List of state leaders in the 20th century (1901–1950)

State leaders in the 19th centuryState leaders: 1951–2000State leaders by year

This is a list of state leaders in the 20th century (1901–1950) AD, such as the heads of state, heads of government, and the general secretaries of single-party states.

These polities are generally sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 20th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Africa

Africa: Central

Angola

vassal to Portugal: 1888–1914
Colony, 1575–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Cameroon

German colony, 1884–1916
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
League of Nations mandate, 1918–1946; United Nations trust territory, 1946–1960
For details see France under western Europe
League of Nations mandate, 1922–1946; United Nations trust territory, 1946–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Central African Republic

French colony, 1903–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Chad

vassal to France: from 1912
  • Mahamat Abdelkader, Mbang (1918–1935)
  • Ahmad Abu al-Ghazali ibn ‘Ali, Kolak (1900–1901)
  • Dud Murra, Kolak (1901–1909)
  • ‘Asil, Kolak (1909–1912)
Colony, 1900–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Congo: Belgian

  • Sovereign –
Colony, 1908–1960
For details see the Belgium under Western Europe

Congo: French

Colony, 1882–1910
For details see France under western Europe
Federation of colonies, 1910–1934; Colony, 1934–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Equatorial Guinea

Colony, 1778–1968
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Gabon

  • Rogombé-Nwèntchandi, Agamwinboni (?–1927)
Colony, 1882–1910
For details see France under western Europe

São Tomé and Príncipe

Colony, 1470–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Africa: East

Great Lakes area

Burundi
League of Nations mandate of Belgium, 1922–1946; United Nations trust territory, 1946–1962
For details see Belgium under western Europe
Kenya
  • Fumo `Umar ibn Ahmad, Mfalume (1891–1893, 1895–1923)
British protectorate, 1895–1920
British colony and protectorate, 1920–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Rwanda
Tanzania
Colony, 1885–1919
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
League of Nations mandate of Britain, 1922–1946; United Nations trust territory, 1946–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Uganda
  • Kahaya II, Omugabe (1895–1944)
  • Gasyonga II, Omugabe (1944–1967)
  • Kitahimbwa, Omukama (1898–1902)
  • Duhaga III, Omukama (1902–1924)
  • Winyi IV, Omukama (1925–1967)
British protectorate, 1894–1962
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Horn of Africa area

Djibouti
Colony, 1896–1946; Overseas territory, 1946–1967
For details see France under western Europe
Eritrea
Colony, 1890–1936
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe
Ethiopia
Colony, 1936–1941
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe
  • Mahammad ibn Hanfere, Amoyta (1862–1902)
  • Mahammad ibn Aydahis ibn Hanfere, Amoyta (1902–c.1910)
  • Yayyo ibn Mahammad ibn Hanfere, Amoyta (c.1902–1927)
  • Mahammad Yayyo, Amoyta (1927–1944)
  • Firisa, Moti (1899–1902)
Somalia
Colony, 1890–1936
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe
British Occupied territory, 1941–1949
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Protectorate, 1884–1940, 1941–1960
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
United Nations trust territory of Italy, 1950–1960
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe

Indian Ocean

Comoros
  • Saidi Mohamed bin Saidi Omar, Sultan (1892–1912)
French protectorate, 1887–1908; colony under French Madagascar, 1908–1946; Overseas territory, 1946–1961
For details see France under western Europe
Madagascar
Colony, 1897–1958
For details see France under western Europe
Mauritius
Colony, 1810–1968
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Seychelles
Part of British Mauritius, 1811–1903; British colony, 1903–1976
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: Northcentral

Libya

Protectorate, 1912–1934; Colony, 1934–1943
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe
Allied military administration, 1942–1951
  • Idris, Emir (1949–1951), King (1951–1969)

Tunisia

Protectorate, 1881–1956
For details see France under western Europe

Africa: Northeast

Egypt

Under British occupation since 1882
British protectorate, 1914–1922
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • Fuad I, Sultan (1917–1922), King (1922–1936)
  • Farouk I, King (1936–1952)

Sudan

Condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt, 1899–1956
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: Northwest

Algeria

French Départements, 1830–1962
For details see France under western Europe

Morocco and Western Sahara

French protectorate, 1912–1956; Spanish protectorate, 1912–1956; Tangier International Zone, 1924–1956
  • Yusef, Sultan (1912–1927)
  • Mohammed V, Sultan (1927–1953, 1955–1957), King (1957–1961)
Overseas territory, 1884–1958; Overseas province, 1958–1975
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Africa: South

Botswana

British protectorate, 1885–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Lesotho

British colony, 1884–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Malawi

British protectorate, 1893–1907
British protectorate, 1907–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Mozambique

Colony, 1498–1972; Territory, 1972–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Namibia

Colony, 1884–1915
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
League of Nations mandate of South Africa, 1915–1946; United Nations trust territory, 1946–1990
For details see the South African Republic under southern Africa

South Africa

Protectorate, 1893–1907
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1795–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1843–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1902–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1877–1881, 1902–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Swaziland

Kingdom of Swaziland, 1745–1906
Protectorate of Swaziland, 1906–1968
  • Sobhuza II, Paramount Chief under British rule (1921–1968), King (1968–1982)

Zambia

  • Kanyembo Ntemena, Mwata (1883–1885, 1886–1904)
  • Lubosi I, Mbumu wa Litunga (1885–1916)
  • Mokamba–Regent, Mbumu wa Litunga (1916)
  • Yeta III, Mbumu wa Litunga (1916–1945)
  • Shemakone Kalonga Wina, Regent (1945–1946)
  • Imwiko Lewanika, Mbumu wa Litunga (1946–1948)
  • Shemakone Kalonga Wina, Regent (1948)
  • Mwanawina III, Mbumu wa Litunga (1948–1968)
Company rule, 1890–1924
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British protectorate, 1924–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Zimbabwe

British protectorate, 1924–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: West

Benin

French Protectorate, 1894–1904
For details see France under western Europe
Colony, 1904–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Burkina Faso

  • Yenhamma, ruler (unknown date)
  • Wurijuari, ruler (20th century)
  • Yentagma, ruler (20th century)
  • Hampandi, ruler (1899–1923)
  • Baahamma, ruler (1892–1905)
  • Hamicuuri, ruler (1905–1942)
  • Yencabri, ruler (1942–1969)
  • Pintyeba Wattara, ruler (1897–1909)
  • Karamoko, ruler (1909–1915)
  • Yenkuagu, ruler (1878–1917)
  • Labidiedo, ruler (1918–1920)
  • Yenkpaari, ruler (1920–1937)
  • Interregnum, ruler (1937–1941)
  • Yempaabu, ruler (1941–?)
  • Brahima Usman, Almami (1891–1915)
  • Bubakar bi Amadu Baba Gedal, Almami (1916–1918)
  • Abdurahman Diko bi Amadu, Almami (1918–1932)
  • Abdullahi Sandu bi Faruku, Almami (1932–1956)
  • Huntani, Boopo (1897–1902)
  • Yenmiama, Boopo (1902–1906)
  • Haminari, Boopo (1906–1910)
  • Simadari, Boopo (1910–1932)
  • Hamicuuri, Boopo (1932–1932)
  • Yensongu, Boopo (1932–1932)
  • Wurabiari, Boopo (1932–1937)
  • Yaaparigu, Boopo (1937–1943)
  • Wuracaari, Boopo (1943–1945)
  • Yendieri, Boopo (1945–1976)
  • Bancandi, Nunbado (1892–1911)
  • Baahamma, Jafuali (1878–1918)
  • Hamicuuri, Jafuali (1918–1919)
  • Yenkoari, Jafuali (1919–1929)
  • Yenhamma, Jafuali (1929–1938)
  • Huntani, Jafuali (1938–1952)
  • Yentandi, Pielabedo (1856–1901)
  • Kupiendieri, Pielabedo (1901–1932)
  • Yentugri, Pielabedo (1932–1949)
  • Yensongu, Pielabedo (1949–?)
  • Koom, Naaba (?–1933)
  • Yamba Sorgo, Naaba (1933–1957)
  • Naaba Sigiri, Moogo-naaba (1897–1905)
  • Naaba Koom II, Moogo-naaba (1905–1942)
  • Naaba Saaga II, Moogo-naaba (1942–1957)
  • Naaba Ligidi, Yatenga naaba (1899–1902)
  • Naaba Kobga, Yatenga naaba (1902–1914)
  • Naaba Tigre, Yatenga naaba (1914–1954)
Colony, 1919–1932, 1947–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Cape Verde

Colony, 1462–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Gambia

British colony and protectorate, 1821–1965
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Ghana

British colony, 1821–1957
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Guinea

Colony, 1894–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Guinea-Bissau

Colony, 1474–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Ivory Coast

Colony, 1893–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Liberia

Mali

Colony, 1880–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Mauritania

French colony, 1903–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Niger

  • Malla, Askiya (1887–1901)[2]
  • Igoumou, Askiya (1901)
French colony, 1904–1921
French colony, 1921–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Nigeria

  • Eyo Etinyin, King (c.1896–c.1903)
  • Grand Viziers
  • Ahmadu Mai Shahada, Grand Vizier (1889–1903)
  • Muhammadu al-Bukhari, Grand Vizier (1890–1903)
  • Abd Allahi Abarshi dan `Ali dan Yerima, Emir (1888–1904)
British colony, 1821–1957
British protectorate, 1900–1914
British protectorate, 1900–1914
British colony, 1914–1960
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Senegal

  • Fode N'Gouye Joof, Maad Saloum (1935–c.1960)[5][4]
French colony, 1902–1904
French colony, 1904–1921
French colony, 1848–1960
For details see France under western Europe
Federation of colonies, 1895–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Sierra Leone

British colony and protectorate, 1808–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Togo

Protectorate, 1884–1916
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
League of Nations Mandate Territory, 1916–1946; United Nations Trust Territory, 1946–1956
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
League of Nations Mandate Territory, 1916–1946; United Nations Trust Territory, 1946–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Americas

Americas: Caribbean

Greater Antilles

Cuba
Hispaniola
  • Manuel Lamarche García, Emiliano Tejera, Andrés Julio Montolío, Francisco Leonte Vásquez Lajara, Carlos Ginebra, Eladio Victoria, Federico Velásquez y Hernández, Council of Secretaries of State (1905–1906)
  • Jaime Mota, Bernardo Pichardo, José Manuel Jimenes, Federico Velásquez y Hernández, Council of Secretaries of State (1916)

Americas: Central

Costa Rica

El Salvador

Guatemala

Honduras

Nicaragua

Panama

Americas: North

Americas: South

Argentina

Bolivia

Brazil

Chile

Colombia

Ecuador

Paraguay

Peru

Uruguay

Venezuela

Asia

Asia: Central

Uzbekistan

  • Muhammad Rahim Bahadur II., Khan (Feruz Khan), Khan (1864–1910)
  • Isfandiyar Jurji Bahadur, Khan (1910–1918)
  • Sayid Abdullah, Khan (1918–1920)
  • Hoji Pahlavon Niyoz Yusuf, Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee (1920)
  • Jumaniyoz Sulton Muradoghli, Chairman of the Provisional Government (1920)
  • Hoji Pahlavon Niyoz Yusuf, Chairmen of the Presidium (1920–1921)
  • Qoch Qoroghli, Chairmen of Provisional Revolutionary Committee (1921)
  • Khudoybergan Divanoghli, Chairmen of the Presidium (1921)
  • Mulla Nozir, Chairmen of the Presidium (1921)
  • Allabergan, Chairmen of the Presidium (1921)
  • Ata Maqsum Madrahimoghli, Chairmen of the Presidium (1921)
  • Jangibay Murodoghli, Chairmen of the Presidium (1921–1922)
  • Abdulla Abdurahmon Khojaoghli, Chairmen of the Presidium (1922–1923)
  • K. Safaroghli, Chairmen of the Presidium (1923–1924)
  • Sultonkari Jumaniyoz, Chairmen of the Presidium (1924)
  • Temurkhoja Yaminoghli, Chairmen of the Presidium (1924–1925)
Russian protectorate, 1873–1917
  • Mirzo Abduqodir Mansurovich Mukhitdinov, Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee (1920–1921)
  • Polat Usmon Khodzhayev, Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee (1921)
  • Polat Usmon Khodzhayev, Chairmen of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee (1921–1922)
  • Muin Jon Aminov, Chairmen of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee (1922)
  • Porsa Khodzhayev, Chairmen of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee (1922–1925)
Russian Krai, 1867–1918
For details see the Russian Empire under Eastern Europe

Tibet

Manchu overlordship, 1720-1912
For details see the Qing dynasty under Eastern Asia

Asia: East

China: Qing dynasty

  • Guangxu, Emperor (1875–1908)
  • Puyi, Emperor (1908–1912)

China: Since 1912

  • People's Republic of China
  • Mao Zedong, Chairman (1945–1976), paramount leader (1949–1976)

Japan

Korea

  • Gojong, King (1863–1897), Emperor (1897–1907)
  • Sunjong, Emperor (1907–1910)
Colony, 1910–1945
For details see the Japan under Eastern Asia

Mongolia

Asia: South

Afghanistan

Bangladesh

Bhutan

  • Sangye Dorji, Druk Desis (1885–1901)
  • Choley Yeshe Ngodub, Druk Desis (1903–1905)
  • Ugyen Wangchuck, Druk Gyalpo (1907–1926)
  • Jigme Wangchuck, Druk Gyalpo (1926–1952)

India

Colony and princely states, 1858–1947
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
See also the list of princely states of British India (alphabetical) for all princely states
  • Monarchs –

Maldives

Nepal

Pakistan

  • Monarchs –

Sri Lanka

Colony, 1815–1948
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • Monarchs –

Asia: Southeast

Brunei

Indonesia

Laos

Burma

  • U Nu, Prime minister (1948–1956)

Philippines

First Philippine Republic
Commonwealth of the Philippines
Second Philippine Republic: Japanese puppet state
Third Philippine Republic
Commonwealth of the Philippines
  • Jorge B. Vargas, Presiding Officer of Executive Commission, de facto head of government (1942–1943)

Thailand

Vietnam

Asia: West

Bahrain

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Jordan

  • Abdullah I, Emir (1921–1946), King (1946–1951)
  • Abdullah I, Emir (1921–1946), King (1946–1951)

Kuwait

Lebanon

Oman

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Syria

Turkey

Yemen

  • Yahya, Imam (1904–1948), King (1918–1948)
  • Ahmad, King (1948–1962)
  • Ibrahim bin Yahya Hamid al-Din, Prime minister (1948)
  • Ali ibn Abdullah al-Wazir, Prime minister (1948)
  • Hassan ibn Yahya, Prime minister (1948–1955)

Europe

Europe: Balkans

Albania

Bulgaria

  • Vasil Kolarov, Chairman of the Provisional Presidency of Bulgaria (1946–1947)
  • Mincho Neychev, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1947–1950)
  • Georgi Damyanov, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1950–1958)

Greece

Yugoslavia

Serbia & Yugoslavia
  • Josip Broz Tito, General Secretary (1945–1964), President of the Presidium (1964–1980)
  • Ivan Ribar, President of the Presidency (1945–1953)
Montenegro
  • Nikola I, Sovereign prince (1860–1910), King (1910–1918)
  • Božo Petrović-Njegoš, President (1879–1905)
  • Lazar Mijušković, President (1905–1906)
  • Marko Radulović, President (1906–1907)
  • Andrija Radović, President (1907)
  • Lazar Tomanović, President (1907–1910)
  • Nikola I, Sovereign prince (1860–1910), King (1910–1918)

Europe: British Isles

Ireland

United Kingdom

Europe: Central

Austria

Czechoslovakia

Germany

Hungary

Liechtenstein

Poland

Switzerland

Europe: East

Baltic states

Estonia
Latvia
Lithuania

Non-Baltic states

Moldova
Romania
  • Constantin Ion Parhon, President of the Provisional Presidium (1947–1948), President of the Presidium (1948–1952)
Russia
  • Mikhail Kalinin, Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets (1922–1938), Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1938–1946)
  • Nikolay Shvernik, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1946–1953)
  • Vladimir Lenin, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1922–1924)
  • Alexei Rykov, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1924–1930)
  • Vyacheslav Molotov, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1930–1941)
  • Joseph Stalin, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1941–1946), Chairman of the Council of Ministers (1946–1953)
Ukraine

Europe: Nordic

Denmark

Finland

Iceland

Norway

Sweden and Norway

Sweden

Europe: Southcentral

Italy

San Marino

  • Domenico Fattori, Antonio Righi, Captains Regent (1900)
  • Giovanni Bonelli, Pietro Ugolini, Captains Regent (1900–1901)
  • Luigi Tonnini, Marino Nicolini, Captains Regent (1901)
  • Antonio Bellucci, Pasquale Busignani, Captains Regent (1901–1902)
  • Onofrio Fattori, Egidio Ceccoli, Captains Regent (1902)
  • Gemino Gozi, Giacomo Marcucci, Captains Regent (1902–1903)
  • Federico Gozi, Nullo Balducci, Captains Regent (1903)
  • Marino Borbiconi, Francesco Marcucci, Captains Regent (1903–1904)
  • Menetto Bonelli, Vincenzo Mularoni, Captains Regent (1904)
  • Luigi Tonnini, Gustavo Babboni, Captains Regent (1904–1905)
  • Antonio Bellucci, Pasquale Busignani, Captains Regent (1905)
  • Onofrio Fattori, Piermatteo Carattoni, Captains Regent (1905–1906)
  • Giovanni Belluzzi, Pietro Francini, Captains Regent (1906)
  • Alfredo Reffi, Giovanni Arzilli, Captains Regent (1906–1907)
  • Ciro Belluzzi, Francesco Pasquali, Captains Regent (1907)
  • Giuseppe Angeli, Francesco Valli, Captains Regent (1907–1908)
  • Menetto Bonelli, Gustavo Babboni, Captains Regent (1908)
  • Olinto Amati, Raffaele Michetti, Captains Regent (1908–1909)
  • Luigi Tonnini, Domenico Suzzi Valli, Captains Regent (1909)
  • Marino Borbiconi, Giacomo Marcucci, Captains Regent (1909–1910)
  • Alfredo Reffi, Giovanni Arzilli, Captains Regent (1910)
  • Giovanni Belluzzi, Luigi Lonfernini, Captains Regent (1910–1911)
  • Moro Morri, Cesare Stacchini, Captains Regent (1911)
  • Onofrio Fattori, Angelo Manzoni Borghesi, Captains Regent (1911–1912)
  • Gustavo Babboni, Francesco Pasquali, Captains Regent (1912)
  • Menetto Bonelli, Vincenzo Marcucci, Captains Regent (1912–1913)
  • Giuseppe Angeli, Ignazio Grazia, Captains Regent (1913)
  • Cirro Belluzzi, Domenico Suzzi Valli, Captains Regent (1913–1914)
  • Domenico Fattori, Ferruccio Martelli, Captains Regent (1914)
  • Olinto Amati, Cesare Stacchini, Captains Regent (1914–1915)
  • Moro Morri, Antonio Burgagni, Captains Regent (1915)
  • Alfredo Reffi, Luigi Lonfernini, Captains Regent (1915–1916)
  • Onofrio Fattori, Ciro Francini, Captains Regent (1916)
  • Gustavo Babboni, Giovanni Arzilli, Captains Regent (1916–1917)
  • Egisto Morri, Vincenzo Marcucci, Captains Regent (1917)
  • Angelo Manzoni Borghesi, Giuseppe Balducci, Captains Regent (1917–1918)
  • Ferruccio Martelli, Ermenegildo Mularoni, Captains Regent (1918)
  • Protogene Belloni, Francesco Morri, Captains Regent (1918–1919)
  • Domenico Vicini, Pietro Suzzi Valli, Captains Regent (1919)
  • Moro Morri, Francesco Pasquali, Captains Regent (1919–1920)
  • Marino Rossi, Ciro Francini, Captains Regent (1920)
  • Carlo Balsimelli, Simone Michelotti, Captains Regent (1920–1921)
  • Marino Della Balda, Vincenzo Francini, Captains Regent (1921)
  • Egisto Morri, Giuseppe Lanci, Captains Regent (1921–1922)
  • Eugenio Reffi, Giovanni Arzilli, Captains Regent (1922)
  • Onofrio Fattori, Giuseppe Balducci, Captains Regent (1922–1923)
  • Giuliano Gozi, Filippo Mularoni, Captains Regent (1923)
  • Marino Borbiconi, Mario Michetti, Captains Regent (1923–1924)
  • Angelo Manzoni Borghesi, Francesco Mularoni, Captains Regent (1924)
  • Francesco Morri, Girolamo Gozi, Captains Regent (1924–1925)
  • Marino Fattori, Augusto Mularoni, Captains Regent (1925)
  • Valerio Pasquali, Marco Marcucci, Captains Regent (1925–1926)
  • Manlio Gozi, Giuseppe Mularoni, Captains Regent (1926)
  • Giuliano Gozi, Ruggero Morri, Captains Regent (1926–1927)
  • Gino Gozi, Marino Morri, Captains Regent (1927)
  • Marino Rossi, Nelson Burgagni, Captains Regent (1927–1928)
  • Domenico Suzzi Valli, Francesco Pasquali, Captains Regent (1928)
  • Francesco Morri, Melchiorre Filippi, Captains Regent (1928–1929)
  • Girolamo Gozi, Filippo Mularoni, Captains Regent (1929)
  • Ezio Balducci, Aldo Busignani, Captains Regent (1929–1930)
  • Manlio Gozi, Marino Lonfernini, Turiddu Foschi, Captains Regent (1930)
  • Valerio Pasquali, Gino Ceccoli, Captains Regent (1930–1931)
  • Angelo Manzoni Borghesi, Francesco Mularoni, Captains Regent (1931)
  • Domenico Suzzi Valli, Marino Morri, Captains Regent (1931–1932)
  • Giuliano Gozi, Pompeo Righi, Captains Regent (1932)
  • Gino Gozi, Ruggero Morri, Captains Regent (1932–1933)
  • Francesco Morri, Settimio Belluzzi, Captains Regent (1933)
  • Carlo Balsimelli, Melchiorre Filippi, Captains Regent (1933–1934)
  • Marino Rossi, Giovanni Lonfernini , Captains Regent (1934)
  • Angelo Manzoni Borghesi, Marino Michelotti, Captains Regent (1934–1935)
  • Federico Gozi, Salvatore Foschi, Captains Regent (1935)
  • Pompeo Righi, Marino Morri, Captains Regent (1935–1936)
  • Gino Gozi, Ruggero Morri, Captains Regent (1936)
  • Francesco Morri, Gino Ceccoli, Captains Regent (1936–1937)
  • Giuliano Gozi, Settimio Belluzzi, Captains Regent (1937)
  • Marino Rossi, Giovanni Lonfernini , Captains Regent (1937–1938)
  • Manlio Gozi, Luigi Mularoni, Captains Regent (1938)
  • Carlo Balsimelli, Celio Gozi, Captains Regent (1938–1939)
  • Pompeo Righi, Marino Morri, Captains Regent (1939)
  • Marino Michelotti, Orlando Reffi, Captains Regent (1939–1940)
  • Angelo Manzoni Borghesi, Filippo Mularoni, Captains Regent (1940)
  • Federico Gozi, Salvatore Foschi, Captains Regent (1940–1941)
  • Gino Gozi, Secondo Menicucci, Captains Regent (1941)
  • Giuliano Gozi, Giovanni Lonfernini, Captains Regent (1941–1942)
  • Settimio Belluzzi, Celio Gozi, Captains Regent (1942)
  • Carlo Balsimelli, Renato Martelli, Captains Regent (1942–1943)
  • Marino Michelotti, Bartolomeo Manzoni Borghesi, Captains Regent (1943)
  • Marino Della Balda, Sante Lonfernini, Captains Regent (1943–1944)
  • Francesco Balsimelli, Sanzio Valentini, Captains Regent (1944)
  • Teodoro Lonfernini, Leonida Suzzi Valli, Captains Regent (1944–1945)
  • Alvaro Casali, Vittorio Valentini, Captains Regent (1945)
  • Ferruccio Martelli, Secondo Fiorini, Captains Regent (1945–1946)
  • Giuseppe Forcellini, Vincenzo Pedini, Captains Regent (1946)
  • Filippo Martelli, Luigi Montironi, Captains Regent (1946–1947)
  • Marino Della Balda, Luigi Zafferani, Captains Regent (1947)
  • Domenico Forcellini, Mariano Ceccoli, Captains Regent (1947–1948)
  • Arnaldo Para, Giuseppe Renzi, Captains Regent (1948)
  • Giordano Giacomini, Domenico Tomassoni, Captains Regent (1948–1949)
  • Ferruccio Martelli, Primo Bugli, Captains Regent (1949)
  • Vincenzo Pedini, Agostino Biordi, Captains Regent (1949–1950)
  • Giuseppe Forcellini, Primo Taddei, Captains Regent (1950)
  • Marino Della Balda, Luigi Montironi, Captains Regent (1950–1951)

Vatican

Europe: Southwest

Andorra

  • Salvador Casañas y Pagés, Episcopal Co-Prince (1879–1901)
  • Ramon Riu i Cabanes, Episcopal Co-Prince (1901)
  • Toribio Martín, Interm Episcopal Co-Prince (1902)
  • Joan Josep Laguarda i Fenollera, Episcopal Co-Prince (1902–1906)
  • Josep Pujargimzú, Interm Episcopal Co-Prince (1907)
  • Juan Benlloch i Vivó, Episcopal Co-Prince (1907–1919)
  • Jaume Viladrich i Gaspa, Interm Episcopal Co-Prince (1919–1920)
  • Justí Guitart i Vilardebó, Episcopal Co-Prince (1920–1940)
  • Ricard Fornesa i Puigdemasa (Vicar capitular), Interm Episcopal Co-Prince (1940–1943)
  • Ramon Iglesias i Navarri, Episcopal Co-Prince (1943–1969)

Portugal

Spain

Europe: West

Belgium

France

Luxembourg

Monaco

Netherlands

Eurasia: Caucasus

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Georgia

Oceania

Australia

New Zealand

Tonga

  • Siosateki Veikune, Prime minister (1893–1905)
  • Sione Mateialona, Prime minister (1905–1912)
  • Tevita Tuʻivakano, Prime minister (1912–1923)
  • Viliami Tungi Mailefihi, Prime minister (1923–1941)
  • Solomone Ula Ata, Prime minister (1941–1949)
  • Tupoutoʻa-Tungi, Prime minister (1949–1965)

Wallis and Futuna

  • Soane Malia Musulamu, King (c.1887–1929)
  • Mateo Tamole, King
  • Toviko Keletaona, King
  • Tamasi Tamole, King
  • Toviko Keletaona, King
  • Sui Tamole, King
  • Ligareto Falemaa, King (?–1929)
  • Keletaona Keletaona, King (1929–1932)

References

  1. C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lxxxvif
  2. Tilho 1911, pp. 505-510 Volume 2.
  3. "Nigeria: Traditional polities". Rulers.Org. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
  4. 1 2 Sheridan, Michael J. et Nyamweru, Celia, African sacred groves: ecological dynamics & social change, James Currey, 2008, p. 141 ISBN 0821417894
  5. 1 2 Klein, Martin A., Islam and Imperialism in Senegal. Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914, Edinburgh University Press, 1968, p. XV
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