(Central-southern part of the Province of Sassari
Northern part of the Province of Nuoro
Northern part of the Province of Oristano)
Languages and dialects of Sardinia
Logudorese Sardinian (Sardinian: Sardu Logudoresu, Italian: Sardo Logudorese) is a standardised variety of Sardinian, often considered the most conservative of all Romance languages. Its ISO 639-3 code is src. Italian-speakers do not understand Sardinian, which is a separate language.
Latin G and K before /i, e/ are not palatalized in Logudorese, in stark contrast with all other Romance languages. Compare Logudorese kentu with Italian cento /ˈtʃɛnto/, Spanish ciento /ˈθjento/, /ˈsjento/ and French cent /sɑ̃/. Like the other varieties of Sardinian, most subdailects of Logudorese also underwent Lenition in the intervocalic plosives of -/p/-, -/t/-, and -/k/-/ (e.g. Lat. focum > fogu "fire", ripa > riba "shore, bank", rota > roda "wheel"). Logudorese also turns medial /nj/ and /lj/ into and /ɲ/ and /ʎ/, respectively (e.g. Lat. Sardinia > Sardigna and folium > fogia "leaf"). Finally, Logudorese shifts the Latin labiovelars /kʷ/ and /gʷ/ into /b/ medially and /k/ word-initially (Lat. lingua > limba "tongue", qualem > cale "what")
Logudorese is intelligible to those from the southern part of Sardinia, where Campidanese Sardinian is spoken, but it is not to those from the extreme north of the island, where Corsican–Sardinian dialects are spoken.
Location and distribution
The area of Logudoro (term originated as a blend of the kingdom's name of Logu de Torres) in which it is spoken, a northern subregion of the island of Sardinia with close ties to Ozieri (Othieri) and Nuoro (Nùgoro) for culture and language, as well as history, with important particularities in the western area, where the most important town is Ittiri. It is an area of roughly 150 × 100 km with some 500,000–700,000 inhabitants.
Origins and features
The language's origins have been investigated by Eduardo Blasco Ferrer and others. The language derives from Latin and a pre-Latin, Paleo-Sardinian (Nuragic) substratum, but has been influenced by Catalan and Spanish due to the dominion of the Crown of Aragon and later the Spanish Empire over the island. Logudorese is the northern macro-dialect of the Sardinian language, the southern macro-dialect being Campidanese, spoken in the southern half of the island. The two variants share a clear common origin and history, but have experienced somewhat different developments.
Though the language is typically Romance, some words in it are not of Latin origin, and are of uncertain etymology. One such is "nura", found in "nuraghe", the main form of pre-Roman building, hence the term for the pre-Roman era as the Nuragic Period. Various place names similarly have roots that defy analysis.
Logudorese changed only very slowly from Vulgar Latin in comparison to other Romance lects, with Linguist Mario Pei reporting a 8% degree of separation from Latin in the Nuorese subdialect, the most conservative compared to other Romance Languages. Because of this reason, as well as the preservation of many works of traditional literature from the 15th century onwards, Logudorese is often considered to be the most prestigious variety of Sardinian.
Logudorese has multiple dialects, some confined to individual villages or valleys. Though such differences can be noticeable, the dialects are mutually intelligible, and share some mutual intelligibility with the neighbouring Campidanese dialects.
Spoken in the north of Sardinia, this subdialect contains the following features:
/pl/, /fl/, /kl/ changes to /pi/, /fi/, /ki/ (Lat. plovere > piòere "rain", florem > fiore "flower", clavem > ciae "key")
/r/ > /l/ in an intervocalic, pre-consonantal position (Northern Saldigna vs Southern Sardigna)
Central (Common) Logudorese
Spoken in Central Sardinia, this subdialect contains the following features:
/pl/, /fl/, /kl/ changes to /pr/, /fr/, /kr/ (Lat. plovere > pròere "rain", florem > frore "flower", clavem > crae "key")
/l/ > /r/ in an intervocalic, pre-consonantal position (Northern altu vs Southern artu "high")
The Nuorese subdialects (spoken in Nuoro and Baronia) have some distinctive features not found anywhere else in Sardinia, many features demonstrating the conservative nature of the dialect:
No lenition of intervocalic plosives (e.g. Lat. focum > focu "fire", ripa > ripa "shore, bank", rota > rota "wheel")
No palatal realisation of /nj/ and /lj/, instead turning into and /nn/ and /ll/, respectively (e.g. Lat. Sardinia > Sardinna and folium > folla "leaf").
Preservation of intervocalic /g/, /d/, and /v/ (Lat. augustus "August" > Log. austu but Nuo. agustu, Lat. credere "to believe" > Log. creere but Nuo. credere, Lat. novem "nine" > Log. noe vs Nuo. nobe < nove)
Betacism of /v/ in Nuoro but not in Baronia.
Latin /t/ before yod to /θ/ in Nuorese (plateam "street, courtyard" > pratha), albeit the sound is in the process of becoming /ts/ (pratza).
Sample of text
|English||Logudorese Sardinian||Transitional Mesanìa dialect||Campidanese Sardinian|
Our Father in heaven,
Babbu nostru chi ses in chelu,
Babbu nostru chi ses in celu,
Babbu nostu chi ses in celu,
(Privilegio Logudorese, 1080)
"In nomine Domini amen. Ego iudice Mariano de Lacon fazo ista carta ad onore de omnes homines de Pisas pro xu toloneu ci mi pecterunt: e ego donolislu pro ca lis so ego amicu caru e itsos a mimi; ci nullu imperatore ci lu aet potestare istu locu de non (n)apat comiatu de leuarelis toloneu in placitu: de non occidere pisanu ingratis: e ccausa ipsoro ci lis aem leuare ingratis, de facerlis iustitia inperatore ci nce aet exere intu locu [...]"
(Sa Vitta et sa Morte, et Passione de sanctu Gavinu, Brothu et Ianuariu, 1557)
"Tando su rey barbaru su cane renegadu / de custa resposta multu restayt iradu / & issu martiriu fetit apparigiare / itu su quale fesit fortemente ligare / sos sanctos martires cum bonas catenas / qui li segaant sos ossos cum sas veinas / & totu sas carnes cum petenes de linu."
(Francesco Masala, Sa limba est s'istoria de su mundu, 2000)
"A sos tempos de sa pitzinnìa, in bidda, totus chistionaiamus in limba sarda. In domos nostras no si faeddaiat atera limba. E deo, in sa limba nadìa, cominzei a connoscher totu sas cosas de su mundu. A sos ses annos, intrei in prima elementare e su mastru de iscola proibeit, a mie e a sos fedales mios, de faeddare in s'unica limba chi connoschiamus: depiamus chistionare in limba italiana, «la lingua della Patria», nos nareit, seriu seriu, su mastru de iscola. Gai, totus sos pitzinnos de 'idda, intraian in iscola abbistos e allirgos e nde bessian tontos e cari-tristos."
A large body of Sardinian poetry, songs and literature is composed in Logudorese.
- Logudorese Sardinian at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "
Logudorese Sardinian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Sardinian Language, Rebecca Posner, Marius Sala. Encyclopedia Britannica
- Sardinian intonational phonology: Logudorese and Campidanese varieties, Maria Del Mar Vanrell, Francesc Ballone, Carlo Schirru, Pilar Prieto
- Pei, Mario. Story of Language. ISBN 03-9700-400-1.