List of oldest universities in continuous operation
This article contains a list of the oldest existing universities in continuous operation in the world. Inclusion in this list is determined by the date at which the educational institute met the traditional definition of a university although it may have existed as a different kind of institute before that time. This definition limits the term "university" to institutions with distinctive structural and legal features that developed in Europe, and which make the university form different from other institutions of higher learning in the pre-modern world. Thus, for the list below, the university must have been founded before 1500 in Europe or be the oldest university derived from the medieval European model in a country or region. It must also be still in operation, with institutional continuity retained throughout its history, and so some early universities, most notably the University of Paris, which was abolished by the Revolution in 1793, are excluded. Some institutions re-emerge, but with new foundations, such as the modern University of Paris, which came into existence in 1896 after the Louis Liard law disbanded Napoleon's University of France system.
The word university is derived from the Latin: universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which approximately means "community of teachers and scholars". The term was coined by the Italian University of Bologna, which, with a traditional founding date of 1088, is considered to be the first university. The origin of many medieval universities can be traced back to the Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools, which appeared as early as the 6th century and were run for hundreds of years as such before their formal establishment as universities in the high medieval period.
Other institutions of higher learning, such as those of ancient Greece, ancient Persia, ancient Rome, Byzantium, ancient China, ancient India and the Islamic world, are not included in this list owing to their cultural, historical, structural and juristic dissimilarities from the medieval European university from which the modern university evolved.
The university is a European institution; indeed, it is the European institution par excellence. There are various reasons for this assertion. As a community of teachers and taught, accorded certain rights, such as administrative autonomy and the determination and realisation of curricula (courses of study) and of the objectives of research as well as the award of publicly recognised degrees, it is a creation of medieval Europe, which was the Europe of papal Christianity [...].
From the early modern period onwards, the university gradually spread from the medieval Latin West across the globe, eventually replacing all other higher-learning institutions and becoming the preeminent institution for higher education everywhere. This process occurred in the following chronological order:
- Western Europe (from the 11th or 12th century)
- Central and Eastern Europe (from the 14th or 15th century)
- Americas (from the 16th century)
- Australia (from the 19th century)
- Asia and Africa (from the 19th or 20th century), with the exception of the Philippines, where the University of Santo Tomas was established in the 17th century.
Founded before 1500
(charter granted 1158)
|University of Bologna||The oldest university in the world. A university in the sense of a higher-learning, degree-awarding institute, the word university (Latin: universitas) having been coined at its foundation. It received, in 1158, from Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa the "Authentica habita", which settled the rules, rights and privileges of universities.|
(charter granted in 1248)
|University of Oxford||The oldest university in the English-speaking world: Oxford claims its founding ("..teaching existed ... in some form..") as early as 1096, and not later than 1167. Rashdall takes 1167 as the date when Oxford became a studium generale. In 1254, Pope Innocent IV granted Oxford a university charter by papal bull ("Querentes in agro"). Teaching was suspended in 1209 (due to the town's execution of two scholars) and in 1355 (due to the St. Scholastica Day riot), but was continuous during the English Civil War (1642–1651), when the University was Royalist.|
|1134 (charter granted in 1218)||University of Salamanca||The oldest university in the Hispanic world. The university claims to have been founded by Alfonso IX of León in 1218 (although James Trager's People's Chronology sets its foundation date as 1134), making it the third or fourth oldest university in continuous operation. It was the first European university to receive the title of "University" as such, which was granted by the King of Castile and León, Alfonso X, and the Pope in 1254. After being excluded from the University in 1852 by the Spanish government, the Faculties of Theology and Canon Law became the Pontifical University of Salamanca in 1940.|
(charter granted in 1231)
|University of Cambridge||Founded by scholars leaving Oxford after a dispute caused by the execution of two scholars in 1209. Its royal charter was granted in 1231. The University takes 1209 as its official anniversary. Inspired the establishment of Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, with the first college in the United States, Harvard University named after one of Cambridge University's alumni, John Harvard.|
|University of Padua||Founded by scholars and professors after leaving Bologna.|
|1224 (1258)||University of Naples Federico II||The first public university, founded by Frederick II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The university moved to Salerno in 1253, and its return to Naples in 1258 is sometimes considered as a refoundation. It is considered to be the oldest public and state university in the world.|
|1290||University of Coimbra||It began its existence in Lisbon with the name Studium Generale (Estudo Geral). Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis ("the admirable treasure of knowledge"), the royal charter announcing the institution of the University, was dated 1 March 1290, although efforts had been made since at least 1288 to create this first university in Portugal. Papal confirmation was also given in 1290 (on 9 August of that year), during the papacy of Pope Nicholas IV.|
|1290||University of Macerata||Founded in 1290, possibly as a private law school rather than a university. Unknown whether this was in continuous operation, but there is evidence for a school (without degree awarding powers) in 1518. After petitions from the commune to the Pope from 1534, bull establishing a studium generale issued in 1540.|
|By 1293||University of Valladolid||Founded in the late 13th century (first documentary evidence 1293), probably by the city.|
|1293||Complutense University of Madrid||The University of Alcalá was founded by King Sancho IV of Castile as Studium Generale in 1293 in Alcalá de Henares. It was granted a papal bull in 1499, and quickly gained international fame thanks to the patronage of Cardinal Cisneros and the production of the Complutensian Polyglot Bible in 1517, which is the basis for most current translations. The University moved to Madrid in 1836 by royal decree as Universidad Central. The Moyano Law of 1857 established Central as the sole university in Spain authorized to confer the title of Doctor on any scholar. This law remained in effect until 1969. In 1970, Universidad Central de Madrid changed its name to Universidad Complutense de Madrid, its present name. On the other side, the Universidad de Alcalá was restored in Alcalá de Henares in 1977.|
|1303||Sapienza University of Rome||Founded by Pope Boniface VIII, but became a state university in 1935.|
|1308||University of Perugia||Attested by the Bull of Pope Clement V.|
|1321||University of Florence||The University of Florence evolved from the Studium Generale, which was established by the Florentine Republic in 1321. The Studium was recognized by Pope Clement VI in 1349.|
|1343||University of Pisa||It was formally founded on 3 September 1343 by an edict of Pope Clement VI, although there had been lectures on law in Pisa since the 11th century. Nowadays is one of the most important universities in Italy.|
|1348||Charles University of Prague||Three of four faculties closed in 1419, joined with Jesuit university and renamed Charles-Ferdinand University in 1652, split into German and Czech part in 1882, Czech branch closed during Nazi occupation (1939–1945), German branch closed in 1945.|
|1357||University of Siena||Claims to have been founded in 1240 by the Commune of Siena, although Rashdall dates the proclamation of the Studium to 1246, when Frederick II tried to place a ban on scholars travelling to Bologna. Was granted some exemptions from taxes by Pope Innocent II in 1252, but closed shortly after when the scholars returned to Bologna. Attempted revivals in 1275 and (fed by further short-lived migrations of scholars from Bologna) in 1321 and 1338 were unsuccessful. Gained an Imperial Bull in 1357 "granting it de novo the 'privileges of a Studium Generale.'", but was not firmly established until "[i]n 1408 a fresh grant of privileges was obtained from Pope Gregory XII". Closed temporarily in 1808–1815 when Napoleonic forces occupied Tuscany. On 7 November 2015 the University celebrated its 775th anniversary.|
|1361||University of Pavia||Closed for short periods during the Italian Wars, Napoleonic wars, and Revolutions of 1848.|
|1364||Jagiellonian University||Founded by Casimir the Great under the name Studium Generale, and was commonly referred to as the Kraków Academy. The institution's development stalled upon the king's death in 1370; primarily due to a lack of funding. Without a permanent location; lectures were held across the city at various churches and in the Kraków Cathedral School. Further development again resumed in the 1390s, by the initiative of King Władysław Jagiełło and his wife Jadwiga of Poland; at which point the school became a fully functioning university with a permanent location. The university was forcibly shut down during the German Occupation of Poland (1939–1945). The staff was deported to Nazi concentration camps, and many of its collections were deliberately destroyed by the occupying German authorities. Within a month after the liberation of the city, the university again re-opened; with some of the original pre-war staff who survived the occupation.|
|1365||University of Vienna||Modelled on the University of Paris.|
|1386||Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg||Founded by Rupert I, Elector Palatine. The oldest in contemporary Germany and third oldest Germanophone university.|
|1391||University of Ferrara||Founded by Marquis Alberto d'Este.|
|1404||University of Turin||Founded by the prince "Louis of Piedmont" during the reign of Amadeus VIII.|
|1409||University of Leipzig||Founded when German-speaking staff left Prague due to the Jan Hus crisis.|
|1413||University of St. Andrews||A school of higher studies was founded in 1410 and became a full university by the issue of a Papal bull in 1413.|
|1419||University of Rostock||During the Reformation, "the Catholic university of Rostock closed altogether and the closure was long enough to make the refounded body feel a new institution". The university closed in 1523, but would appear to have reopened by 1551, when there are records of a number of professors being appointed, including Johannes Aurifaber, David Chytraeus, and Johann Draconites.|
|1434||University of Catania||The oldest in Sicily. Founded by Alfonso V of Aragon.|
|1450||University of Barcelona||Founded by Alfonso V of Aragon as Estudi general de Barcelona after the unification of all university education. For forty-nine years prior to that foundation, however, the city had had a fledgling medical school founded by King Martin of Aragon, and in the 13th century Barcelona already possessed several civil and ecclesiastical schools.|
|1451||University of Glasgow||Founded by a Papal bull.|
|1456||University of Greifswald||Teaching had started by 1436. Founded by initiative of Heinrich Rubenow, Lord Mayor of Greifswald (and first rector), with approval of Pope Callixtus III and Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, under the protection of Wartislaw IX, Duke of Pomerania. Teaching paused temporarily during the Protestant Reformation (1527–39).|
|1457||Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg||Temporarily transferred to Constance in 1686–98 and 1713–15.|
|1460||University of Basel||Founded in 1460 (Schola Basiliensis), the University of Basel is the oldest university in Switzerland.|
|1472||Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich||Founded in Ingolstadt in 1472; with a Papal Bull obtained in 1459 from Pope Pius II by Louis the Rich, transferred to Landshut in 1800, moved to Munich in 1826.|
|1477||Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen|
|1477||Uppsala University||Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, was issued by Pope Sixtus IV in 1477, and established a number of provisions. Among the most important of these was that the university was officially given the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna.|
|1479||University of Copenhagen||The University of Copenhagen is the oldest university in Denmark, and the second oldest in Scandinavia after Uppsala University in Sweden|
|1481||University of Genoa||Founded in 1481 (Genuense Athenaeum).|
|1495||University of Aberdeen||King's College was founded by a Papal bull in 1495 and then Marischal College in 1593; they merged in 1860.|
|1495||University of Santiago de Compostela||The university traces its roots to 1495, when a school was opened in Santiago. In 1504, Pope Julius II approved the foundation of a university in Santiago, and the bull for its creation was granted by Clement VII in 1526.|
|1499||University of Valencia|
Oldest universities by country or region after 1500 still in operation
The majority of European countries had universities by 1500. After 1500, universities began to spread to other countries all over the world. Note that many universities were established at institutes of learning such as schools and colleges that may have been founded significantly earlier but were not classed as universities upon their foundation; this is normally described in the notes for that institution.
|University of Algiers||1909|
|Agostinho Neto University||1962||Founded as Estudos Gerais Universitários de Angola. Was renamed Universidade de Luanda (University of Luanda) in 1968. After Angolan independence from Portugal in 1975, the institution was renamed the University of Angola (Universidade de Angol). In 1985 it was renamed Agostinho Neto University, in honour of Agostinho Neto, the first President of Angola.|
|University of Yaoundé||1962||In 1993 following a university reform the University of Yaounde was split into two (University of Yaoundé I and University of Yaoundé II) following the university branch-model pioneered by the University of Paris.|
|Jean Piaget University of Cape Verde||2001||as a result of the merger of the two previously existing higher education establishments (ISE and ISECMAR)|
|Cairo University||1908||The oldest university in Africa|
|University of Addis Ababa||1950||The university was originally called the University College of Addis Ababa in 1950 and was later renamed Haile Selassie I University in 1962 after the Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I. The institution received its current name in 1975.|
|University of Ghana||1948||Founded as the University College of the Gold Coast, an affiliate college of the University of London which supervised its academic programmes and awarded the degrees. It gained full university status in 1961.|
|University of Nairobi||1956|
|Oldest in Kenya. Established 1956 as the Royal Technical College. Renamed the Royal College of Nairobi when it became affiliated to the University of London 1961. On 20 May 1964, was renamed University College Nairobi when it was admitted as a constituent college of inter-territorial University of East Africa. In 1970, it transformed into the first national university in Kenya and was renamed the University of Nairobi.|
|Claims to be "the oldest institution of higher learning in Kenya". Founded as a farm school 1939, Egerton Farm School. Upgraded to an agricultural college in 1950, Egerton Agricultural College, then a college of the University of Nairobi in 1986 before becoming an independent university by Act of Parliament in 1987.|
|University of Liberia||1951||building on Liberia College founded in 1863|
(Benghazi & Tripoli)
|University of Libya||1956||A royal decree was issued on 15 December 1955 for the founding of the university. The first faculty to be formed was the Faculty of Literature in Benghazi, and the royal palace "Al Manar", from which King Idris I of Libya declared its independence on 24 December 1951, was assigned to be the campus. Later divided to University of Benghazi and University of Tripoli, the names were changed again during Gaddafi's era, but now they have reinstated their original names.|
|University of Antananarivo||1955||Founded December 1955 as the Institute for Advanced Studies in Antananarivo. Renamed the University of Madagascar in 1961.|
|University of Mauritius||1965||The Faculty of Agriculture is the oldest faculty of the university. It was founded in 1914 as the School of Agriculture in 1914, and in 1966 it was incorporated into the newly established University of Mauritius.|
(Fez, Marrakech, Tétouan, Agadir)
|University of Al Quaraouiyine||859|
|traces its origins back to the al-Qarawiyyin mosque and associated madrasa founded by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, but only became a university in 1965.|
|Mohammed V University||1957||Founded as University of Rabat|
|University of Hassan II Casablanca||1975|
|Eduardo Mondlane University||1962||Estudos Gerais Universitários de Moçambique|
|University of Ibadan||1948|
|Founded as Yaba College in 1932 in Yaba, Lagos, as the first tertiary educational institute in Nigeria. Yaba College was transferred to Ibadan, becoming the University College of Ibadan, in 1948. and was a university college associated with the University of London. Independent university since 1962.|
(Nsukka, Enugu, Ituku, Aba)
|University of Nigeria, Nsukka||1960||First university in Nigeria.|
|University of Rwanda||2013||Incorporates the National University of Rwanda founded in 1963|
|Fourah Bay College||1827|
|Oldest university-level institution in Africa. Founded as a school in 1827. Became an affiliated college of Durham University in 1876 and awarded first degrees in Africa in 1878. Became part of the federal University of Sierra Leone in 1967.|
|Somali National University||1954|
|University of Cape Town||1918||founded as a school in 1829 (university status: 2 April 1918)|
|Stellenbosch University||1918||founded as a secondary education institute in 1866 (University status: 2 April 1918)|
|University of Khartoum||1956||Renamed from Gordon Memorial College, founded 1902, when it gained full university status in 1956|
|University of Ez-Zitouna||737|
|traces its origins back to the Al-Zaytuna madrassa founded around 737 (university status in 1961)|
|University of Zimbabwe||1952|
|Kabul University||1931||Founded in 1931, formally opened 1932.|
(Sakhir, Isa Town)
(Sakhir, Isa Town)
|University of Bahrain||1986|
(Dhaka, Eastern Bengal and Assam)
|University of Dhaka||1921||First university in Bangladesh, opened 1 July 1921.|
|Royal University of Fine Arts||1918|
|Nanjing University||1888||Known in Chinese as Jinling University (金陵大学). Was a private university later merged with the public University of Nanjing (南京大学). First institution in China to use the English term "university". Educational institutions were closed in China on 13 June 1966 due to the Cultural Revolution, reopening in July 1967.|
|Wuhan University||1893||Opened in 1893 as the Ziqiang Institute (自強學堂). Educational institutions were closed in China on 13 June 1966 due to the Cultural Revolution, reopening in July 1967.|
|Tianjin University||1895||Established in 1895 as Tientsin University/Imperial Tientsin University (Chinese: 天津北洋西學學堂/天津北洋西学学堂). Educational institutions were closed in China on 13 June 1966 due to the Cultural Revolution, reopening in July 1967.|
|Zhejiang University||1897||Opened in 1885 as the Qiushi Institute (求是书院). Later renamed to National Chekiang University, National 3rd Sun Yat-sen University, and eventually to Zhejiang University.|
|Peking University||1898||Founded in 1898 as Imperial Capital University or Imperial University of Peking Educational institutions were closed in China on 13 June 1966 due to the Cultural Revolution, reopening in July 1967.|
|Fudan University||1905||Founded in 1905 as Fudan Public School in 1905. The first institution of higher education founded independently by a Chinese person.|
|Tsinghua University||1911||Founded as the Tsing Hua Imperial College in 1911, then renamed as Tsing Hua College|
|The University of Hong Kong||1911||Founded as the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese in 1887, incorporated as a university in 1911|
|Serampore College||1818 (university 1827)||Incorporated and granted university status and the right to award degrees by royal charter of Frederick VI of Denmark on 23 February 1827, endorsed by the Bengal Government Act 1918.|
(Calcutta, Bengal Presidency)
|University of Calcutta||1857||First full-fledged multi-disciplinary university in South Asia. The University of Bombay and the University of Madras were subsequently established in the same year|
(Bombay, Bombay Presidency)
|University of Mumbai||1857||Called the University of Bombay until 1996.|
(Madras, Madras Presidency)
|University of Madras||1857|
(Allahabad, North-Western Provinces)
|University of Allahabad||1887||At one point it was called the "Oxford of the East".On 24 June 2005 its Central University status was restored through the University Allahabad Act 2005|
|University of Indonesia||1851||Founded as the Dokter-Djawa School Batavia. Renamed in 1947.|
|Bandung Institute of Technology||1920||Founded as Technische Hogeschool. Renamed in 1959.|
|University of Baghdad||1956||the Iraqi Royal College of Medicine was established in 1928|
|University of Tehran||1934||founded by Rezā Shāh, incorporating portions of the Dar ul-Funun Polytechnic Institute (1851) and the Tehran School of Political Sciences (1899)|
|Technion – Israel Institute of Technology||1912||founded in 1912, but formal teaching began in 1924|
|Hebrew University of Jerusalem||1918|
|University of Tokyo||1877||Previous names are University of Tokyo (1877–1886), Imperial University (1886–1897), and Tokyo Imperial University (1897–1947). Its origins include a private college of Confucian studies founded by Hayashi Razan in 1630, Tenmonkata (The Observatory, 1684) and Shutōsho (Smallpox Vaccination Centre, 1849).|
The university was established in 1877 by the merger of three institutions: Shoheiko (Japanese and Chinese Literature, established 1789), Yogakusho (Occidental Studies, established 1855) and Shutosho (Vaccinations, established 1860), originally as Tokyo University before becoming the Imperial University and then Tokyo Imperial University before reverting to its original name after World War II.
|Keio University||1920||Founded as a "school for Dutch studies" in 1858. College with three university departments (literature, law and economics) established 1890. Accredited as a university by the Japanese government in 1920. (To be noted, Japan's oldest academic institution is Ashikaga Gakko)|
|Ryukoku University||1922||Traces its origins to a school for Buddhist monks of the Nishi Hongan-ji denomination founded in 1639. Assumed its current name and became a university under the University Ordinance in 1922.|
|University of Jordan||1962|
(Kazakh Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic)
|Al-Farabi Kazakh National University||1933|
|American University of Beirut||1866|
|Saint Joseph University||1872|
|Université La Sagesse||1875|
|University of Macau||1981||established as University of East Asia in 1981, renamed 1991|
|University of Malaya||1905||Established as Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States Government Medical School on 13 July 1905 in Singapore|
|Mongolian Academy of Sciences||1921||Institute of Literature and Script|
|Institute of finance and economics of Mongolia||1924||School of Custom's Officers in Ulaanbaatar|
|National University of Mongolia||1942|
(Provisional People's Committee for North Korea)
|Kim Il-sung University||1946|
|University of the Punjab||1882||Established by British colonial authorities in 1882 as the first university in what would become Pakistan.|
|King Edward Medical University||1860 (university 2005)||Established as King Edward Medical College, Lahore in 1860. Became an independent university in 2005.|
|Government College University, Lahore||1864 (university 2002)||Established as Government College, Lahore, 1864. Became an independent university in 2002.|
|University of Santo Tomas||1611||Founded on 28 April 1611 by the Order of Preachers, it is the oldest extant university in Asia. Receiving the Royal Charter from King Phillip III of Spain in 1611, it was elevated by Pope Innocent X as a Pontifical University on 20 November 1645. The university celebrated its 400th anniversary in 2011.|
|Ateneo de Manila University||1859||First established as the Escuela Municipal de Manila by the Society of Jesus.|
|University of the Philippines||1908||Founded on 18 June 1908 by the Insular Government of the Philippine Islands through Act No. 1870 of the 1st Philippine Legislature to provide "advanced instruction in literature, philosophy, the sciences and arts, and to give professional and technical training" to eligible students regardless of "age, sex, nationality, religious belief and political affiliation". UP has institutional autonomy as the country's national university as mandated by Republic Act No. 9500 (UP Charter of 2008).|
|King Saud University||1957|
|National University of Singapore||1905||Founded as Straits and Federated Malay States Government Medical School|
|Ewha Womans University||1886||started higher education in 1910, and was reorganized as Ewha Womans University in 1946. It was established in 1886 as the first mission school to educate women in Korea|
|Korea University||1905||then Boseong School, was established in 1905, and was restructured as Korea University in 1946|
|Sungkyunkwan University||1895||Sungkyunkwan, its origin, was established in 1398 as the royal institution for Confucian study of the Joseon Dynasty. In 1895, Sungkyunkwan was reformed into a modern three-year university after the national state examination was abolished the previous year. Reorganized as Sungkyunkwan University in 1946|
|Yonsei University||1886||The Yonsei University Medical School was established in 1886 at Chejungwon Hospital (established the previous year as Gwanghyewon Hospital). The medical school was renamed Severance Medical College in 1909, following a donation from Louis Severance. Yonhi College was established in Chosun Christian College in 1915 and became Yonhi College in 1917. Yonhi College was recognised as a university in August 1946. Yonsei University was formed by the merger of the college and medical school in 1957.|
|University of Colombo||1942||Formed in 1942 as the University of Ceylon by the amalgamation of University College Colombo (established 1921) and Ceylon Medical College (established in 1870). Was part of the University of Sri Lanka 1972–1978.|
|University of Damascus||1923||founded in 1923 through the merger of the School of Medicine (established 1903) and the Institute of Law (established 1913)|
|National Taipei University of Technology||1912||School of Industrial Instruction|
|National Taiwan University||1928||Taihoku (Taipei) Imperial University|
|National University of East Timor||2000|
|Hanoi Medical University||1902|
|Vietnam National University, Hanoi||1904|
While Europe had 143 universities in 1789, the Napoleonic wars took a heavy toll, reducing the number to 83 by 1815. The universities of France were abolished and over half of the universities in both Germany and Spain were destroyed. By the mid 19th century, Europe had recovered to 98 universities.
|University of Tirana||1957||originally established in 1957 as the State University of Tirana through merging of five existing institutes of higher education, the most important of which was the Institute of Sciences, founded in 1947|
|University of Shkodër "Luigj Gurakuqi"||1957|
|Yerevan State University||1919|
|University of Graz||1622||founded in 1585 by Archduke Charles II of Austria|
|University of Salzburg||1585||also known as Paris Lodron University after its founder, Prince-Archbishop Paris von Lodron|
|University of Innsbruck||1669|
|Baku State University||1919||In 1930, the government ordered the University shut down in accordance with a reorganization of higher education, and the University was replaced with the Supreme Pedagogical Institute. In 1934 the University was reestablished.|
|Ghent University||1817||established in 1817 by William I of the Netherlands|
|University of Liège||1817||was founded in 1817 by William I of the Netherlands|
|University of Namur||1831||Founded in 1831 as the Facultés universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, its name was changed to Université de Namur by a decree in 2009.|
|KU Leuven and |
Université catholique de Louvain
|1834||Founded as the Catholic University of Mechelen on 8 November 1834 by the bishops of Belgium. Moved to Leuven on 1 December 1835, where it took the name Catholic University of Louvain. In 1968, it split to form two institutions: Dutch-speaking Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and French-speaking Université catholique de Louvain.|
|Université libre de Bruxelles|
and Vrije Universiteit Brussel
|1834||Founded in 1834 as the Université libre de Belgique (Free University of Belgium). In 1836, it changed its name to Université libre de Bruxelles. On 1 October 1969, the university was split into two sister institutions: the French-speaking Université Libre de Bruxelles and the Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Both names mean Free University of Brussels in English, so neither uses the English translation as it is ambiguous.|
|Saint-Louis University, Brussels||1858||Founded in 1858 as the Institut Saint-Louis as it moved from Mechlin, which university was transfered to Louvain, to Brussels. It was later named Faculté Saint-Louis which became its official title in 1948 : Faculté universitaire Saint-Louis, then Facultés universitaires Saint-Louis in 1969 and finally became Université Saint-Louis – Bruxelles by a decree in 2009.|
|University of Sarajevo||1949|
|University of National and World Economy||1920||was founded in 1920 as the Free University of Political and Economic Sciences (FUPES)|
|University of Economics Varna||1920||was originally known as the Higher School of Commerce|
|University of Zagreb||1669||History of the University began on 23 September 1669, when the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I issued a decree granting the establishment of the Jesuit Academy of the Royal Free City of Zagreb. Decree was accepted at the Council of the Croatian Kingdom on 3 November 1671.|
|Palacký University||1573||originally known as Olomouc Jesuit University|
|Czech Technical University in Prague||1707||established as the Institute of Engineering Education in 1707 it is the oldest non-military technical university in Europe|
|Technical University of Denmark||1829||was founded in 1829 as the 'College of Advanced Technology'|
|University of Tartu||1632 (continuous operation since 1802)||founded as The Academia Gustaviana in the then Swedish province of Livonia. It was closed from 1710 to 1802.|
|University of Helsinki||1640||founded as the Royal Academy of Turku (Swedish: Kungliga Akademin i Åbo. It was shut down by the Great Fire of Turku in 1827. The University of Helsinki was founded the next year, in 1828, and it started operating in 1829. The University of Helsinki sees itself as continuation of the Royal Academy of Turku.|
|Sorbonne University (group)||1160–1250 (continuous operation since 1896)||Emerged around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris, it was considered the second-oldest university in Europe. Officially chartered in 1200 by King Philip II (Philippe-Auguste) of France and recognised in 1215 by Pope Innocent III, it was often nicknamed after its theology collegiate institution, College of Sorbonne, founded about 1257 by Robert de Sorbon and charted by Saint Louis, King of France. It was abolished in 1793 by the French Revolution, and was replaced by Napoléon on 1 May 1806 by the University of France system. In 1896 the Law of Liard allowed the founding of a new University of Paris. In 1970, it split into 13 separate universities and numerous specialised institutions of higher education. In 2018, Sorbonne University will be formed from the Paris-Sorbonne University (created from the faculty of humanities of the University of Paris) and Pierre and Marie Curie University (created from the faculty of science and medicine of the University of Paris). Panthéon-Assas University (from the faculty of law and economics) and University of Technology of Compiègne, already members of the Sorbonne University group, may follow the merge.|
|Université fédérale de Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées||1229 (continuous operation since 1896)||Founded by papal bull in 1229 as the University of Toulouse. It closed in 1793 due to the French Revolution, and reopened in 1896. In 1969, it split into three separate universities and numerous specialised institutions of higher education. It no longer represents a single university, as it is now the collective entity which federates the universities and specialised institutions of higher education in the region.|
|University of Montpellier|
Paul Valéry University Montpellier 3
|1289 (continuous operation since 1896)||The world's oldest medicine faculty was established before 1137 and operated continuously through the French Revolution. University by Papal Bull in 1289. It closed in 1793 due to the French Revolution, and reopened in 1896. The university of Montpellier was officially re-organised in 1969 after the students' revolt. It was split into its successor institutions the University of Montpellier 1 (comprising the former faculties of medicine, law, and economy), Montpellier 2 (science and technology) and Montpellier 3 (social sciences, humanities and liberal arts). On 1 January 2015, the University of Montpellier 1 and the University of Montpellier 2 merged to form the newly recreated University of Montpellier. Meanwhile, the Paul Valéry University Montpellier 3 remains a separate institution.|
|Aix-Marseille University||1409 (continuous operation since 1896)||Founded in 1409 as the University of Provence, and in 1792, dissolved, along with twenty-one other universities. In 1896 it was reformed as the University of Aix-Marseille, one of 17 self-governing regional universities financed by the state. In 1968 it was divided into two institutions, the University of Provence (Aix-Marseille I) as a school of languages and letters, and the University of Aix-Marseille (Aix-Marseille II) as primarily a school of medicine and sciences. In 1973 the University of Law, Economics and Science (Aix-Marseille III) was added. In 2012 the three universities merged and was renamed Aix-Marseille University.|
|Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg||1502||created in 1502 as the University of Wittenberg. Merged with University of Halle (founded 1691) in 1817.|
|Philipps University of Marburg||1527|
|University of Jena||1558||founded as Ducal Pan-Saxon University (German: Herzoglich Sächsische Gesamtuniversität)|
|Tbilisi State University||1918||founded in 1918 as Tbilisi State University|
|University of Gibraltar||2015|
|Ionian University||1824 (university 1984)||created as the Ionian Academy in 1824 on Corfu. Established as the Ionian University (Greek: Iόνιο Πανεπιστήμιο) in 1984 by the Greek government.|
|National Technical University of Athens||1837 (awarded degrees from 1887)||founded in 1836 as a part-time vocational school called Royal School of Arts|
|Eötvös Loránd University||1635||Founded in 1635 by the archbishop and theologian Péter Pázmány as the University of Nagyszombat. Renamed Royal Hungarian University of Science in 1769. The university was moved to Buda (today part of Budapest) in 1777. The university moved to its final location in Pest (now also part of Budapest) in 1784 and was renamed Royal University of Pest. It has been renamed three times since then: University of Budapest (1873–1921), (Hungarian Royal Pázmány Péter University (1921–1950), and since 1950, Eötvös Loránd University.|
|the oldest medical school in Hungary. Founded as a medical school within the University of Nagyszombat. Became an independent institution as the Medical University of Budapest in 1951. Took on the name of Ignác Semmelweis in 1969.|
|Budapest University of Technology and Economics||1782|
|established as the Institutum Geometricum as part of the Faculty of Liberal Arts at the University of Buda in 1782. The Institutum Geometricum merged with the Joseph College of Technology in 1850 and became the Royal Joseph Polytechnic in 1856. Renamed Royal Joseph University in 1862 and gained full autonomy in 1872. Reorganized as Palatine Joseph University of Technology and Economics in 1934. Renamed Technical University of Budapest in 1949. In 2000, the official name changes to Budapest University of Technology and Economics.|
|University of Iceland||1911|
|University of Dublin||1592||Effectively synonymous with Trinity College, Dublin|
|University of Urbino||1506|
|University of Messina||1548||The predecessor institution of the University was the Jesuit College of Messina "Primum ac Prototypum Collegium" First Prototype College|
|University of L'Aquila||1596|
|Riga Technical University||1862||first established as Riga Polytechnicum in 1862|
|University of Liechtenstein||1961||successor to the Abendtechnikum Vaduz in 1992|
| Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania|
|Vilnius University||1579 (continuous operation since 1919)||founded as the Jesuit Academy (College) of Vilnius; the university was closed from 1832 to 1919 and again in 1943–44|
|University of Luxembourg||2003|
|Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje||1946|
|St. Clement of Ohrid University of Bitola||1979|
|University of Malta||1769||first established as the Collegium Melitense by the Jesuits 1592|
|University of Leiden||1575|
|University of Groningen||1614|
|University of Amsterdam||1632||founded as the Athenaeum Illustre of Amsterdam|
|Utrecht University||1636||formerly Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht|
|University of Oslo||1811||founded as The Royal Frederik's University|
| Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania|
|University of Wrocław||1701||re-founded 1811|
|University of Warsaw||1816||founded as a Royal University on 19 November 1816, when the Partitions of Poland separated Warsaw from the older University of Kraków (founded in 1364).|
|University of Évora||1559 (continuous operation since 1973)||second oldest university in Portugal, 1559–1759, resumed work in 1973|
|University of Lisbon||1911|
|University of Porto||1911|
|Alexandru Ioan Cuza University||1860||successor to the Princely Academy from Iaşi, 1642, and Academia Mihăileană, 1835|
|University of Bucharest||1864||successor to the Saint Sava College, 1694|
|Babeș-Bolyai University||1918||teaching existed in Cluj-Napoca since the Jesuits College, 1581, and the Jesuits Academy, 1688|
|Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University||1544 or 1967||claims continuity from University of Königsberg, 1544. After the World War II, Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad and the new Russophone Kaliningrad State Pedagogical Institute used the campus of the Albertina from 1948 to 1967. In 1967, the institute received the status of a university and became known as Kaliningrad State University.|
|Saint Petersburg State University||1724||claims to be the successor of the university established along with the Academic Gymnasium and the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences on 24 January 1724 by a decree of Peter the Great. In the period between 1804 and 1819, Saint Petersburg University officially did not exist|
|Moscow State University||1775|
|Kazan Federal University||1804||Founded in 1804 as Kazan Imperial University|
|University of Belgrade||1905||founded in 1808 as the Belgrade Higher School, by 1838 it merged with the Kragujevac-based departments into a single university, under current name from 1905; Orthodox Christian Lyceum in 1794; Teacher's college in 1778||
|University of Ljubljana||1919|
|University of Seville||1505|
|University of Granada||1531|
|University of Zaragoza||1542|
|University of Oviedo||1608|
|Lund University||1666||a Franciscan Studium Generale was founded in Lund in 1425, as the first university in Northern Europe, but as a result of the Protestant Reformation the operations of the catholic university were suspended|
|University of Lausanne||1537|
|University of Geneva||1559||founded by John Calvin|
|University of Zurich||1833||origin 1525; est. 1833|
|Istanbul Technical University||1928||Founded in 1773 as Imperial School of Naval Engineering by Mustafa III, but became a state university in 1928.|
|Istanbul University||1933||The current state university was founded in 1933, but traces its origins back to the House of Multiple Sciences founded in 1846. Its ultimate origins lie in a madrasa founded by Mehmed II in 1453, itself built upon a previous Byzantine school dating back to 1321|
|V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University||1804|
|Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv||1834||Founded as the Kiev Imperial University of Saint Vladimir and changed names several times afters that|
|Lviv University||1850||operated from 1661–1773, 1784–1805, 1817–1848, 1850-|
|University of Edinburgh||1582/3||Formally established as the Tounis College (Town's College) under the authority of a Royal Charter granted to the Town of Edinburgh by King James VI of Scotland on 14 April 1582. It opened its doors to students in October 1583.|
|University College London||1826 (as college; degree awarding powers 2005)||Claims to be the third oldest university in England and "the first university to be founded in London".|
Listed by Rüegg as a college of the University of London rather than as a university.
|King's College London||1829 (as college; degree awarding powers 2006)||Claims to be the fourth oldest university in England.|
Listed by Rüegg as a college of the University of London rather than as a university.
|Durham University||1832||Claims to be the third oldest university in England.|
Listed by Rüegg in A History of the University in Europe as meeting standard criteria for recognition as a university from 1832
|University of London||1836||Claims to be the third oldest university in England.|
Listed by Rüegg as meeting standard criteria for recognition as a university from 1836
|Queen's University Belfast||1845 (as college; university 1908)||Oldest university in Northern Ireland. Listed by Rüegg as meeting standard criteria for recognition as a university from 1845.|
|University of Wales||1893||Founded by Royal Charter in 1893 as a federal university with three constituent colleges – Aberystwyth, Bangor and Cardiff – the university was the first and oldest university in Wales. Listed by Rüegg as meeting standard criteria for recognition as a university from 1893|
|University of Wales Trinity Saint David||1822 (as college; limited degree awarding powers 1852)||The university was founded as St David's College (Coleg Dewi Sant) in 1822 "to provide a liberal education to members of the clergy" and was incorporated by royal charter in 1828. It was renamed St David's University College (Coleg Prifysgol Dewi Sant) in 1971, when it became part of the federal University of Wales. It was again renamed University of Wales, Lampeter in 1996 in line with moves elsewhere in the University of Wales. In 2010 it merged with Trinity University College to form the University of Wales, Trinity Saint David. Although described as the oldest university in Wales, it was not listed by Rüegg as meeting standard critera for a university and lost a court case in 1951 against the Ministry of Education in which it sought to receive recognition as a university.|
|Aberystwyth University||1872 (as college; university 2007)||Founded in 1872 as University College Wales, Aberystwyth, it became a founder member of the University of Wales in 1894 and changed its name to the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. It claims to be "Wales's oldest university", but was listed by Rüegg as a college of the University of Wales rather than as a university. It became an independent university (as Aberystwyth University) in 2007.|
|National University of Córdoba||1613||the oldest university in Argentina|
|University of Buenos Aires||1821||the largest university in Argentina and the second largest university by enrollment in Latin America.|
|University of Belize||2000|
|University of Saint Francis Xavier||1624||Founded in 1624 by order of the Spanish King Philip IV, and with the support of Pope Innocent XII. Full name is The Royal and Pontificial Major University of Saint Francis Xavier of Chuquisaca|
|Federal University of Amazonas||1909||founded on 17 January 1909 as the Free University School of Manáos. It is the oldest university in Brazil and the largest university in the northern region of Brazil.|
|Federal University of Paraná||1912|
|Federal University of Rio de Janeiro||1920||created in 1920 as a junction between the Escola Politécnica (Polytechnic School, partially descended from Academia Real Militar, Real Military Academy, founded on 17 April 1811), the Faculdade Nacional de Medicina (National College of Medicine, founded on 2 April 1808) and the Faculdade Nacional de Direito (National College of Law, which came to exist after the fusion between the College of Legal and Social Sciences and the Free College of Law – both recognized by the Law Decree 693 of 1 October 1891). It is the largest federal university in the country.|
|Instituto Militar de Engenharia||1959||successor to the Academia Real Militar (Real Military Academy), founded on 17 April 1811, which, by your turn, was the successor of the Royal Academy of Artillery, Fortification and Design, founded on 17 December 1792. It is maintained by the Brazilian Army with Federal support, and it is one of the best ranked engineering schools in Brazil, according to the Ministry of Education of that country, having systematically achieved first place in several of its engineering degrees.|
|Universidad de Chile||1842||successor to the "Real Universidad de San Felipe", created in 1738. The oldest university in Chile|
|Saint Thomas Aquinas University||1580||Founded in 1580 by the Dominican Order. It is the second-oldest university in the Americas.|
|Pontifical Xavierian University||1623||The College of the Society of Jesus was established in Santafé de Bogotá in 1604 as part of the San Bartolome School and Cloister.|
|Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario – Universidad del Rosario||1653|
|University of Costa Rica||1940||The first institution dedicated to higher education in Costa Rica was the University of Saint Thomas (Universidad de Santo Tomás), which was established in 1843. That institution maintained close ties with the Roman Catholic Church and was closed in 1888 by the progressive and anti-clerical government of President Bernardo Soto Alfaro as part of a campaign to modernize public education. The schools of law, agronomy, fine arts, and pharmacy continued to operate independently. In 1940, those four schools were re-united to establish the modern UCR, during the reformist administration of President Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia.|
|Universidad de La Habana||1728|
|Ross University School of Medicine||1978|
|Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo||1914||successor to the Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, 1558, which disappeared in 1823|
|Central University of Ecuador||1826||Real y Pontificia Universidad de San Gregorio Magno|
|Universidad de El Salvador||1841||founded on 16 February 1841, by the President Juan Lindo,|
|St. George's University||1976|
|Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala||1676|
|University of Guyana||1963|
|Universite d'Etat d'Haiti||1820|
|Université Adventiste d'Haïti||1921|
|Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras||1847|
|University of the West Indies||1948||First campus opened in Jamaica as the University College of the West Indies associated with the University of London in 1948. Gained independent university status in 1962.|
|University of Technology, Jamaica||1958||established as the Jamaica Institute of Technology (1958); renamed College of Arts, Science and Technology (1959–1995). Degree awarding powers from 1986|
|Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México||1910||traces its origins back to Real y Pontificia Universidad de México (1551–1865) but no institutional continuity|
|Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo||1917||founded in 1540 as Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo (St. Nicholas Bishop College) and later in 1543 was appointed Real Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo (Royal St. Nicholas Bishop College) by King Carlos I of Spain; it was converted into a university on 15 October 1917.|
|Universidad de Guadalajara||1925||founded 12 October 1791; legally established 12 October 1925|
|Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla||1937||founded 1587 as Colegio del Espíritu Santo. Converted into a public college in 1825, then a public university in 1937.|
|Universidad de Panamá||1935|
|Universidad Nacional de Asunción||1889|
|National University of San Marcos||1551||Also known as the "Dean university of the Americas"; This is the first officially established (privilege by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) and the longest continuously operating university in the Americas|
|National University of San Antonio Abad in Cuzco||1692|
|National University of Saint Augustine||1828|
|Universidad del Sagrado Corazón||1880|
|University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras||1903|
|Anton de Kom University||1968|
|Universidad de la República||1849|
|Central University of Venezuela||1721|
Canada, Greenland and the United States
In the United States, the colonial colleges awarded degrees from their foundation, but none were formally named as universities prior to the American Revolution, leading to various claims to be the first university in the United States. The earliest Canadian institutions were founded as colleges, without degree awarding powers, and gained degree granting authority and university status later.
|Université Laval||1663 (university 1852)||Founded in 1663 as a seminary (Séminaire de Québec), making it the oldest post-secondary institution in Canada; extended to teach the liberal arts after the British Conquest of 1760. Gained university status and the power to award degrees by royal charter in 1852.|
|McGill University||1821||McGill College received a royal charter in 1821. The name "McGill University" was adopted in 1855.|
(Fredericton & Saint John, New Brunswick)
|University of New Brunswick||1785 (university 1828)||Oldest English-language post-secondary institution in Canada. Founded in 1785 as Provincial Academy of Arts and Sciences, provincial charter as College of New Brunswick in 1800, royal charter "to be deemed and taken as an University" 1828 King's College, reorganised as the University of New Brunswick 1859.|
(Halifax, Nova Scotia)
| Nova Scotia|
|University of King's College||1789 (university 1802)||First established as the King's Collegiate School in Windsor, Nova Scotia in 1789. Received a royal charter in 1802 establishing it (after the model of Trinity College, Dublin) as "The Mother of an University", making it the oldest chartered university in Canada. A fire destroyed the original university in 1920, and the institution relocated to Halifax.|
| Upper Canada
|University of Toronto||1827||Initially established as King's College, the first higher learning institution in Upper Canada. In 1849 it adopted its current name, University of Toronto.|
|University of Greenland||1983 (university 1989)||Established 1983, took name University of Greenland 1987, formal university status by legislation since 1 September 1989.|
|Harvard University||1636||Founded in 1636, named Harvard College in 1639, chartered in 1650. Claims to be "the oldest institution of higher education in the United States". Officially recognised as a university by the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780.|
|The College of William & Mary||1693||Chartered in 1693. Claims to be the "[f]irst college to become a university" in the US, in 1779. Closed during two different periods—from 1861 to 1869 due to the Civil War and postwar financial problems, and 1882 to 1888 due to continued financial difficulties.|
|University of Pennsylvania||1755||Traces its roots to a charity school founded in 1740. Collegiate charter 1755. Claims to be "the first American institution of higher education to be named a university" (in 1779).|
|Georgetown University||1789||Founded in 1789, Georgetown University received the first federal university charter by President James Madison in 1815|
(Chapel Hill, North Carolina)
| North Carolina|
(Chapel Hill, North Carolina)
|University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill||1789||After being chartered in 1789, the university first began enrolling students in 1795, which also allows it to be one of three schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States. Out of all three to claim said title, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill was the only public university to hold classes and graduate students in the eighteenth century.|
- 'The statement that all universities are descended either directly or by migration from these three prototypes [Oxford, Paris, and Bologna] depends, of course, on one's definition of a university. And I must define a university very strictly here. A university is something more than a center of higher education and study. One must reserve the term university for—and I'm quoting Rashdall here—"a scholastic guild, whether of masters or students, engaged in higher education and study," which was later defined, after the emergence of universities, as "studium generale".'
- "No one today would dispute the fact that universities, in the sense in which the term is now generally understood, were a creation of the Middle Ages, appearing for the first time between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It is no doubt true that other civilizations, prior to, or wholly alien to, the medieval West, such as the Roman Empire, Byzantium, Islam, or China, were familiar with forms of higher education which a number of historians, for the sake of convenience, have sometimes described as universities.Yet a closer look makes it plain that the institutional reality was altogether different and, no matter what has been said on the subject, there is no real link such as would justify us in associating them with medieval universities in the West. Until there is definite proof to the contrary, these latter must be regarded as the sole source of the model which gradually spread through the whole of Europe and then to the whole world. We are therefore concerned with what is indisputably an original institution, which can only be defined in terms of a historical analysis of its emergence and its mode of operation in concrete circumstances."
- "Thus the university, as a form of social organization, was peculiar to medieval Europe. Later, it was exported to all parts of the world, including the Muslim East; and it has remained with us down to the present day. But back in the Middle Ages, outside of Europe, there was nothing anything quite like it anywhere."
- Note that the Court of Cassation of Belgium ruled 26 November 1846, that this new Catholic University of Louvain founded in Mechlin in 1834 does not have any links with the Old University of Louvain founded in 1425 and abolished in 1797 and can not be regarded as continuing it: "The Catholic University of Louvain can not be regarded as continuing the old University of Louvain", in, Table générale alphabétique et chronologique de la Pasicrisie Belge contenant la jurisprudence du Royaume de 1814 à 1850, Brussels, 1855, p. 585, column 1, alinea 2. See also: Bulletin Usuel des Lois et Arrêtés, 1861, p.166. To see also this rule of the Cour d'Appel of 1844: La Belgique Judiciaire, 28 July 1844 n° 69, p. 1 : "Cour d’Appel de Bruxelles. Deuxième chambre. L'université libre de Louvain ne représente pas légalement l’antique université de cette ville. Attendu que cette université (l’ancienne Université de Louvain), instituée par une bulle papale, de concert avec l'autorité souveraine, formait un corps reconnu dans l'État, ayant différentes attributions, dont plusieurs même lui étaient déléguées par le pouvoir civil; Attendu que ce corps a été supprimé par les lois de la république française; Attendu que l'université existant actuellement à Louvain ne peut être considérée comme continuant celle qui existait en 1457, ces deux établissemens ayant un caractère bien distinct, puisque l'université actuelle, non reconnue comme personne civile, n'est qu'un établissement tout-à-fait privé, résultat de la liberté d'enseignement, en dehors de toute action du pouvoir et sans autorité dans l'État...". "Court of Appeal of Brussels. Second Chamber. The Free University of Louvain is not legally representend the old university in that city. Whereas this University (formerly University of Louvain), established by a papal bull, together with the sovereign authority, formed a body recognized by the State, with different functions, many of which even he was delegated by the civil power. And whereas this body was removed by the laws of the French Republic; Whereas the currently existing university in Leuven can not be regarded as continuing that which existed in 1457, these two establishments with a distinct character, since the currently university is not recognized as legal person, and is institution is entirely private, the result of academic freedom, apart from any action without authority and power in the state."
- Hyde, J. K. (1991). "Universities and Cities in Medieval Italy". In Bender, Thomas. The university and the city: from medieval origins to the present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-19-506775-0.
- Jones, Colin (2006). "Queen of Cities". Paris : The Biography of a City. Paris: Penguin Books. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-14-303671-5.
- Hunt Janin: "The university in medieval life, 1179–1499", McFarland, 2008, ISBN 0-7864-3462-7, p. 55f.
- de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde: A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. 47–55
- Riché, Pierre (1978). Education and Culture in the Barbarian West: From the Sixth through the Eighth Century. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. pp. 126–127, 282–298. ISBN 0-87249-376-8.
- Verger, Jacques: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8, pp. 35–76 (35):
- Makdisi, George: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255–264 (264):
- Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. The University as a European Institution", in: A History of the University in Europe. Vol. 1: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. XIX–XX.
- Rüegg, Walter (ed.): Geschichte der Universität in Europa, 3 vols., C.H. Beck, München 1993, ISBN 3-406-36956-1
- Nuria Sanz, Sjur Bergan: "The heritage of European universities", 2nd edition, Higher Education Series No. 7, Council of Europe, 2006, ISBN, p.136
- Adolphus Ballard; James Tait (2010). British Borough Charters 1216–1307. Cambridge University Press.
- "Introduction and history". University of Oxford. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
As the oldest university in the English speaking world, Oxford is a unique and historic institution. There is no clear date of foundation of Oxford University, but teaching existed at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167, when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.
- Hastings Rashdall (2010). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages: Volume 2, Part 2, English Universities, Student Life. Cambridge University Press. p. 332.
In that case we may definitely assign the birth of Oxford as a Studium Generale to 1167 or the beginning of 1168.Originally published 1895.
- "Reseña Histórica de la USAL" (in Spanish). University of Salamanca. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- Hilde De-Ridder Symoens (2003). Cambridge University Press, ed. A History of the University in Europe: Universities in the Middle Ages. 1. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8.
- "Early records". A brief history of the university. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "800th anniversary". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- Pace, E. (1912). Universities. The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 1 February 2017 – via New Advent.
- "News – Dettagli Notizia". News.unina.it. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Times Higher Education – QS World University Rankings 2007 – World's oldest universities Archived 17 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Origins-1824". University of Macerata. 1 February 2017.
- "Foreign Students Guide". University of Valladolid. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- Bernabé Bartolomé Martínez (1 January 1992). La educación en la Hispania antigua y medieval (in Spanish). Ediciones Morata. p. 559.
- "History of CU – Charles University". Cuni.cz. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Storia dell'Ateneo" (in Italian). University of Siena. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- Hastings Rashdall (2010). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages: Volume 2, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 31–34. Originally publisher 1895
- "St Andrews: the Mediaeval University" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- Owen Chadwick (2003). The Early Reformation on the Continent. Oxford University Press. p. 257.
- "University of Rostock". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company New York, NY. 1907–1912 – via Catholic Online.
[The university] fell into complete decay after the beginning of the Reformation in (1523) when the university revenues were lost and matriculations ceased.
- Irena Dorota Backus (2000). Reformation Readings of the Apocalypse: Geneva, Zurich, and Wittenberg. Oxford University Press. p. 113.
- "Immatrikulation von Ioannes Draconites" (in German). University of Rostock. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "The University of Barcelona: 599 years of history. The most important dates and events". Universitat de Barcelona. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- "University of Basel – Swiss Universities Handbook – Top Universities in Switzerland". Universitieshandbook.com. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Hastings Rashdall (1895). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages: pt. 1. Italy. Spain. France. Germany. Scotland, etc. Clarendon Press.
- "La Universidad de Santiago cumple 500 años". El Mundo (in Spanish). 22 March 1995.
- "University of Ghana | Legon". Ug.edu.gh. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- J. M. Hyslop (1964). "The University of East Africa". Minerva. 2 (3): 286–302. JSTOR 41821619.
- "Our Profile". Egerton. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- Nkulu, Kiluba L. (2005). Serving the Common Good: an African perspective on higher education. Peter Lang. p. 54. ISBN 0-8204-7626-9.
- J. M. Hyslop (1964). "The University of East Africa". Minerva. 2 (3): 286–302. JSTOR 41821619.
- "History/Overview". University of Nigeria. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- "Fourah Bay College (1827 – )". BlackPast.org. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "The First BA in Africa". Durham First. No. 32. 2012. p. 7.
- "University of Cape Town / About the university / Introducing UCT". Uct.ac.za. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Historical Background". University of Khartoum. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- "The University". University of Dhaka. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- Kerry Schaefer; Lisa Torre. "China's Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" (PDF). Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- Kerry Schaefer; Lisa Torre. "China's Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" (PDF). Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- Kerry Schaefer; Lisa Torre. "China's Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" (PDF). Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- Sankar Ray (11 April 2008). "Colonial Archive". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- 須藤敏夫『近世日本釈奠の研究』（思文閣出版、2001年） ISBN 978-4-7842-1070-1
- "東京大学 [東京大学の歴史]沿革略図". U-tokyo.ac.jp. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- 深瀬泰旦著 『天然痘根絶史』 恩文閣出版、2002年9月 ISBN 4-7842-1116-0
- "Chronology". Tokyo University. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "History". Keio University. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "The Spirit of Tradition and Innovation Embodied in the 370 Year History of Ryukoku". Ryukoku University. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
1922 Renamed Ryukoku University Became a university under University Ordinance
- "Yangon – From stately city to crumbling symbol of isolation". Reuters. 27 November 2011.
- "About Us". Tribhuvan-university.edu.np. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "About Us". University of the Punjab. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "The King Edward Medical University, Lahore Act 2005". Punjab Laws Online. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "The Government College University, Lahore Ordinance 2002". Punjab Laws Online. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "Chronology". Yonsei University. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "History". University of Colombo. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Walter Rüegg (2004). "1 Themes". A History of the University in Europe. 3, Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945). Cambridge University Press. p. 3.
- Study International, Consolidation of two elite Paris universities confirmed for 2018
- The Pie News, Mega university planned for Paris’s Left Bank
- "L'université de Montpellier à l'épreuve de la fusion – Journal La Marseillaise". Lamarseillaise.fr. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Université (20 June 2014). "Université de Montpellier » Histoire de l'Université". Umontpellier.fr. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "History of the NTUA". National Technical University of Athens. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "Study in Romanian – Learn & Live Freely". Study-in-romania.ro. Archived from the original on 11 June 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Short history". Alexandru Ioan Cuza University. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- "Timeline". Alexandru Ioan Cuza University. Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- "University of Bucharest – EN Home Page". University of Bucharest. 1 January 1980. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "A significant history". Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca. Archived from the original on 8 August 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- "Istanbul Technical University". Itu.edu.tr. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Walter Rüegg (2004). A History of the University in Europe. 3, Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945). Cambridge University Press. p. 680.
- Nicholas Phillipson (1988). Thomas Bender, ed. Commerce and Culture: Edinburgh, Edinburgh University, and the Scottish Enlightenment. The University and the City: From Medieval Origins to the Present. Oxford University Press. p. 100.
- Michael Lynch (2005). Jos. M. M. Hermans, Marc Nelissen, ed. Edinburgh. Charters of Foundation and Early Documents of the Universities of the Coimbra Group. Leuven University Press. pp. 42–43.
- "Our History". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- Walter Rüegg (2004). A History of the University in Europe. 3, Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945). Cambridge University Press. p. 684.
- "Living in London". University College London. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
London offers a scene and status unrivalled by any other city. UCL, England's third oldest university, is at the heart of what has been described as 'the knowledge capital of the world'.
- Undergraduate Prospectus 2015. University College London. p. 7.
- The deed of settlement of the University of London.
- "London University". Hansard. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "University College London". Penny Cyclopaedia. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge: 23–28. 1843.
- "UCL granted degree awarding powers". University College London. 27 September 2005. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- "About King's". King's College London.
- The charter and by-laws of King's College, London. 1830.
- "King's Governance". King's College London. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- Durham University Undergraduate Prospectus 2015. Durham University. p. 6.
We are the third oldest university in England and one of the world's leading centres of scholarship and learning
- "Our history and values". Retrieved 30 September 2015.
Henry VIII and Oliver Cromwell's attempts to formally establish a University for the North in Durham were subsumed by politics and North-South rivalries, and it was not until 1832, as the Prince-Bishopric declined lost his powers, was Durham finally endowed with the Castle and lands and granted degree awarding powers by the king as England's third University
- Acts Relating to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for England. 1844. p. 389.
- A Collection of Statutes of Practical Utility. p. 225.
nothing herein contained shall affect or interfere with the rights and privileges granted by charter or Act of Parliament to the University of Durham
- A Collection of Statutes of Practical Utility. 1837. p. 148.
that the Bishop of Durham do in future hold the castle of Durham in trust for the University of Durham
- "About Durham University – Royal Charter". Durham University. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- The Statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. His Majesty's Statute and Law Printers. 1837. p. 277.
- "History". University of London. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
The University of London was founded by Royal Charter on 28 November 1836 and is the third oldest university in England.
- University of London – The Historical Record, 1836–1912. University of London. 1912. pp. 7–24.
- "History and Heritage". Queen's University Belfast. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
Queen's University Belfast was founded by Royal Charter in 1845. One of three Queen's Colleges in Ireland, with the others being in Cork and Galway, it became a university in its own right in 1908.
- Walter Rüegg (2004). A History of the University in Europe. 3, Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945). Cambridge University Press. p. 687.
- "The University of Wales Trinity Saint David celebrates Founders Day". University of Wales Trinity Saint David. 17 November 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "University of Wales Trinity Saint David Receives Royal Approval". 23 July 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "End of an era for Lampeter, the oldest university in Wales". The Guardian. 17 April 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "Fears for the future survival of Wales' oldest university". Wales Online. 7 August 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- Walter Rüegg (2004). A History of the University in Europe. 3, Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945). Cambridge University Press.
- "St David's College, Lampeter v Ministry of Education 1951" (PDF). Retrieved 30 December 2014.(PDF)
- "Early Days". Aberystwyth University. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "Investing over £100m in your future". Aberystwyth University. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
Together they will ensure that Wales's oldest university will be well placed to survive the challenges of the twenty-first century – Aberystwyth's third century of existence.
- "College by the sea to College on the hill". Aberystwyth University. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "Historia" (in Spanish). Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "Historia" (in Spanish). Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- "L'origine et l'histoire" (in French). Université Laval. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- McGill University#History
- Lois Kernaghan (4 September 2012). "University of New Brunswick". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 11 September 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- King's College, New-Brunswick. The New-Brunswick Religious and Literary Journal. 1. 24 January 1829. pp. 4–7.
- Kirby Walsh (2003). Deeper Imprint: The Footsteps of Archbishop Arthur Gordon Peters. Cape Breton University Press. pp. 26–27.
- "History". University of King's College. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "History". University of Greenland. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- "History". Harvard University. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Historical Facts". Harvard University. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Cool facts". College of William and Mary. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Penn's Heritage". University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Georgetown University". 3 January 2008. Archived from the original on 3 January 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- "Charter of the University". governance.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 9 September 2017.