List of political parties in the United States

This is a list of political parties in the United States, both past and present.

Parties with federal representation

Current United States Congressional seats

Political Parties House of Representatives Senate
Republican Party 241 51
Democratic Party 194 47
Independent 0 2

Congressional leadership of the House of Representatives

Position Representative
Speaker of the House Paul Ryan (R)
Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)
Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D)

Congressional leadership of the Senate

Position Senator
President of the Senate Mike Pence (R)
President Pro Tempore Orrin Hatch (R)
Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R)
Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D)

The Vice President of the United States has the additional duty of President of the Senate. It is the Vice President's duty as President of the Senate to cast a tie-breaking vote in the event that "they be equally divided"—an equal number of Senators voting both for and against a motion.

Parties with state representation

Political Parties State Lower Chamber Seats State Upper Chamber Seats Governorships
Republican Party 3,047 1,158 34
Democratic Party 2,339 804 15
Vermont Progressive Party 7 3 0
Libertarian Party 3 1 0
Green Party[1][2] 2 0 0
Working Families Party 1 1 0
Independence Party of New York 1 0 0
Independent 15 3 1
Vacant 4 3 0
Total 5,411 1,972 50

Major political parties

Per Merriam-Webster, a major party has "electoral strength sufficient to permit it to win control of a government usually with comparative regularity and when defeated to constitute the principal opposition to the party in power."[3] In the United States, only the Democratic and Republican parties meet this definition.

Political Party Founded in Former Titles International Affiliations
Democratic Party 1828 Progressive Alliance[4]
Republican Party 1854 International Democrat Union[5]

Minor political parties

This listing of minor parties does not include independents.

Political Party Ideologies 2016 Presidential Election Votes[6] Founded in Former Titles International Affiliations
America First Party Paleoconservatism 2002
America's Party Christian conservatism 4,689 2008 America's Independent Party
American Delta Party Social progressivism 33,136 2016
American Freedom Party White nationalism 2010 American Third Position Party
American Populist Party* Libertarianism 2009
American Solidarity Party Christian democracy 6,662 2011 Christian Democratic Party USA
Black Riders Liberation Party Black nationalism 1996
Christian Liberty Party* Dominionism 1996 American Heritage Party
Citizens Party of the United States Centrism 2004 New American Independent Party
Communist Party Communism 1919 Workers Party of America
Workers (Communist) Party of America
International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties
Constitution Party Paleoconservatism
Fiscal conservatism
203,091 1992 U.S. Taxpayers' Party
Freedom Socialist Party Trotskyism 1966 Committee for Revolutionary International Regroupment
Green Party Progressivism
Green politics
Democratic socialism
1,444,059 2001 Association of State Green Parties Global Greens
Humane Party Animal rights 2009
Independent American Party Paleoconservatism 2,732 1998
Justice Party Social democracy 2011
Legal Marijuana Now Party Marijuana legalization 13,537 1998
Libertarian Party Libertarianism
Classical liberalism
Anti-intervention
4,442,131 1971 International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
Interlibertarians[7]
Modern Whig Party Centrism 2007
National Socialist Movement Neo-Nazism 1974 National Socialist American Workers Freedom Movement World Union of National Socialists
New Black Panther Party Black nationalism 1989
Objectivist Party Objectivism 2008
Party for Socialism and Liberation Communism 73,636 2004
Peace and Freedom Party Democratic socialism 1967
Prohibition Party Temperance 5,617 1869
Reform Party Big tent
Electoral reform
Anti-corruption
33,085 1995 United We Stand America
Serve America Movement Big tent, centrism 2017
Socialist Action Trotskyism 1983 Fourth International
Socialist Alternative Trotskyism 1986 Labor Militant Committee for a Workers' International
Socialist Equality Party Trotskyism 469 1966 Workers League International Committee of the Fourth International
Socialist Labor Party of America De Leonism 1876 Workingmen's Party (1876–1877)
Socialistic Labor Party (1877–1880s)
Socialist Party Democratic socialism
Anti-intervention
Anti-capitalist
2,698 1973 Social Democratic Party/Socialist Party of America (1898-1972)
Debs Caucus
Union for Democratic Socialism
Socialist Workers Party Communism 11,741 1938 Pathfinder tendency (unofficial)
United States Marijuana Party Marijuana legalization 2002
United States Pacifist Party Pacifism 382 1983
United States Pirate Party Pirate politics 2006 Pirate Parties International (observer)
Unity Party of America Centrism 2004
Veterans Party of America Centrism 7,233 2013
Workers World Party Communism 4,314 1959

Regional parties

These parties are based only in states or certain regions and rarely, if ever, offer candidates for national offices. These are all parties that are unaffiliated with national parties. Each state has official state chapters of the major parties as well as some of the minor parties.

Alaska

California

Connecticut

Delaware

Hawaii

Michigan

Minnesota

Maryland

New York

Northern Mariana Islands

Ohio

Oregon

Puerto Rico

Rhode Island

South Carolina

Utah

U.S. Virgin Islands

Vermont

Washington

Wisconsin

Virginia

Historical parties

The following parties are no longer functioning.
Historical parties in the United States
NameOther namesEstablishedDisbanded
Federalist Party17891820
Anti-Administration party17891792
Democratic-Republican PartyRepublican Party1792c.1824
Toleration Party1816c.1827
National Republican PartyAnti-Jacksonian Partyc.18241837
Anti-Masonic Party18281838
Nullifier Party18281839
Whig Party18331860s
Liberty Party18401850s
Law and Order Party of Rhode Island18411850s
American Republican Party (1843)18431854
Free Soil Party18481855
Anti-Nebraska Party18541854
American PartyKnow Nothingsc.18541858
Opposition Party18541858
Constitutional Union Party18601860
Unconditional Union Party18611866
National Union Party18641868
Radical Democracy Party18641864
Readjuster Party18701885
People's Party (Utah)18701891
Liberal Party18701893
Liberal Republican Party18721872
Greenback Party18741884
Anti-Monopoly Party18841884
People's PartyPopulist Party18871908
Silver Party18921902
National Democratic PartyGold Democrats18961900
Silver Republican Party18961900
Social Democracy of America18971900
Social Democratic Party18981901
Home Rule Party of Hawaii19001912
Socialist Party of America19011972
Independence PartyIndependence League19061914
Progressive Party 1912Bull Moose Party19121914
National Woman's Party19131930
Nonpartisan League19151956
Minnesota Farmer–Labor Party19181944
Labor Party of the United States19191920
Farmer–Labor Party19201936
Proletarian Party of America19201971
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party19221965
Progressive Party 192419241924
Communist League of America19281934
American Workers Party19331934
Workers Party of the United States19341938
Union Party19361936
American Labor Party19361956
America First Party19441996
States' Rights Democratic PartyDixiecrats19481948
Progressive Party 194819481955
Progressive Democratic Party19441948
Vegetarian Party19481964
Constitution Party19521968?
American Nazi Party19591967
Puerto Rican Socialist Party19591993
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party19641964
Black Panther Party19661982
Patriot Party1960s1980s
Youth International PartyYippies19671967
Communist Workers Party19691985
United Citizens Party19692008?
American Party19692008
Raza Unida Party19702012
People's Party19711976
New Union Party19742005?
U.S. Labor Party19751979
Concerned Citizens Party19751992
Citizens Party19791984
New Alliance Party19791992
Populist Party (United States, 1984)19841994
Looking Back Party19841996
Republican Moderate Party of Alaska19862011
Independent Party of Utah19881996
A Connecticut Party19901995?
New Party19921998
Natural Law Party19922004
New Jersey Conservative Party19922009
American Falangist Party19952000
Labor Party19962007
Aloha Aina Party19972000?
Marijuana Reform Party19982002
Southern Party19992003
Veterans Party20032008
Christian Freedom Party20042004
Personal Choice Party20042006?
Populist Party of Maryland20042008
Moderate Party20052008
Florida Whig Party20062012
Boston Tea Party20062012
Connecticut for Lieberman20062013
Independence Party of America20072013
Taxpayers Party of New York20102011
Freedom Party of New York20102011
Traditionalist Workers Party20132018

Non-electoral organizations

These organizations do not nominate candidates for election but otherwise function similarly to political parties. Some of them have nominated candidates in the past.

Political Party Founded in Former Titles International Affiliations
American Nazi party (remnants) 1959 World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists
National Socialist White People's Party
American Party of Labor 2008
American Reform Party 1997
Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism 1991 Committees of Correspondence
Democratic Socialists of America 1982 Formerly Socialist International, not a member as of August 2017.
Freedom Road Socialist Organization (freedomroad.org group) 1985
Freedom Road Socialist Organization (frso.org group) 1985 International Communist Seminar
Fourth International Caucus (faction of Solidarity) 1995 Fourth International (USFI)
Greens/Green Party USA 1991
International Socialist Organization 1977
Internationalism 1970 International Communist Current
Internationalist Group 1996 League for the Fourth International
Internationalist Workers' Group 2002 International Communist Tendency
League for the Revolutionary Party 1976 Communist Organization for the Fourth International
League of Revolutionaries for a New America 1993
News and Letters Committees 1955
Our Revolution 2016
Progressive Labor Party 1961 Progressive Labor Movement *
Refoundation and Revolution (faction of Solidarity) 2002 Trotskyist League Coordinating Committee for the Refoundation of the Fourth International
Revolutionary Communist Party, USA 1975 Revolutionary Union
Revolutionary Organization of Labor 1961 Ray O. Light International Communist Seminar, International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations (International Newsletter), International Coordination of Revolutionary Parties and Organizations
Social Democrats, USA 1972
Socialist Organizer 1991 Fourth International (International Center of Reconstruction)
Socialist Workers Organization 2001
Solidarity 1986
Spartacist League 1966 International Communist League (Fourth Internationalist)
The Spark 1971 International Communist Union
Texas Nationalist Movement
U.S. Marxist–Leninist Organization 1981
Workers Party 2003
World Socialist Party of the United States 1916 Socialist Party of the United States

Socialist Educational Society

Workers' Socialist Party

World Socialist Movement

See also

References

Further reading

  • Nash, Howard P., Jr.; Schnapper, M. B. (1959). Third Parties in American Politics. 
  • Ness, Immanuel; Ciment, James (2000). The Encyclopedia of Third Parties in America. Armonk, NY, U.S.A.: Sharpe Reference. ISBN 0-7656-8020-3. 
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