List of heads of state of Romania

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Romania

This is a list of the heads of state of the modern Romanian state, from the establishment of the United Principalities to the present day.

United Principalities (1859–1881)

House of Cuza (1859–1866)

Domnitor Reign Claim
Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Reign start Reign end Duration
1 Alexandru Ioan Cuza
(1820–1873)
24 January 1859 22 February 1866
(Abdicated)
7 years, 29 days Previously ruled as Prince of Wallachia and Moldavia
(in a personal union from 1859 until official unification in 1862)

Princely Lieutenancy (1866)

  Denotes Regency
Regent Reign Claim
Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Reign start Reign end Duration
Lascăr Catargiu
(1823–1899)
22 February 1866 20 April 1866 57 days Princely Lieutenancy
General Nicolae Golescu
(1810–1877)
Colonel Nicolae Haralambie
(1835–1908)

House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1866–1881)

Domnitor Reign Claim
Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Reign start Reign end Duration
1 Carol I
(1839–1914)
20 April 1866 15 March 1881 14 years, 329 days 1866 Referendum

Kingdom of Romania (1881–1947)

House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1881–1947)

  Denotes Regent
  Denotes Conducător
King Reign Claim
Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Reign start Reign end Duration
1 Carol I
(1839–1914)
15 March 1881 10 October 1914 33 years, 209 days Previously ruled as Domnitor
2 Ferdinand I
(1865–1927)
10 October 1914 20 July 1927 12 years, 283 days Nephew of Carol I
3 Michael I
(1921–2017)
20 July 1927 8 June 1930
(Deposed)
2 years, 323 days Grandson of Ferdinand I
Prince Nicholas
(1903–1978)
20 July 1927 8 June 1930
(Deposed)
2 years, 323 days Regency Council
For Michael I
Patriarch Miron Cristea
(1868–1939)
Gheorghe Buzdugan
(1867–1929)
7 October 1929
(Died in Office)
2 years, 79 days
Constantin Sărăţeanu
(1862–1935)
9 October 1929 8 June 1930 242 days
4 Carol II
(1893–1953)
8 June 1930 6 September 1940
(Abdicated)
10 years, 90 days Son of Ferdinand I
(3) Michael I
(1921–2017)
6 September 1940 30 December 1947
(Abdicated)
7 years, 115 days Son of Carol II
Marshal Ion Antonescu
(1882–1946)
6 September 1940 23 August 1944
(Deposed)
3 years, 352 days Conducător
With Michael I

Romanian People's Republic/Socialist Republic of Romania (1947–1989)

Status
  Denotes Acting Head of State
Head of State Term of office Duration Political party Position(s)
Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Election Took office Left office
Constantin Ion Parhon
(1874–1969)
1947 30 December 1947 13 April 1948 105 days Romanian Workers' Party President of the Provisional Presidium of the Republic
1 1948 13 April 1948 12 June 1952 4 years, 60 days President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
2 Petru Groza
(1884–1958)
1952 12 June 1952 7 January 1958
(Died in Office)
5 years, 209 days Ploughmen's Front (1952–1953)
Independent (1953–1958)
Mihail Sadoveanu
(1880–1961)
7 January 1958 11 January 1958 4 days Romanian Workers' Party Acting Presidents of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
Anton Moisescu
(1913–1997)
Romanian Workers' Party
3 Ion Gheorghe Maurer
(1902–2000)
1958 11 January 1958 21 March 1961 3 years, 69 days Romanian Workers' Party President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
1 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
(1901–1965)
1961 21 March 1961 19 March 1965
(Died in Office)
3 years, 363 days Romanian Workers' Party President of the State Council
Ion Gheorghe Maurer
(1902–2000)
19 March 1965 24 March 1965 5 days Romanian Workers' Party Acting Presidents of the State Council
Ștefan Voitec
(1900–1984)
Romanian Workers' Party
Avram Bunaciu
(1909–1983)
Romanian Workers' Party
2 Chivu Stoica
(1908–1975)
1965 24 March 1965 9 December 1967
(Resigned)
2 years, 260 days Romanian Workers' Party
renamed in 1965 to
Romanian Communist Party
President of the State Council
3 Nicolae Ceaușescu
(1918–1989)
1967 9 December 1967 22 December 1989
(Deposed)
22 years, 13 days Romanian Communist Party
1 1974
1980
1985
28 March 1974 15 years, 269 days President of Romania

Romania since 1989

The Constitution of Romania prohibits the President to be a member of any party while in office. The parties listed below represent the political affiliation before the 1991 Constitution was adopted and the party affiliation of the ad interim Presidents, for whom such a restriction is not explicitly stipulated in the law.

Status
  Denotes ad interim President
Head of State Term of office Duration Political party Position(s)
Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Election Took office Left office
Council of the National Salvation Front[1] 22 December 1989 26 December 1989 4 days National Salvation Front Collective Head of State
Ion Iliescu
(1930– )
26 December 1989[2] 6 February 1990 42 days National Salvation Front President of Council of the National Salvation Front
1990 6 February 1990 20 June 1990 134 days President of the Provisional National Unity Council
2 1990 20 June 1990 7 April 1992 1 year, 292 days President of Romania
(2) 1992 7 April 1992 11 October 1992 187 days Democratic National Salvation Front
(2) 11 October 1992 29 November 1996 4 years, 49 days Independent
3 Emil Constantinescu
(1939– )
1996 29 November 1996 20 December 2000 4 years, 21 days Independent
(2) Ion Iliescu
(1930– )
2000 20 December 2000 20 December 2004 4 years, 0 days Independent
4 Traian Băsescu
(1951– )
2004 20 December 2004 20 April 2007
(Suspended)
2 years, 121 days Independent
Nicolae Văcăroiu
(1943– )
20 April 2007 23 May 2007 33 days Social Democratic Party ad interim President of Romania
(as President of the Senate)
(4) Traian Băsescu
(1951– )
2009 23 May 2007
(Reinstated)
10 July 2012
(Suspended)
5 years, 48 days Independent President of Romania
Crin Antonescu
(1959– )
10 July 2012 27 August 2012 48 days National Liberal Party ad interim President of Romania
(as President of the Senate)
(4) Traian Băsescu
(1951– )
27 August 2012
(Reinstated)
21 December 2014 2 years, 116 days Independent President of Romania
5 Klaus Iohannis
(1959– )
2014 21 December 2014 Incumbent 3 years, 259 days Independent

Living former heads of state

There are three living former Romanian Presidents:

Timeline

See also

Footnotes and references

  • Bulei, Ion, O istorie a românilor, Editura Meronia, Bucureşti, 2007, pg. 266-267
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