List of threatened sharks

Threatened sharks are those vulnerable to endangerment (extinction) in the near future. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world’s oldest global environmental organization.[2] It evaluates threatened species, and treats threatened species not as a single category, but as a group of three categories, depending on the degree to which they are threatened:[3]

Vulnerable species
Endangered species
Critically endangered species

The term threatened strictly refers to these three categories (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable), while vulnerable is used to refer to the least at risk of these categories.[3] The terms can be used somewhat interchangeably, as all vulnerable species are threatened, all endangered species are vulnerable and threatened, and all critically endangered species are endangered, vulnerable and threatened. Threatened species are also referred to as a red-listed species, as they are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[4]

Shark species are increasingly becoming threatened because of commercial and recreational fishing pressures, the impact of non-shark fisheries on the seabed and shark prey species, and other habitat alterations such as damage and loss from coastal development and marine pollution.[6] Rising demands for shark products has increased pressure on shark fisheries, but little monitoring or management occurs of most fisheries.[7] Major declines in shark stocks have been recorded over the past few decades; some species have declined over 90% and population declines of 70% are not unusual.[8] In particular, harvesting young sharks before they reproduce severely impacts future populations. Sharks generally reach sexual maturity only after many years and produce few offspring in comparison to other fish species.[9]

Conservationists estimate that up to 100 million sharks are killed by commercial and recreational fishing every year.[10][11] Sharks are often killed for shark fin soup, which some Asian countries regard as a status symbol. Fishermen capture live sharks, fin them, and dump the finless animal back into the water to die from suffocation or predators.[11][12] Sharks are also killed for their flesh in Europe and elsewhere.[13] The 2007 film Sharkwater documents ways in which sharks are being hunted to extinction.[14] In 2009, the IUCN Shark Specialist Group reported on the conservation status of pelagic (open water) sharks and rays. They found that over half the pelagic sharks targeted by high-seas fisheries were threatened with extinction.[15][16][17]

In 2010, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) rejected proposals from the United States and Palau that would have required countries to strictly regulate trade in several species of hammerhead, oceanic whitetip and dogfish sharks. The majority, but not the required two-thirds of voting delegates, approved the proposal. China, by far the world’s largest shark consumer, and Japan, which battles all attempts to extend the Convention's protections to marine species, led the opposition.[18][19]

In 2013, CITES member nations overcame the continued opposition led by China and Japan,[20] and reversed course.[21][22] In what CITES has called a "milestone", the oceanic whitetip, porbeagle, and three species of hammerheads will now join the great white, basking and whale shark on CITES Appendix II, effective September 2014.[23] International trade of these species is thus prohibited without CITES permits, "... and evidence will have to be provided that they are harvested sustainably and legally."[5]

In 2014 the state government of Western Australia led by Premier Colin Barnett implemented a policy of killing large sharks. The policy is intended to protect users of the marine environment from shark attack following the deaths of seven people on the Western Australian coastline in the years 2010 to 2013.[24] Baited drum lines are deployed near popular beaches using hooks designed to catch the vulnerable great white shark, as well as bull and tiger sharks. Large sharks found hooked but still alive are shot and their bodies discarded at sea.[25] The government claims they are not culling sharks, but are using a "targeted, localised, hazard mitigation strategy".[26] Barnett has described opposition to killing the sharks as "ludicrous" and "extreme", and said that nothing can change his mind.[27]

Order Image Scientific name Common name Population trend IUCN status Fish
Base
FAO CITES
Appendix[23]
Mackerel
shark
Alopias pelagicus Pelagic thresher decreasing Vulnerable[28] [29] [30]
Mackerel
shark
Alopias superciliosus Bigeye thresher shark decreasing Vulnerable[31] [32] [33]
Mackerel
shark
Alopias vulpinus Common thresher decreasing Vulnerable[34] [35] [36]
Groundshark Atelomycterus baliensis Bali catshark unknown Vulnerable[37] [38]
Groundshark Aulohalaelurus kanakorum New Caledonia catshark unknown Vulnerable[39] [40]
Carpet shark Brachaelurus colcloughi Bluegrey carpetshark unknown Vulnerable[41] [42]
Groundshark Carcharhinus borneensis Borneo shark unknown Endangered[43] [44]
Groundshark Carcharhinus hemiodon Pondicherry shark unknown Critically endangered[45] [46]
Groundshark Carcharhinus leiodon Smoothtooth blacktip shark unknown Vulnerable[47] [48]
Groundshark Carcharhinus longimanus Oceanic whitetip shark decreasing Vulnerable[49] [50] II (eff. Sep-2014)
Groundshark Carcharhinus obscurus Dusky shark decreasing Vulnerable[51] [52] [53]
Groundshark Carcharhinus plumbeus Sandbar shark decreasing Vulnerable[54] [55] [56]
Groundshark Carcharhinus signatus Night shark unknown Vulnerable[57] [58] [59]
Mackerel
shark
Carcharias taurus Sand tiger unknown Vulnerable[60] [61] [62]
Mackerel
shark
Carcharodon carcharias Great white shark unknown Vulnerable[63] [64] [65] II
Dogfish Centrophorus granulosus Gulper shark decreasing Vulnerable[66] [67] [68]
Dogfish Centrophorus harrissoni Dumb gulper shark decreasing Endangered[69] [70] [71]
Dogfish Centrophorus lusitanicus Lowfin gulper shark unknown Vulnerable[72] [73] [74]
Dogfish Centrophorus squamosus Deepwater spiny dogfish decreasing Vulnerable[75] [76] [77]
Mackerel
shark
Cetorhinus maximus Basking shark decreasing Vulnerable[78] [79] [80] II
Groundshark Chaenogaleus macrostoma Hooktooth shark unknown Vulnerable[81] [82]
Groundshark Galeorhinus galeus School shark decreasing Vulnerable[83] [84] [85]
Groundshark Galeus mincaronei Southern sawtail catshark decreasing Vulnerable[86] [87]
Groundshark Glyphis gangeticus Ganges shark decreasing Critically endangered [88] [89]
Groundshark Glyphis garricki New Guinea river shark decreasing Critically endangered [90] [91]
Groundshark Glyphis glyphis Speartooth shark decreasing Endangered[92] [93]
Groundshark Glyphis siamensis Irrawaddy river shark unknown Critically endangered [94] [95]
Groundshark Haploblepharus fuscus Brown shyshark unknown Vulnerable[96] [97]
Groundshark Haploblepharus kistnasamyi Natal shyshark unknown Critically endangered[98] [99]
Groundshark Hemigaleus microstoma Sickle fin weasel shark decreasing Vulnerable[100] [101]
Groundshark Hemipristis elongata Snaggletooth shark decreasing Vulnerable[102] [103]
Carpet shark Hemiscyllium hallstromi Papuan epaulette shark unknown Vulnerable[104] [105] [106]
Carpet shark Hemiscyllium strahani Hooded carpet shark unknown Vulnerable[107] [108] [109]
Groundshark Hemitriakis leucoperiptera Whitefin topeshark unknown Endangered[110] [111]
Groundshark Holohalaelurus favus Honeycomb Izak decreasing Endangered[112] [113]
Groundshark Holohalaelurus punctatus Whitespotted Izak decreasing Endangered[114] [115]
Groundshark Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus Daggernose shark decreasing Critically endangered[116] [117]
Mackerel
shark
Isurus oxyrinchus Shortfin mako decreasing Vulnerable[118] [119] [120]
Mackerel
shark
Isurus paucus Longfin mako decreasing Vulnerable[121] [122] [123]
Groundshark Lamiopsis temminckii Broadfin shark decreasing Endangered[124] [125]
Mackerel
shark
Lamna nasus Porbeagle decreasing Vulnerable[126] [127] III
(II eff. Sept. 2014)
Groundshark Mustelus fasciatus Striped smooth-hound decreasing Critically endangered[128] [129]
Groundshark Mustelus mustelus Common smoothhound decreasing Vulnerable[130] [131]
Groundshark Mustelus schmitti Narrownose smoothhound decreasing Endangered[132] [133] [134]
Groundshark Mustelus whitneyi Humpback smoothhound decreasing Vulnerable[135] [136]
Carpet shark Nebrius ferrugineus Tawny nurse shark decreasing Vulnerable[137] [138] [139]
Groundshark Negaprion acutidens Sharptooth lemon shark decreasing Vulnerable[140] [141]
Mackerel
shark
Odontaspis ferox Small-tooth sand tiger shark decreasing Vulnerable[142] [143] [144]
Dogfish Oxynotus centrina Angular rough shark unknown Vulnerable[145] [146] [147]
Carpet shark Pseudoginglymostoma
brevicaudatum
Shorttail nurse shark unknown Vulnerable[148] [149]
Carpet shark Rhincodon typus Whale shark decreasing Vulnerable[150] [151] [152] II
Groundshark Schroederichthys
saurisqualus
Lizard catshark unknown Vulnerable[153] [154]
Groundshark Scylliogaleus quecketti Flapnose houndshark unknown Vulnerable[155] [156]
Groundshark Sphyrna lewini Scalloped hammerhead unknown Endangered[157] [158] [159] II (eff. Sept. 2014)
Groundshark Sphyrna mokarran Great hammerhead decreasing Endangered[160] [161] II (eff. Sept. 2014)
Groundshark Sphyrna tudes Smalleye hammerhead decreasing Vulnerable[162] [163]
Groundshark Sphyrna zygaena Smooth hammerhead decreasing Vulnerable[164] [165] II (eff. Sept. 2014)
Dogfish Squalus acanthias Piked dogfish decreasing Vulnerable[166] [167] [168]
Dogfish Squalus montalbani Philippines spurdog decreasing Vulnerable[169] [170]
Angel shark Squatina aculeata Sawback angelshark decreasing Critically endangered[171] [172] [173]
Angel shark Squatina albipunctata Eastern angel shark decreasing Vulnerable[174] [175]
Angel shark Squatina argentina Argentine angel shark decreasing Endangered[176] [177] [178]
Angel shark Squatina formosa Taiwan angelshark unknown Endangered[179] [180] [181]
Angel shark Squatina guggenheim Hidden angelshark decreasing Endangered[182] [183]
Angel shark Squatina japonica Japanese angelshark unknown Vulnerable[184] [185] [186]
Angel shark Squatina nebulosa Clouded angelshark unknown Vulnerable[187] [188] [189]
Angel shark Squatina oculata Smoothback angel shark decreasing Critically endangered[190] [191] [192]
Angel shark Squatina punctata Angular angelshark decreasing Endangered[193] [194]
Angel shark Squatina squatina Angel shark decreasing Critically endangered[195] [196] [197]
Angel shark Squatina tergocellatoides Ocellated angelshark unknown Vulnerable[198] [199] [200]
Carpet shark Stegostoma fasciatum Zebra shark decreasing Vulnerable[201] [202] [203]
Groundshark Triakis acutipinna Sharpfin houndshark decreasing Endangered[204] [205]
Groundshark Triakis maculata Spotted houndshark decreasing Vulnerable[206] [207]

Talk

See also

References

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Further reading

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