List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 20th and 21st centuries

The following monarchs either lost their thrones through deposition by a coup d'état, by a referendum which abolished their throne, or chose to abdicate during the 20th century or 21st century. A list of surviving former monarchs appears at the end of the article.

See also: Abolished monarchy, List of current monarchs, List of non-sovereign monarchs who lost their thrones in the 20th and 21st centuries

A

Australia

Afghanistan

Albania (Principality)

  • Prince William fled Albania in 1914 following the outbreak of World War I (he was formally deposed in 1925).

Albania (Kingdom)

Austria-Hungary

B

Belgium

Bhutan

Brunei

Bulgaria

Burundi

C

Cambodia

  • King Norodom Sihanouk abdicated in 1955, then served in various important positions, including prime minister and head of state, intermittently until 1976, and was eventually restored to the kingship in 1993. He abdicated a second time in favour of his son, Norodom Sihamoni, on 7 October 2004.
  • Queen Sisowath Kossamak was deposed in 1970 with the coup that ended the regime of Prince Norodom Sihanouk. The monarchy was restored in 1993 with Sihanouk (who had previously reigned from 1941 to 1955) as King.

Canada

Central African Empire

  • Bokassa I (president turned monarch), Emperor of Central African Empire, deposed in 1979.

Ceylon

China

Croatia

E

Egypt

Ethiopia

F

Fiji

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Fiji in 1987 when the country became a republic following a coup.

Finland (Grand Duchy)

Finland (Kingdom)

  • Designated King-elect Frederick Charles I (Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse), was offered but did not accede to the throne as King of Finland.

G

Gambia

Germany

Ghana

Greece

Guyana

H

Hungary

Hyderabad

I

Iceland

India (British)

India (Dominion)

Iran (Imperial)

Iraq

Ireland

Italy

J

Jordan

  • King Talal I ruled from July 20, 1951 upon the assassination of his father, King Abdullah I until August 11, 1952. He was forced to abdicate due to schizophrenia and was succeeded by his son, King Hussein I.

K

Kenya

Korea

Kuwait

L

Laos

Lesotho

  • King Moshoeshoe II was deposed in 1990 and reinstated in 1995.
  • King Letsie III took the throne upon his father's, Moshoeshoe II, deposition in 1990. He later abdicated the throne in favor of his father (1995), and then reclaimed the throne on his father's death in 1996.

Libya

  • King Idris I was deposed in a coup led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 a day before his abdication was due to take effect.

Lithuania

  • Designated King-elect Mindaugas II (Wilhelm Karl, Duke of Urach), was deposed following the end of World War I in 1918.

Luxembourg

M

Malawi

Malaysia

Maldives

Malta

Manchukuo

Mauritius

Mohammerah

Morocco

Montenegro

N

Nepal

  • King Tribhuvan went into exile in 1950 and was replaced by his grandson Gyanendra, but returned in 1951 and was restored as King that year.
  • King Gyanendra was removed as King in 1951 following the return of his grandfather. He returned to the throne in 2001 after the Nepalese royal massacre in which his brother Birendra was killed, but was forced to abdicate after the Constituent Assembly of Nepal with a huge majority decided to form Nepal a federal democratic Republic, hence dissolving the monarchy on May 28, 2008.

Netherlands

New Zealand

Nigeria

Norway

O

Oman

P

Pakistan

Poland

Portugal

Q

Qatar

R

Rhodesia

Romania

  • King Michael I was removed as King in favour of his father Carol II in 1930. He returned to the throne in 1940, but was forced to abdicate in 1947 by the communist government.
  • King Carol II abdicated in 1940 in favour of his son Michael I.

Russia

Rwanda

  • King Kigeli V was deposed 1961, but never abdicated.

S

Saudi Arabia

Serbia

  • King Peter I became King of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes after Montenegro was merged with Serbia in 1918 (Renamed Yugoslavia in 1929).

Sierra Leone

Sikkim

South Africa

Spain

Syria

  • King Faisal I was elected to be king of Greater Syria. His reign lasted from March 11, 1920 until July 25 when he was expelled by French forces.

T

Tanganyika

(Tanganyika was later united with Zanzibar, and Tanzania was formed.)

Thailand

Tibet

Trinidad and Tobago

Tunisia

Turkey (Ottoman Empire)

U

Uganda

United Kingdom

V

Vietnam

  • Emperor Bao Dai abdicated in 1945 when communists, called Viet Minh, seized control of the nation. Later on Ho Chi Minh, leader of Viet Minh, proclaimed the creation of Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Following the Geneva accords, Vietnam was partitioned and Bao Dai became Head of State (Quoc Truong) of the French controlled areas of Vietnam. He was never restored as emperor, and in 1955 was removed from office via referendum.

Vatican City

  • Pope Benedict XVI abdicated as sovereign of Vatican City and the Petrine Ministry on 28 February 2013 due to old age.

Y

Yemen

Yugoslavia

Z

Zanzibar

(Zanzibar was later united with Tanganyika, and Tanzania was formed.)

Surviving monarchs from abolished monarchies

Country Monarch Born Reign Notes
Bulgaria Tsar Simeon II 1937 28 August 1943 – 15 September 1946 He later served as Prime Minister (2001–2005).
Egypt King Fuad II 1952 26 July 1952 – 18 June 1953
 Fiji
 Gambia
 Ghana
 Guyana
 Kenya
 Malawi
 Malta
 Mauritius
 Nigeria
 Pakistan
 Sierra Leone
 South Africa
 Sri Lanka
 Tanganyika
 Trinidad and Tobago
 Uganda
Queen Elizabeth II 1926 10 October 1970 7 October 1987
18 February 1965 24 April 1970
6 March 1957 1 July 1960
26 May 1966 23 February 1970
12 December 1963 12 December 1964
6 July 1964 6 July 1966
21 September 1964 13 December 1974
12 March 1968 12 March 1992
1 October 1960 1 October 1963
6 February 1952 23 March 1956
27 April 1961 19 April 1971
6 February 1952 31 May 1961
6 February 1952 22 May 1972
9 December 1961 9 December 1962
31 August 1962 1 August 1976
9 October 1962 15 April 1966
Currently Queen of 16 other nations
Greece King Constantine II 1940 6 March 1964 – 1 June 1973
Nepal King Gyanendra 1947 7 November 1950 – 8 January 1951
4 June 2001 – 28 May 2008
Qu'aiti Sultan Ghalib II 1948 10 October 1966 17 September 1967
Zanzibar Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah 1929 1 July 1963 12 January 1964

See also List of living former sovereign monarchs

See also

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