremist reduced to some extent.There was a significant change in their relation.[2]

Demands presented to the British

Both the parties presented some common demands to the British. They demanded:

  • The number of elected seats on the councils should be increased.
  • Motions which were passed by large majorities in the councils should be accepted as bindings by the British Government.
  • Minorities in the provinces should be protected.
  • All provinces should be granted autonomy.[2]
  • Separating the executive from the judiciary


The Lucknow Pact is seen as a beacon of hope of Hindu-Muslim unity. It established cordial relations between the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress. Before the pact, both parties were viewed as rivals who opposed each other and worked in their own interests. However, the pact brought a change in that view.

The Lucknow Pact also established cordial relations between the two prominent groups within the Indian National Congress – the extremist faction, known colloquially as the garam dal or "hot faction," led by the Lal Bal Pal trio of Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal, and the moderate faction, known as the naram dal, led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.


  1. Wilkinson, Steven Ian (September–October 2000), "India, Consociational Theory, and Ethnic Violence", Asian Survey, 40 (5): 767–791, JSTOR 3021176
  2. 1 2 3 Kelly, Nigel (2014). The History and Culture of Pakistan. Peak Publishing. p. 61.
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