List of indigenous peoples

From top, clockwise: Africa, Circum-Mediterranean, East Eurasia, South America, North America and Insular-Pacific cultural areas in the Standard cross-cultural sample.

This is a partial list of the world's indigenous / aboriginal / native people. Indigenous peoples are any ethnic group of peoples who are considered to fall under one of the internationally recognized definitions of Indigenous peoples, such as United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank, i.e. "those ethnic groups that were indigenous to a territory prior to being incorporated into a national state, and who are politically and culturally separate from the majority ethnic identity of the state that they are a part of".[1]

This list is grouped by region, and sub-region. Note that a particular group may warrant listing under more than one region, either because the group is distributed in more than one region (example: Inuit in North America and eastern Russia), or there may be some overlap of the regions themselves (that is, the boundaries of each region are not always clear, and some locations may commonly be associated with more than one region).

Definition

Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those which, having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing on those territories, or parts of them. They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve, develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, and their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal system.[2]

This historical continuity may consist of the continuation, for an extended period reaching into the present of one or more of the following factors:

  • Occupation of ancestral lands, or at least of part of them
  • Common ancestry with the original occupants of these lands
  • Culture in general, or in specific manifestations (such as religion, living under a tribal system, membership of an indigenous community, dress, means of livelihood, lifestyle, etc.)
  • Language (whether used as the only language, as mother-tongue, as the habitual means of communication at home or in the family, or as the main, preferred, habitual, general or normal language)
  • Residence in certain parts of the country, or in certain regions of the world
  • Other relevant factors.
  • On an individual basis, an indigenous person is one who belongs to these indigenous populations through self-identification as indigenous (group consciousness) and is recognized and accepted by these populations as one of its members (acceptance by the group). This preserves for these communities the sovereign right and power to decide who belongs to them, without external interference.[3]

Africa

African Great Lakes

Central Africa

Horn of Africa

Maghreb

Nile Valley

Southwestern Africa

Southeastern Africa

  • Nguni speakers
    • Xhosa:Far Southeastern South Africa
      • Zulu
        • Northern Sotho
        • Southern Sotho
        • Tsonga
      • Ndebele
      • Shona
        • Pedi
      • Tswana

West Africa

Eurasia

Asia

Southwest Asia (Middle East)

Caucasus

Eurasian Steppe

South Asia

Southeast Asia

Mainland Southeast Asia (Indochina)
Maritime Southeast Asia (Indonesia)

East Asia

North China
South China
Taiwan
Japan

Siberia

Europe

Eastern Europe

Northern and western Europe

Oceania

Oceania includes most islands of the Pacific Ocean, New Guinea and the continent of Australia.

List of peoples by geographical and ethnolinguistic grouping:

Australia

Australia includes the continental landmass, and associated islands.

Indigenous Australians by native cultural regions

North

Arnhem


Desert

Torres Strait

Rainforest

Tasmania


Melanesia

Melanesia generally includes New Guinea and other (far-)western Pacific islands from the Arafura Sea out to Fiji. The region is mostly inhabited by the Melanesian peoples.

Micronesia

Micronesia generally includes the various small island chains of the western and central Pacific. The region is mostly inhabited by the Micronesian peoples.

Polynesia

Polynesia includes New Zealand and the islands of the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The region is mostly inhabited by the Polynesian peoples.

Polynesian outliers

The Americas

The Americas is the supercontinent comprising North and South America, and associated islands.

List of peoples by geographical and ethnolinguistic grouping:

North America

North America includes all of the continent and islands east of the Bering Strait and north of the Isthmus of Panama; it includes Greenland, Canada, United States, Mexico, Central American and Caribbean countries. However a distinction can be made between a broader North America and a narrower Northern America and Middle America due to ethnic and cultural characteristics.


Arctic

Subarctic

Pacific Northwest Coast

Northwest Plateau-Great Basin-California


Northwest Plateau
Great Basin
California

Great Plains

Eastern Woodlands

Northeastern Woodlands
Southeastern Woodlands

Southwest

Mesoamerica

Circum-Caribbean

Caribbean

The Caribbean, or West Indies, generally includes the island chains of the Caribbean.

South America

South America generally includes all of the continent and islands south of the Isthmus of Panama.


Circum-Caribbean (Chibcha)

Amazon

Guianas

Eastern Highlands (Brazilian Highlands)

Chaco

Andes

Southern Cone

Araucania
Fire Land (Tierra del Fuego)

Circumpolar

Circumpolar peoples is an umbrella term for the various indigenous peoples of the Arctic. List of peoples by ethnolinguistic grouping:

See also

See all pages that start with indigenous people or indigenous

Notes

  1. Sanders, Douglas (1999). "Indigenous peoples: Issues of definition". International Journal of Cultural Property. 8 (1): 4–13. doi:10.1017/S0940739199770591.
  2. Jose R. Martinez Cobo
  3. Definition of indigenous peoples
  4. Unrepresented Nations and People Organization | UNPO, Assyrians the Indigenous People of Iraq
  5. Sawahla & Dloomy (2007, pp. 425–433)
  6. Tubb, 1998. pg-13-14.
  7. Mark Smith in "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" states "Despite the long regnant model that the Canaanites and Israelites were people of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period (c. 1200 – 1000 BC). The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture... In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period." (pp. 6–7). Smith, Mark (2002) "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" (Eerdman's)
  8. Rendsberg, Gary (2008). "Israel without the Bible". In Frederick E. Greenspahn. The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship. NYU Press, pp. 3–5
  9. Josephus. War of the Jews 9:2.
  10. http://www.khazaria.com/genetics/abstracts.html
  11. Haber, Marc; Gauguier, Dominique; Youhanna, Sonia; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Botigué, Laura R; Platt, Daniel E; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Wells, R. Spencer; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Comas, David; Zalloua, Pierre A (2013). "Genome-Wide Diversity in the Levant Reveals Recent Structuring by Culture". Plos Genetics. 9 (2): e1003316. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003316. PMC 3585000. PMID 23468648.
  12. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7303/full/nature09103.html
  13. http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2010/06/tracing-roots-jewishness
  14. The UN Refugee Agency | UNHCR, World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples
  15. Department of Evolutionary Biology at University of Tartu Estonian Biocentre | Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation, Molecular Anthropology Group
  16. "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Philippines: Overview, 2007", UNHCR | Refworld.
  17. Hanihara, T (1992). "Negritos, Australian Aborigines, and the proto-sundadont dental pattern: The basic populations in East Asia". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 88 (2): 183–96. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330880206. PMID 1605316.
  18. Johansson, Peter (2016-02-05). "Indigenous self-determination in the Nordic countries: the Sami, and the Inuit of Greenland". In Short, Damien; Lennox, Corinne. Handbook of Indigenous Peoples' Rights. London: Routledge. pp. 424–442. ISBN 9781136313868.
  19. Osherenko, Gail (April 1, 2001). "Indigenous rights in Russia: Is title to land essential for cultural survival?". Georgetown International Environmental Law Review. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011.
  20. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/crofters-fight-for-rights-of-indigenous-people-811791.html
  21. Rouse (1992)

References

Kipuri, Naomi (2007), "Kenya", in Sille Stidsen (compilation and ed.), The Indigenous World 2007, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs yearbooks (ISSN 1024-0217), Marianne Wiben Jensen (Horn of Africa and East Africa regional ed.), Copenhagen: IWGIA, distributed by Transaction Publishers, pp. 468–476, ISBN 978-87-91563-23-2, OCLC 30981676, archived from the original (PDF online edition) on 2008-10-22 
Minority Rights Group International (1997), World Directory of Minorities, London, UK: Minority Rights Group International, ISBN 978-1-873194-36-2 
Rouse, Irving (1992), The Tainos: Rise and Decline of the People who greeted Columbus, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-05181-0, OCLC 24469325 
Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998). Canaanites. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3108-5. 
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