List of regencies and cities of Indonesia

This is the list of regencies and cities of Indonesia. Both regencies and cities are second-level administrative subdivision in Indonesia, immediately below the provinces, and above the districts. They are roughly equivalent to American counties.[1]

In Indonesia, both regency and city are at the same administration level, each having their own local government and legislative body. The difference between a regency and a city lies in demography, size and economy. Generally, a regency comprises a rural, larger area than a city. A city usually has non-agricultural economic activities.

A regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) is headed by a regent, known locally as bupati, while a city (Indonesian: kota) is headed by a mayor (walikota). All regents, mayors and members of legislatures are directly elected via elections to serve for a five year term which can be renewed once. Each regency or city is divided further into districts more commonly known as kecamatan, or distrik in Papua.

An administrative city is a city without its own local legislatures (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah). The mayor of an administrative city is directly appointed by the Governor. This type of city in Indonesia is only found in Jakarta which consisted of 5 administrative cities and 1 administrative regency.

Following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities became the key administrative units responsible for providing most governmental services.[2]

The list below groups regencies and cities in Indonesia by provinces. Each regency has an administrative centre, the regency seat.[3]

Description

Origin of "regency"

A regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) is a political subdivision of a province in Indonesia. The Indonesian term kabupaten is also sometimes translated as "municipality". Regencies and cities are divided into subdistricts (Kecamatan).

The English name "regency" comes from the Dutch colonial period, when regencies were ruled by bupati (or regents) and were known as regentschap (kabupaten in Javanese and subsequently Indonesian). Bupati had been regional lords under the pre-colonial monarchies of Java. When the Dutch abolished or curtailed those monarchies, the bupati were left as the most senior indigenous authority. They were not strictly speaking "native rulers" because the Dutch claimed full sovereignty over their territory, but in practice they had many of the attributes of petty kings (including elaborate regalia and palaces, and a high degree of impunity).

Etymology

The Indonesian title of bupati is originally a loanword from Sanskrit originating in India, a shortening of the Sanskrit title bhumi-pati, (bhumi, भूमि, "(of the) land" + pati, पति, "lord", hence bhumi-pati, "lord of the land"). In Indonesia, bupati was originally used as a Javanese title for regional rulers in precolonial kingdoms, its first recorded usage being in a Telaga Batu inscription during the Sriwijaya period in which bhupati is mentioned among the titles of local rulers who paid allegiance to Sriwijaya's kings.[4] Related titles which were also used in precolonial Indonesia are adipati ("duke") and senapati ("lord of the Army", or "general").

Pre-Independence Period

Regencies in Java territorial units were grouped together into Residencies headed by exclusively European Residents. This term hinted that the Residents had a quasi-diplomatic status in relation to the bupati (and indeed they had such a relationship with the native rulers who continued to prevail in much of Indonesia outside Java), but in practice the bupati had to follow Dutch instructions on any matter of concern to the colonial authorities.

The relationship between those sides was ambivalent: while legal and military power rested with the Dutch government (or, for a long time, with the Dutch East India Company (commonly known as the VOC, an abbreviation of the Dutch Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) under a Governor General in Batavia on Java, the regents held higher protocollary rank than the white officials who supposedly advised them and held day-to-day sway over the population. After the independence of Indonesia in 1945, the terms bupati and kabupaten were applied throughout the archipelago to the administrative unit below the residency (karesidenan).

Recent history

Since the start of the Reform Era in 1998 a remarkable secession of district governments has arisen in Indonesia. This process has become known as pemekaran ("secession"). Following the surge of support for decentralisation across Indonesia which occurred following the end of the Soeharto era in 1998, key new decentralisation laws were passed in 1999. Subsequently, there was a jump in the number of regencies (and cities) from around 300 at the end of 1998 to over 490 in 2008 ten years later. This secession of new regencies, welcome at first, has become increasingly controversial within Indonesia because the administrative fragmentation has proved costly and has not brought the hoped-for benefits.

Senior levels of the administration have expressed a general feeling that the process of pemekaran now needs to be slowed down (or even stopped for the time being) but local politicians at various levels across government in Indonesia continue to express strong populist support for the continued creation of new regencies.[5]

Since 1998, a large portion of governance have been delegated from central government in Jakarta to local regencies, with regencies now playing important role in providing services to Indonesian people.[6]

On 22 October 2012, the House of Representatives’ Commission II on home affairs and regional autonomy approved the establishment of a new province (North Kalimantan) as well as four new regencies; Pangandaran Regency in West Java, South Manokwari Regency and Arfak Mountains Regency in West Papua, and West Pesisir Regency in Lampung.

List of regencies and cities by province

Sumatra

Special Region of Aceh

No Regency Capital
1Aceh BesarJantho
2Aceh JayaCalang
3Aceh SingkilSingkil
4Aceh TamiangKarang Baru
5Bener MeriahSimpang Tiga Redelong
6BireuënBireuën
7Central AcehTakengon
8East AcehLangsa
9Gayo LuesBlangkejeren
10Nagan RayaSuka Makmue
11North AcehLhoksukon
12PidieSigli
13Pidie JayaMeureudu
14SimeulueSinabang
15South AcehTapaktuan
16Southeast AcehKutacane
17Southwest AcehBlangpidie
18West AcehMeulaboh
No City
1Banda Aceh
2Langsa
3Lhokseumawe
4Sabang
5Subulussalam

North Sumatra

No Regency Capital
1AsahanKisaran
2BatubaraLimapuluh
3Central Tapanuli
(Tapanuli Tengah)
Pandan
4DairiSidikalang
5Deli SerdangLubuk Pakam
6Humbang HasundutanDolok Sanggul
7KaroKabanjahe
8Labuhan BatuRantau Prapat
9LangkatStabat
10Mandailing NatalPanyabungan
11NiasGunungsitoli
12North Labuhan BatuAek Kanopan
13North NiasLotu
14North Padang LawasGunung Tua
15North TapanuliTarutung
16Padang LawasSibuhuan
17Pakpak BharatSalak
18SamosirPanguruan
19Serdang BedagaiSei Rampah
20SimalungunRaya
21South Labuhan BatuKota Pinang
22South NiasTeluk Dalam
23South TapanuliSipirok
24Toba SamosirBalige
25West NiasLahomi
No City
1Binjai
2Gunungsitoli
3Medan
4Padang Sidempuan
5Pematangsiantar
6Sibolga
7Tanjung Balai
8Tebing Tinggi

West Sumatra

No Regency Capital
1AgamLubuk Basung
2DharmasrayaPulau Punjung
3Lima Puluh KotaSarilamak
4Mentawai IslandsTuapejat
5Padang PariamanParit Malintang
6PasamanLubuk Sikaping
7SijunjungMuaro Sijunjung
8SolokArosuka
9South PesisirPainan
10South SolokPadang Aro
11Tanah DatarBatusangkar
12West PasamanSimpang Ampek
No City
1Bukittinggi
2Padang
3Padang Panjang
4Pariaman
5Payakumbuh
6Sawahlunto
7Solok

Jambi

No Regency Capital
1Batang HariMuara Bulian
2BungoBungo
3KerinciSiulak
4MeranginBangko
5Muaro JambiSengeti
6SarolangunSarolangun
7East Tanjung JabungMuara Sabak
8West Tanjung JabungKuala Tungkal
9TeboTebo
No City
1Jambi
2Sungai Penuh

Riau

No Regency Capital
1Bengkalis RegencyBengkalis
2Indragiri HilirTembilahan
3Indragiri Hulu RegencyRengat
4Kampar RegencyBangkinang
5Kuantan SingingiTeluk Kuantan
6Meranti IslandsSelat Panjang
7PelalawanPangkalan Kerinci
8Rokan HuluPasir Pangaraian
9Rokan HilirBagansiapiapi
10Siak RegencySiak Sri Indrapura
No City
1Dumai
2Pekanbaru

Bengkulu

No Regency Capital
1Central BengkuluKarang Tinggi
2KaurBintuhan
3KepahiangKepahiang
4LebongMuara Aman
5Muko-MukoMuko-Muko
6North BengkuluArgamakmur
7Rejang LebongCurup
8SelumaTais
9South BengkuluManna
No City
1Bengkulu

South Sumatra

No Regency Capital
1BanyuasinPangkalan Balai
2East Ogan Komering UluMartapura
3Empat LawangTebing Tinggi
4LahatLahat
5Muara EnimMuara Enim
6Musi BanyuasinSekayu
7Musi RawasMuara Beliti Baru
8North Musi RawasRupit
9Ogan IlirIndralaya
10Ogan Komering IlirKayuagung
11Ogan Komering UluBaturaja
12Penukal Abab Lematang IlirTalang Ubi
13South Ogan Komering UluMuaradua
No City
1Lubuklinggau
2Pagar Alam
3Palembang
4Prabumulih

Lampung

No Regency Capital
1Central LampungGunung Sugih
2East LampungSukadana
3MesujiMesuji
4North LampungKotabumi
5PesawaranGedong Tataan
6PringsewuPringsewu
7South LampungKalianda
8TanggamusKota Agung
9Tulang BawangMenggala
10Way KananBlambangan Umpu
11West LampungLiwa
12West PesisirKrui
13West Tulang BawangCentral Tulang Bawang
No City
1Bandar Lampung
2Metro

Bangka-Belitung Islands

No Regency Capital
1BangkaSungai Liat
2BelitungTanjung Pandan
3Central BangkaKoba
4East BelitungManggar
5South BangkaToboali
6West BangkaMentok
No City
1Pangkalpinang

Riau Islands

No Regency Capital
1Anambas IslandsTarempa
2BintanBandar Seri Bentan
3KarimunTanjung Balai Karimun
4LinggaDaik
5NatunaRanai
No City
1Batam
2Tanjungpinang

Java

Special Capital Region of Jakarta

No Administrative regency Capital
1Kepulauan SeribuPramuka Island
No Administrative city
1Central JakartaMenteng
2East JakartaJatinegara
3North JakartaKoja
4South JakartaKebayoran Baru
5West JakartaKembangan

Banten

No Regency Capital
1LebakRangkasbitung
2PandeglangPandeglang
3SerangCiruas
4TangerangTigaraksa
No City
1Cilegon
2Serang
3Tangerang
4South Tangerang

West Java

NameCapitalArea
in Square km
Population
2005 estimate
Population
2010 Census
Population
2014 estimate[7]
Bandung City167.272,288,5702,394,8732,575,478
Banjar City113.49162,383175,157188,365
Bekasi City206.611,993,4782,334,8712,510,951
Bogor City118.50891,467950,3341,022,002
Cimahi City39.27546,879541,177581,989
Cirebon City37.36308,771296,389318,741
Depok City200.291,374,9031,738,5701,869,681
Sukabumi City48.25291,277298,681321,205
Tasikmalaya City171.61582,423635,464683,386
Bandung RegencySoreang1,767.964,037,2743,178,5433,418,246
Bekasi RegencyCikarang1,224.881,983,8152,630,4012,828,767
Bogor RegencyCibinong2,710.623,829,0534,771,9325,131,798
Ciamis RegencyCiamis2,424.711,511,9421,532,5041,648,075
Cianjur RegencyCianjur3,840.162,079,7702,171,2812,335,024
Cirebon RegencySumber984.522,044,2572,067,1962,223,089
Garut RegencyGarut3,074.072,196,4222,404,1212,585,423
Indramayu RegencyIndramayu2,040.111,689,2471,663,7371,789,204
Karawang RegencyKarawang1,652.201,926,4712,127,7912,288,254
Kuningan RegencyKuningan1,110.561,045,6911,035,5891,113,686
Majalengka RegencyMajalengka1,204.241,167,5661,166,4731,254,440
Pangandaran RegencyParigi********
Purwakarta RegencyPurwakarta825.74753,306852,521916,812
Subang RegencySubang1,893.951,380,0471,465,1571,575,649
Sukabumi RegencySukabumi4,145.702,168,8922,341,4092,517,982
Sumedang RegencySumedang1,518.331,014,0191,093,6021,176,074
Tasikmalaya RegencySingaparna2,552.191,619,0521,675,6751,802,043
West Bandung RegencyNgamprah1,305.77*1,510,2841,624,179
Totals35,377.7638,886,97543,053,73246,300,543
Notes

* - the 2005 population is included in the total for Bandung Regency, of which West Bandung Regency was formerly part.
** - the figures for Ciamis Regency include those for the new Pangandaran Regency, created in 2012.

Central Java

No Regency Capital
1BanjarnegaraBanjarnegara
2BanyumasPurwokerto
3BatangBatang
4BloraBlora
5BoyolaliBoyolali
6BrebesBrebes
7CilacapCilacap
8DemakDemak
9GroboganPurwodadi
10JeparaJepara
11KaranganyarKaranganyar
12KebumenKebumen
13KendalKendal
14KlatenKlaten
15KudusKudus
16MagelangMungkid
17PatiPati
18PekalonganKajen
19PemalangPemalang
20PurbalinggaPurbalingga
21PurworejoPurworejo
22RembangRembang
23SemarangUngaran
24SragenSragen
25SukoharjoSukoharjo
26TegalSlawi
27TemanggungTemanggung
28WonogiriWonogiri
29WonosoboWonosobo
No City
1Magelang
2Surakarta
3Salatiga
4Semarang
5Pekalongan
6Tegal

East Java

No Regency Capital
1BangkalanBangkalan
2BanyuwangiBanyuwangi
3BlitarWlingi
4BojonegoroBojonegoro
5BondowosoBondowoso
6GresikGresik
7JemberJember
8JombangJombang
9KediriPare
10LamonganLamongan
11LumajangLumajang
12MadiunMadiun
13MagetanMagetan
14MalangKepanjen
15MojokertoMojokerto
16NganjukNganjuk
17NgawiNgawi
18PacitanPacitan
19PamekasanPamekasan
20PasuruanPasuruan
21PonorogoPonorogo
22ProbolinggoProbolinggo
23SampangSampang
24SidoarjoSidoarjo
25SitubondoSitubondo
26SumenepSumenep
27TrenggalekTrenggalek
28TubanTuban
29TulungagungTulungagung
No City
1Batu
2Blitar
3Kediri
4Madiun
5Malang
6Mojokerto
7Pasuruan
8Probolinggo
9Surabaya

Special Region of Yogyakarta

No Regency Capital
1BantulBantul
2Gunung KidulWonosari
3Kulon ProgoWates
4SlemanSleman
No City
1Yogyakarta

Lesser Sunda Islands

Bali

No Regency Capital
1BadungMangupura
2BangliBangli
3BulelengSingaraja
4GianyarGianyar
5JembranaNegara
6KarangasemAmlapura
7KlungkungSemarapura
8TabananTabanan
No City
1Denpasar

West Nusa Tenggara

No Regency Capital
1BimaWoha
2Central LombokPraya
3DompuDompu
4East LombokSelong
5North LombokTanjung
6SumbawaSumbawa Besar
7West LombokGerung
8West SumbawaTaliwang
No City
1Mataram
2Bima

East Nusa Tenggara

No Regency Capital
1AlorKalabahi
2BeluAtambua
3Central SumbaWaibakul
4East FloresLarantuka
5East ManggaraiBorong
6East SumbaWaingapu
7EndeEnde
8KupangOelamasi
9LembataLewoleba
10MalakaBetun
11ManggaraiRuteng
12NagekeoMbay
13NgadaBajawa
14North Central TimorKefamenanu
15Rote NdaoBaa
16Sabu RaijuaWest Savu
17SikkaMaumere
18South Central TimorSoe
19Southwest SumbaTambolaka
20West ManggaraiLabuan Bajo
21West SumbaWaikabubak
No City
1Kupang

Kalimantan

West Kalimantan

No Regency Capital
1BengkayangBengkayang
2Kapuas HuluPutussibau
3North KayongSukadana
4KetapangKetapang
5Kubu RayaSungai Raya
6LandakNgabang
7MelawiNanga Pinoh
8PontianakMempawah
9SambasSambas
10SanggauSanggau
11SekadauSekadau
12SintangSintang
No City
1Pontianak
2Singkawang

South Kalimantan

No Regency Capital
1BalanganParingin
2BanjarMartapura
3Barito KualaMarabahan
4Central Hulu SungaiBarabai
5KotabaruKotabaru
6North Hulu SungaiAmuntai
7South Hulu SungaiKandangan
8TabalongBatulicin
9Tanah LautTanjung
10Tanah BumbuPelaihari
11TapinRantau
No City
1Banjarbaru
2Banjarmasin

Central Kalimantan

No Regency Capital
1East BaritoTamiang
2East KotawaringinSampit
3Gunung MasKuala Kurun
4KapuasKapuas
5KatinganKasongan
6LamandauNanga Bulik
7Murung RayaPuruk Cahu
8North BaritoMuarateweh
9Pulang PisauPulang Pisau
10SukamaraSukamara
11SeruyanKuala Pembuang
12South BaritoBuntok
13West KotawaringinPangkalan Bun
No City
1Palangka Raya

East Kalimantan

No Regency Capital
1BerauTanjung Redeb
2East KutaiSangatta
3Kutai KartanegaraTenggarong
4Mahakam UluUjoh Bilang
5North Penajam PaserPenajam
6PaserTanah Grogot
7West KutaiSendawar
No City
1Balikpapan
2Bontang
3Samarinda

North Kalimantan

No Regency Capital
1BulunganTanjung Selor
2MalinauMalinau
3NunukanNunukan
4Tana TidungTideng Pale
No City
1Tarakan

Sulawesi

Gorontalo

No Regency Capital
1BoalemoTilamuta
2Bone BolangoSuwawa
3GorontaloLimboto
4North GorontaloKwandang
5PahuwatoMarisa
No City
1Gorontalo

South Sulawesi

No Regency Capital
1BantaengBantaeng
2BarruBarru
3BoneWatampone
4BulukumbaBulukumba
5East LuwuMalili
6EnrekangEnrekang
7GowaSungguminasa
8JenepontoBontosunggu
9LuwuBelopa
10North LuwuMasamba
11North TorajaRantepao
12MarosMaros
13Pangkajene IslandsPangkajene
14PinrangPinrang
15Selayar IslandsBenteng
16SinjaiSinjai
17Sidenreng RappangSidenreng
18SoppengWatan Soppeng
19TakalarTakalar
20Tana TorajaMakale
21WajoSengkang
No City
1Makassar
2Palopo
3Parepare

West Sulawesi

No Regency Capital
1.Central MamujuTobadak
2.MajeneMajene
3.MamasaMamasa
4.MamujuMamuju
5.North MamujuPasangkayu
6.Polewali MandarPolewali

Southeast Sulawesi

No Regency Capital
1BombanaRumbia
2ButonPasar Wajo
3Central ButonLabungkari
4East KolakaTirawuta
5KolakaKolaka
6KonaweUnaaha
7Konawe IslandsLangara
8MunaRaha
9North ButonBurangga
10North KolakaLasusua
11North KonaweWanggudu
12South ButonBatauga
13South KonaweAndolo
14WakatobiWangi-Wangi
15West MunaLaworo
No City
1Baubau
2Kendari

Central Sulawesi

No Regency Capital
1BanggaiLuwuk
2Banggai IslandsSalakan
3BuolBuol
4Banggai LautBanggai
5DonggalaDonggala
6MorowaliBungku
6North MorowaliKolonodale
8Parigi MoutongParigi
9PosoPoso
10SigiSigi Biromaru
11Tojo Una-UnaAmpana
12Toli-ToliToli-Toli
No City
1Palu

North Sulawesi

No Regency Capital
1Bolaang MongondowLolak
2East Bolaang MongondowTutuyan
3MinahasaTondano
4North Bolaang MongondowBoroko
5North MinahasaAirmadidi
6Sangihe IslandsTahuna
7Sitaro IslandsOndong
8South Bolaang MongondowBoolang Uki
9South MinahasaAmurang
10Southeast MinahasaRatahan
11Talaud IslandsMelonguane
No City
1Bitung
2Kotamobagu
3Manado
4Tomohon

Maluku Islands

Maluku

No Regency Capital
1Aru IslandsDobo
2BuruNamlea
3Central MalukuMasohi
4Eastern SeramBula
5South BuruNamrole
6Southeast MalukuTual
7Southwest MalukuTiakur
8Western SeramPiru
9Western Southeast MalukuSaumlaki
No City
1Ambon
2Tual

North Maluku

No Regency Capital
1Central HalmaheraWeda
2East HalmaheraMaba
3Morotai IslandDaruba
4North HalmaheraTobelo
5South HalmaheraLabuha
6Sula IslandsSanana
7Taliabu IslandBobong
8West HalmaheraJailolo
No City
1Ternate
2Tidore

Western New Guinea

Special Region of West Papua

No Regency Capital
1Fak-FakFak-Fak
2KaimanaKaimana
3ManokwariManokwari
4MaybratKumurkek
5Raja AmpatWaisai
6Pegunungan Arfak
(Arfak Mountains)
Anggi
7SorongAimas *
8South ManokwariRansiki
9South SorongTeminabuan
10TambrauwFef
11Teluk BintuniBintuni
12Teluk WondamaRasiei
No City
1Sorong

Special Region of Papua

No Regency Capital
1AsmatAgats
2Biak NumforBiak
3Boven DigoelTanahmerah
4Central MamberamoKobakma
5DeiyaiTigi
6DogiyaiKigamani
7Intan JayaSugapa
8JayapuraSentani
9JayawijayaWamena
10KeeromWaris
11Lanny JayaTiom
12Mamberamo RayaBurmeso
13MappiKepi
14MeraukeMerauke
15MimikaTimika
16NabireNabire
17NdugaKenyam
18PaniaiEnarotali
19Pegunungan BintangOksibil
20PuncakIlaga
21Puncak JayaKota Mulia
22SarmiSarmi
23SupioriSorendiweri
24TolikaraKarubaga
25WaropenBotawa
26YahukimoSumohai
27YalimoElelim
28Yapen IslandsSerui
No City
1Jayapura

Proposed new regencies

On 25 October 2013 the Indonesian House of Representatives (DPR) began reviewing draft laws on the establishment of 57 prospective regencies/cities (and 8 new provinces),[8] as set out below:

“With these new regions, it is hoped that we can shorten the line of governance, improve land and security aspects, and no less important, support historical and cultural [institutions],” House Speaker Marzuki Alie said.

The agreement will be forwarded on for government approval.

Marzuki said that the new regions, especially in areas bordering other nations, will be able to support more development so that border areas develop faster and become less vulnerable to the territorial claims of other countries.

“We hope everything will go smoothly,” he said.

Under the new package, eight new provinces will join Indonesia’s current 34; three of the new provinces are in Papua and West Papua. The new provinces are Pulau Sumbawa, South Papua, Central Papua, Southwest Papua, Tapanuli, Nias, Kapuas Raya and Bolang Mongondow Raya.

The newly created regencies in Papua Province comprise the regencies of Gili Menawa, Moyo, Balin Senter, Bogogha, Puncak Trikora, Muara Digul, Admi Korbay, Katengban, Okika, Northwest Yapen, East Yapen, Numfor Island, Yalimek, Mambera Hulu, Southwest Yahukimo, East Yahukimo and Gondumisisare and the municipalities of Merauke and Lembah Baliem (Baliem Valley). The newly created regencies in West Papua comprise the regencies of Malamoy, Maibratsau, North Raja Ampat, South Raja Ampat, Raja Maskona, Okas, Kota Manokwari, West Manokwari and Imeo.

The other new regencies will comprise: Simalungun Hataran (created from Simalungun Regency) and Pantai Barat Mandailing (from Mandailing Natal Regency) in North Sumatra, Kundur Island (from Karimun Regency) in Riau Kepulauan, Renah Indojati (from South Pesisir Regency) in West Sumatra, the Muaro Bungo municipality (from Bungo Regency) in Jambi, the Lembak Regency (from Rejang Lebong Regency) in Bengkulu and the regencies of Bigi Maria (from Lahat Regency) and Pantai Timur (from Ogan Ilir Regency) in South Sumatra.

Additionally, three new regencies will be created in West Java: South Garut, or Garut Selatan (created from Garut Regency), North Sukabumi, or Sukabumi Utara (from Sukabumi Regency) and West Bogor, or Bogor Barat (from Bogor Regency).

Kalimantan will see four new regencies: Sekayam Raya (created from Sanggau Regency) and Banua Banjak (from Kapuas Hulu Regency) in West Kalimantan, and South Berau Pesisir (from Berau Regency) and South Paser (from Paser Regency) in East Kalimantan.

Sulawesi will see four as well: South Talaud, or Talaud Selatan (created from Talaud Islands Regency) in North Sulawesi, South Bone, or Bone Selatan (from Bone Regency) in South Sulawesi, and Bolio Huto, Panipi (from Gorontalo Regency) and West Gorontalo (from Pohuwato Regency) in Gorontalo; and two new municipalities: Tahuna (from Sangihe Islands Regency) and Langoa (from Minahasa Regency), both located in North Sulawesi.

Other new regencies will include South Lombok (created from East Lombok Regency) on Lombok island, the regency of Adonara (from East Flores Regency) and the Municipality of Maumere (from Sikka Regency) on Flores island, and the regencies of Wasile (from East Halmahera Regency) and Obi Islands (from South Halmahera Regency) in North Maluku.

Later in the same week, the House, at its last plenary meeting of 2013, approved the creation of a further seven new regencies - Mahakam Ulu (in East Kalimantan), Malaka (in East Nusa Tenggara), Central Mamuju (in West Sulawesi), Banggai Laut (in Central Sulawesi), Tailabu Island (in North Maluku), Penukal Abab Lematang Ilir (in South Sumatra) and East Kolaka (in Southeast Sulawesi).[8]

References

  1. Turner, Mark; Owen Podger; Maria S. Sumardjono; Wayan K. Tirthayasa (2003). Decentralisation in Indonesia: redesigning the state. Australian National University. Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government. ISBN 0-7315-3697-5.
  2. Indonesia - The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2013
  3. "Profil Daerah (Regional profiles)". Indonesian Ministry of Interior.
  4. Casparis, J.G., (1956), Prasasti Indonesia II: Selected Inscriptions from the 7th to the 9th Century A.D., Dinas Purbakala Republik Indonesia, Bandung: Masa Baru.
  5. Yosua Sitomorang, 'Strategic Asia: When it comes to Regional Autonomy in Indonesia, Breaking Up Should be Harder to Do' Archived 2012-09-28 at the Wayback Machine., The Jakarta Globe, 9 June 2010.
  6. Hill, Hal (September 18, 2013), Power shift in Indonesia, The Australian
  7. Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin Menurut Kabupaten/Kota Tahun 2014.
  8. 1 2 Jakarta Post, 14 November 2013
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