List of quasiparticles

This is a list of quasiparticles.

Quasiparticle Signification Underlying particles
Bipolaron A bound pair of two polarons polaron (electron, phonon)
Bogoliubon Broken Cooper pair electron
Configuron[1] An elementary configurational excitation in an amorphous material which involves breaking of a chemical bond
Dislon A localized collective excitation associated with a dislocation in crystalline solids[2]. It emerges from the quantization of the lattice displacement field of a classical dislocation
Dropleton The first known quasiparticle that behaves like a liquid[3]
Electron quasiparticle An electron as affected by the other forces and interactions in the solid electron
Electron hole (hole) A lack of electron in a valence band electron, cation
Exciton A bound state of an electron and a hole electron, hole
Fracton A collective quantized vibration on a substrate with a fractal structure.
Fracton (subdimensional particle) An emergent quasiparticle excitation that is immobile when in isolation.
Holon (chargon) A quasi-particle resulting from electron spin-charge separation
Leviton A collective excitation of a single electron within a metal
Magnon A coherent excitation of electron spins in a material
Majorana fermion A quasiparticle equal to its own antiparticle, emerging as a midgap state in certain superconductors
Orbiton[4] A quasiparticle resulting from electron spin-orbital separation
Phason Vibrational modes in a quasicrystal associated with atomic rearrangements
Phoniton A theoretical quasiparticle which is a hybridization of a localized, long-living phonon and a matter excitation[5]
Phonon Vibrational modes in a crystal lattice associated with atomic shifts
Plasmaron A quasiparticle emerging from the coupling between a plasmon and a hole
Plasmon A coherent excitation of a plasma
Polaron A moving charged quasiparticle that is surrounded by ions in a material electron, phonon
Polariton A mixture of photon with other quasiparticles photon, optical phonon
Roton Elementary excitation in superfluid helium-4
Soliton A self-reinforcing solitary excitation wave
Spinon A quasiparticle produced as a result of electron spin-charge separation that can form both quantum spin liquid and strongly correlated quantum spin liquid
Trion A coherent excitation of three quasiparticles (two holes and one electron or two electrons and one hole)
Wrinklon A localized excitation corresponding to wrinkles in a constrained two dimensional system[6][7]


  1. Angell, C.A.; Rao, K.J. (1972). "Configurational excitations in condensed matter, and "bond lattice" model for the liquid-glass transition". J. Chem. Phys. 57: 470–481. Bibcode:1972JChPh..57..470A. doi:10.1063/1.1677987.
  2. M. Li, Y. Tsurimaki, Q. Meng, N. Andrejevic, Y. Zhu, G. D. Mahan, and G. Chen, "Theory of electron-phonon-dislon interacting system – toward a quantized theory of dislocations", New J. Phys. (2017)
  3. Clara Moskowitz (26 February 2014). "Meet the Dropleton—a "Quantum Droplet" That Acts Like a Liquid". Scientific American. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  4. J. Schlappa, K. Wohlfeld, K. J. Zhou, M. Mourigal, M. W. Haverkort, V. N. Strocov, L. Hozoi, C. Monney, S. Nishimoto, S. Singh, A. Revcolevschi, J.-S. Caux, L. Patthey, H. M. Rønnow, J. van den Brink, and T. Schmitt; (2012-04-18). "Spin–orbital separation in the quasi-one-dimensional Mott insulator Sr2CuO3". Nature. 485 (7396): 82–5. arXiv:1205.1954. Bibcode:2012Natur.485...82S. doi:10.1038/nature10974. PMID 22522933.
  5. "Introducing the Phoniton: a tool for controlling sound at the quantum level". University of Maryland Department of Physics. Retrieved 26 Feb 2014.
  6. Johnson, Hamish. "Introducing the 'wrinklon'". Physics World. Retrieved 26 Feb 2014.
  7. Meng, Lan; Su, Ying; Geng, Dechao; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi; Dou, Rui-Fen; Nie, Jia-Cai; He, Lin (2013). "Hierarchy of graphene wrinkles induced by thermal strain engineering". Applied Physics Letters. 103 (25): 251610. arXiv:1306.0171. Bibcode:2013ApPhL.103y1610M. doi:10.1063/1.4857115. Retrieved 22 March 2014.

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