List of genocides by death toll

This list of genocides by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by genocide. It does not include non strictly-genocidal mass killing (variously called mass murder, crimes against humanity, politicide, policide, classicide, war crimes) such as the Thirty Years War (7.5 million deaths), Japanese war crimes (3 to 14 million deaths), the Atrocities in the Congo Free State (3 to 13 million deaths), the Great Purge, or the Great Leap Forward (15 to 55 million deaths).

The United Nations Genocide Convention defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group".[1] Various other definitions can be found in scholarly literature and national law of different countries.

List of the genocides

Event Location From To Lowest
Proportion of group killed
The Holocaust[N 1]
(Lower figures (5–6 million) are for the Jewish genocide, and the higher figures (11–17 million) is for the total killed in all Nazi genocides and war crimes.)
Nazi-Germany controlled Europe 1939 1945 4,900,000
Around 45% of Holocaust victims were non-Jews, including significant numbers of Polish Catholics.[9]

97% of Jews killed were non-German. Around 33% of German Jews and more than 80% of non-German Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe were killed.[10]

Holodomor (Голодомор)[N 2]
(Ukrainian genocide which is part of greater Soviet famine of 1932–33)
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, USSR 1932 1933 1,800,000
Genocide of Ukrainians through artificial starvation by the USSR.[31] At least 10% of Ukraine's population perished.[32] Its characterization as a genocide is disputed by some historians.[33][34]
Cambodian genocide[N 3] Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 1,386,734
21–33% of total population of Cambodia killed[45][46] including:

100% of Cambodian Viets
50% of Cambodian Chinese and Cham
40% of Cambodian Lao and Thai
25% of Urban Khmer
16% of Rural Khmer

Kazakh genocide during the Soviet famine of 1932–33[N 4]
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, USSR 1931 1933 1,300,000
Some historians assume that 42% of the entire Kazakh population died in the famine.[48] The two Soviet census show that the number of the Kazakhs in Kazakhstan dropped from 3,637,612 in 1926 to 2,181,520 in 1937.[49]
Armenian genocide Մեծ Եղեռն (Medz Yeghern, "Great Crime")[N 5] Ottoman Empire
(territories of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq)
1915 1922 700,000
At least 50% of Armenians in Turkey killed[50]
Rwandan genocide[N 6] Rwanda 1994 1994 500,000
70% of Tutsis in Rwanda killed
1/3 of Twa in Rwanda killed
20% of Rwandan's total population killed
Zunghar genocide 准噶尔灭族 in the Zunghar Khanate[N 7] Qing Dynasty (Dzungaria) 1755 1758 480,000
80% of 600,000 Zungharian Oirats killed
Circassian genocide[N 8] Circassia, Caucasus 1864 1867 400,000
90% to 97% of total Circassian population perished and deported by the Russian forces.[71][72][73]
Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian genocide[N 9] Independent State of Croatia (territories of present-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbian Syrmia) 1941 1945 357,000
Conservative estimates ranging between 200,000 and 500,000 Serbs killed by the Ustaše.[78][79][80][81]
(See death toll of Serbian genocide)
Bangladesh genocide[N 10] Bangladesh 1971 1971 300,000 3,000,000
4% of Bangladesh's total population killed[85]
Over 20% of Bengali Hindus killed[86]
(Using 1 to 3 million deaths figures)
Greek genocide including the Pontic genocide[N 11] Ottoman Empire
(territories of present-day Turkey)
1914 1922 289,000
Assyrian genocide ܣܝܦܐ (Seyfo, "Sword")[N 12] Ottoman Empire
(territories of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq)
1915 1923 275,000
Albigensian Crusade
(Cathar genocide)
Languedoc, France 1209 1229 200,000
[N 13]
Aardakh[N 14]
(Soviet deportation of Chechens and other Vainakh populations)
Soviet Union, North Caucasus 1944 1948 144,704
23.5% to almost 50% of total Chechen population killed[100][94][95][96][97]
Porajmos (Romani genocide)[N 15] Nazi controlled Europe 1935 1945 130,000
25% of Romani people in Europe killed
Battle of Carthage
(Punic genocide)
[N 16]
Carthage (territories of present-day Tunis, Tunisia) 149 BC 149 BC 150,000
150,000 Population reduced from 500,000 to 55,000. 150,000 died in the fall of Carthage.[116]
Polish Operation of the NKVD (Polish genocide) Soviet Union 1937 1938 111,091
111,091 [N 17]
Mass-killings of Jews during the White Terror (Genocide of Jews)[N 18] what is now Ukraine and Russia 1918 1923 100,000
An estimated 100,000 to 150,000 Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia were killed in pogroms perpetrated by Denikin's forces as well as Petlyura's nationalist-separatists.
Darfur genocide[N 19] Darfur, Sudan



East Timor genocide[N 20] East Timor 1975 1999 85,320
13% to 44% of East Timor's total population killed
(See death toll of East Timor genocide)
Burundian genocides of Hutus and Tutsis[N 21] Burundi 1972


Libyan genocide[N 22] Italian Libya 1923 1932 80,000
25% of Cyrenaican population killed[145]
Isaaq genocide[N 23] Somalia 1988 1991 50,000
Kurdish genocide[N 24] Ba'athist Iraq 1986 1989 50,000
Guatemalan genocide[N 25] Guatemala 1962 1996 32,632
Herero and Namaqua genocide[N 26] German South-West Africa 1904 1908 34,000
60% (24,000 out of 40,000[183]) to 81.25% (65,000[186][187] out of 80,000[188]) of total Herero and 50%[183] of Nama population killed.
Latvian Operation of the NKVD
(Lativian genocide)[N 27]
Soviet Union 1937 1938 16,573
California Amerindians genocide[N 28] California, United States





Amerindian population in California declined by 80% during the period
2017 Rohingya persecution[N 29] Myanmar





Bosnian genocide[N 30] Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992 1995 8,373
Selk'nam genocide[N 31] Chile, Tierra del Fuego Late 19th century Early 20th century 2,500
The genocide reduced their numbers from around 3,000 to about 500 people. (Now pure Selk'nam are considered extinct.[213][214]
Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL[N 32] northern Iraq and Syria 2014 present 2,100
Black War
(Genocide of Aboriginal Tasmanians)[N 33]
Tasmania, Australia Mid 1820s 1832 400

Descriptions of the genocides

  1. The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-organized, persecution and murder of approximately 6 million Jews by the German Nazi government and its collaborators. Initially it was carried out in German-occupied Eastern Europe by paramilitary death squads (Einsatzgruppen) by shooting or, less frequently, using ad hoc built gassing vans, and later in extermination camps by gassing.[2]
    By extending its definition the Holocaust may also refer to the other victims of German war crimes during the rule of Nazism, such as the Romani genocide's victims, Poles and other Slavic civilian populations and POWs, victims of Germany's eugenics program, political opponents, Homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and civil hostages and resisters from all over Europe.
  2. In 2003 Holodomor, the man-made famine in Ukraine, was recognized by the United Nations as the result of actions and policies of the Soviet government of Joseph Stalin that caused millions of deaths,[11] and in 2008 by the European Parliament as a crime against the Ukrainian people, and against humanity.[12] Holodomor is considered a genocide in Ukraine,[13], Australia,[14] Canada,[15] Colombia,[16] Ecuador,[17] Estonia,[18] Georgia,[18] Hungary,[18] Latvia,[18] Lithuania,[18] Mexico,[18] Paraguay,[18] Peru,[18] Poland,[19] and Vatican City,[18] while the Russian Federation views it as part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932-33.[20] Scholars are divided and their debate is inconclusive on whether the Holodomor falls under the definition of genocide.[21]
  3. The Cambodian genocide was carried out by the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot[35] who, planning to create a form of agrarian socialism founded on an extremist ideology coupled with ethnic hostility, forced the urban population to relocate savagely to the countryside, among torture, mass executions, forced labor, and starvation.
    [36][37][38] The genocide ended in 1979 with the Cambodian invasion by the Vietnamese army.[39] Up to 20,000 mass graves, the infamous Killing Fields, were uncovered,[40] where at least 1,386,734 murdered victims found their final resting place.[41] On 7 August 2014, two top leaders, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan, received life sentences for crimes against humanity.[42]
  4. Genocide of Kazakhs through artificial starvation by the USSR.
  5. The extermination of the Armenians, carried out by the Young Turks, led to the coining of the word "genocide". It included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, mass starvation, and occurred concurrently with the Assyrian and Greek genocides. The State of Turkey denies a genocide ever occurred.
  6. Some 50 perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide have been found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, but most others have not been charged due to lack of witness accounts. Another 120,000 were arrested by Rwanda; of these, 60,000 were tried and convicted in the Gacaca court system. Perpetrators who fled into Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) were used as a justification when Rwanda and Uganda invaded Zaire (First and Second Congo Wars). It is recognized by the international community as a genocide.
  7. Zunghar genocide. The Manchu Qianlong Emperor of Qing China issued his orders for his Manchu Bannermen to carry out the genocide and eradication of the Zunghar nation, ordering the massacre of all the Zunghar men and enslaving Zunghar women and children.[53] The Qianlong Emperor moved the remaining Zunghar people to the mainland and ordered the generals to kill all the men in Barkol or Suzhou, and divided their wives and children to Qing soldiers.[54][55] The Qing soldiers who massacred the Zunghars were Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols. In an account of the war, Wei Yuan wrote that about 40% of the Zunghar households were killed by smallpox, 20% fled to Russia or the Kazakh Khanate, and 30% were killed by the army, leaving no yurts in an area of several thousands of Chinese miles except those of the surrendered.[56][57][58] Clarke wrote 80%, or between 480,000 and 600,000 people, were killed between 1755 and 1758 in what "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people."[56][59] Historian Peter Perdue has shown that the decimation of the Dzungars was the result of an explicit policy of extermination launched by the Qianlong Emperor.[56] Although this "deliberate use of massacre" has been largely ignored by modern scholars,[56] Mark Levene, a historian whose recent research interests focus on genocide, has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence".[60]
  8. The Circassian genocide refers to the ethnic cleansing, massive annihilation, displacement,[61] destruction and expulsion of the majority of the indigenous Circassians from historical Circassia, which roughly encompassed the major part of the North Caucasus and the northeast shore of the Black Sea. This occurred in the aftermath of the Caucasian War in the last quarter of the 19th century.[62] The displaced people moved primarily to the Ottoman Empire. Former Russian President Boris Yeltsin's May 1994 statement admitted that resistance to the tsarist forces was legitimate, but he did not recognize "the guilt of the tsarist government for the genocide."[63] In 1997 and 1998, the leaders of Kabardino-Balkaria and of Adygea sent appeals to the Duma to reconsider the situation and to issue the needed apology; to date, there has been no response from Moscow. In October 2006, the Adygeyan public organizations of Russia, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Syria, the United States, Belgium, Canada and Germany have sent the president of the European Parliament a letter with the request to recognize the genocide against Adygean (Circassian) people.[64] On May 21, 2011, the Parliament of Georgia passed a resolution, stating that "pre-planned" mass killings of Circassians by Imperial Russia, accompanied by "deliberate famine and epidemics", should be recognized as "genocide" and those deported during those events from their homeland, should be recognized as "refugees". Georgia, which has poor relations with Russia, has made outreach efforts to North Caucasian ethnic groups since the 2008 Russo-Georgian War.[65] Following a consultation with academics, human rights activists and Circassian diaspora groups and parliamentary discussions in Tbilisi in 2010 and 2011, Georgia became the first country to use the word "genocide" to refer to the events.[65][66][67] On 20 May 2011 the parliament of the Republic of Georgia declared in its resolution[68] that the mass annihilation of the Cherkess (Adyghe) people during the Russian-Caucasian war and thereafter constituted genocide as defined in the Hague Convention of 1907 and the UN Convention of 1948.
  9. Genocide by the Ustaše. The government of the Independent State of Croatia murdered Serbs, Jews, Romani, and some dissident Croats and Bosniaks inside its borders, many in concentration camps, most notably Jasenovac camp. Ante Pavelić, the leader of the Ustaše, enacted racial laws similar to those of Nazi Germany, declaring Jews, Romani, and Serbs "enemies of the people of Croatia". He escaped to Spain after the war with the assistance of the Roman Catholic Church and fatally injured there some years later in an assassination attempt.[74]
  10. Bangladesh genocide. Massacres, killings, rape, arson and systematic elimination of religious minorities (particularly Hindus), political dissidents and the members of the liberation forces of Bangladesh were conducted by the Pakistan Army with support from paramilitary militias—the Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams—formed by the radical Islamist Jamaat-e-Islami party.[82]
  11. For the Greek genocide other sources give 450,000-900,000 casualties between Pontic, Cappadocian and Ionians Greeks. The genocide, instigated by the Ottoman government, included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, summary expulsions, arbitrary executions, and destruction of Greek Orthodox cultural, historical and religious monuments.
  12. The Assyrian genocide is commonly known as "Seyfo" (which means sword in Assyrian). It occurred concurrently with the Armenian and Greek genocides.
  13. The Albigensian Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism, a Christian sect, in Languedoc, in southern France. The Catholic Church considered them heretics and ordered that they should be completely eradicated. Raphael Lemkin referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history".[92] Kurt Jonassohn and Karin Solveig Björnson describe it as "the first ideological genocide."[93]
  14. Aardakh also known as Operation Lentil (Russian: Чечевица, Chechevitsa; Chechen: Вайнах махкахбахар Vaynax Maxkaxbaxar) was the Soviet expulsion of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia during World War II. The expulsion, preceded by the 1940–1944 insurgency in Chechnya, was ordered on 23 February 1944 by NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria after approval by Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, as a part of Soviet forced settlement program and population transfer that affected several million members of non-Russian Soviet ethnic minorities between the 1930s and the 1950s.
    The deportation encompassed their entire nations, well over 500,000 people, as well as the complete liquidation of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Hundreds of thousands[94][95][96][97] of Chechens and Ingushes died or were killed during the round-ups and transportation, and during their early years in exile. The survivors would not return to their native lands until 1957. Many in Chechnya and Ingushetia classify it as an act of genocide, as did the European Parliament in 2004.[98][99]
  15. Porajmos (Romani pronunciation: IPA: [pʰoɽajˈmos]), or Samudaripen ("Mass killing"), the Romani genocide or Romani Holocaust, was the planned and attempted effort by the government of Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate part of the Romani people of Europe. On 26 November 1935, a supplementary decree to the Nuremberg Laws stripping Jews of their German citizenship expanded the category "enemies of the race-based state" to include Romani, the same category as the Jews, and in some ways they had similar fates.[104][105] In 1982, West Germany formally recognized that genocide had been committed against the Romani.[106] In 2011, the Polish Government passed a resolution for the official recognition of 2 August as a day of commemoration of the genocide.[107]
  16. The massacre of Carthiginians (Punics) during their defeat by the Roman Republic is considered a genocide by many scholars.[111][112][113][114][115]
  17. The Polish Operation of the NKVD was a mass murder specifically aimed at the Polish ethnic group in the USSR by the orders of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. Historian Michael Ellman asserts that the 'national operations', particularly the 'Polish operation', may constitute genocide as defined by the UN convention.[118] His opinion is shared by Simon Sebag Montefiore, who calls the Polish operation of the NKVD 'a mini-genocide.'[119] Polish writer and commentator, Dr Tomasz Sommer, also refers to the operation as a genocide, along with Prof. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz among others.[120][121][122][123][124][125][126]
  18. It refers to the Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia were killed in pogroms perpetrated by Anton Denikin's armies as well as Petlyura's nationalist-separatists during the White Terror campaign of the Russian Civil War.
  19. The Darfur genocide refer to the war crimes and crimes against humanity such as massacre and genocidal rape that occurred within the Darfur region during the War in Darfur perpetrated by Janjaweed militias and the Sudanese government. These atrocities have been called the first genocide of the 21at century.[128] Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir has been indicted for his role in the genocide by the United Nations.[129]
  20. The East Timor genocide refers to the "pacification campaigns" of state sponsored terror by the Indonesian government during their occupation of East Timor. Oxford University held an academic consensus calling the Indonesian Occupation of East Timor genocide and Yale university teaches it as part of their "Genocide Studies" program.[132][133] Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000.[134] The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.[135]
  21. Burundian genocide. In the long sequence of civil fights that occurred between Tutsi and Hutu since Burundi's independence in 1962, the 1972 mass killings of Hutu by the Tutsi and the 1993 mass killings of Tutsis by the majority-Hutu populace are both described as genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 1996.
  22. The Pacification of Libya,[141] also known as the Libyan Genocide[142][143][144][145] or Second Italo-Senussi War,[146] was a prolonged conflict in Italian Libya between Italian military forces and indigenous rebels associated with the Senussi Order that lasted from 1923 until 1932,[147][148] when the principal Senussi leader, Omar Mukhtar, was captured and executed.[149] The pacification resulted in mass deaths of the indigenous people in Cyrenaica—one quarter of Cyrenaica's population of 225,000 people died during the conflict.[142] Italy committed major war crimes during the conflict; including the use of chemical weapons, episodes of refusing to take prisoners of war and instead executing surrendering combatants, and mass executions of civilians.[145] Italian authorities committed ethnic cleansing by forcibly expelling 100,000 Bedouin Cyrenaicans, half the population of Cyrenaica, from their settlements that were slated to be given to Italian settlers.[141][150] Italy apologized in 2008 for its killing, destruction and repression of the Libyan people during the period of colonial rule, and went on to say that this was a "complete and moral acknowledgement of the damage inflicted on Libya by Italy during the colonial era."[151]
  23. The Isaaq genocide or "Hargeisa Holocaust"[153][154] was the systematic, state-sponsored massacre of Isaaq civilians between 1988 and 1991 by the Somali Democratic Republic under the dictatorship of Siad Barre.[155] The number of civilian deaths in this massacre is estimated to be between 50,000–100,000 according to various sources,[156][157][158] while local reports estimate the total civilian deaths to be upwards of 200,000 Isaaq civilians.[159] This included the leveling and complete destruction of the second and third largest cities in Somalia, Hargeisa (90 per cent destroyed)[160] and Burao (70 per cent destroyed) respectively,[161] and had caused 400,000[162][163] Somalis (primarily of the Isaaq clan) to flee their land and cross the border to Hartasheikh in Ethiopia as refugees, creating the world's largest refugee camp then (1988),[164] with another 400,000 being internally displaced.[165][166][167] In 2001, the United Nations commissioned an investigation on past human rights violations in Somalia,[155] specifically to find out if "crimes of international jurisdiction (i.e. war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide) had been perpetrated during the country's civil war". The investigation was commissioned jointly by the United Nations Co-ordination Unit (UNCU) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. The investigation concluded with a report confirming the crime of genocide to have taken place against the Isaaqs in Somalia.[168]
  24. The Kurdish genocide also known as al-Anfal campaign (Arabic: حملة الأنفال), [172] was a series of genocidal operations[173] against the Kurdish people and other non-Arab populations in northern Iraq, that was led by the Ba'athist Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and was headed by Ali Hassan al-Majid in the final stages of the Iran–Iraq War. The code name chosen by the former Iraqi Baathist government for this campaign takes its name from Surat al-Anfal, the eighth chapter of the Quran. The Anfal operations also targeted Assyrians, Shabaks, Iraqi Turkmens, Yazidis, Jews, Mandaeans, and many villages belonging to these ethnic groups were also destroyed. The Anfal campaign was recognized as a genocide by Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and South Korea.
  25. Guatemalan genocide. The government forces of Guatemala and allied paramilitary groups have been condemned by the Historical Clarification Commission for committing genocide against the Maya population[177][178] and for widespread human rights violations against civilians during the civil war fought against various leftist rebel groups. At least an estimated 200,000 persons lost their lives by arbitrary executions, forced disappearances and other human rights violations.[179] A quarter of the direct victims of human rights violations and acts of violence were women.[180]
  26. The Herero and Namaqua Genocide was the campaign to exterminate the Herero and Nama people that the German Empire undertook in German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia). It is considered one of the first genocides of the 20th century.
  27. The Lativian Operation refers to mass arrest and execution of Lativians during the Stalinist Great Purge.
  28. The California Amerindians genocide[191][192] refer to the destruction of individual tribes like the Yuki people during the Round Valley Settler Massacres of 1856 - 1859,[193] general massacres perpetrated by settlers chasing the gold rush against Indians like the Bloody Island Massacre, or Klamath River "War of Extermination"[194] along with the overall decline of the Indian population of California due to disease and starvation exacerbated by the massacres.
  29. The 2017 Rohingya persecution in Myanmar was a genocide[197][198][199][200] against the Rohingya ethnic minority in Myanmar (Burma) by the Myanmar military and Buddhist extremists. The violence began on 25 August 2017 and has continued since, reaching its peak during the months of August and September in 2017. The Rohingya people are a largely Muslim ethnic minority in Myanmar who have faced widespread persecution and discrimination for several decades. They are denied citizenship under the 1982 Myanmar nationality law, and are falsely regarded as Bengali immigrants by much of Myanmar's Bamar majority, to the extent that the government refuses to acknowledge the Rohingya's existence as a valid ethnic group[201]. The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) is a Rohingya insurgent group that was founded in 2013 to "liberate [the Rohingya] people from dehumanising oppression"[202]. On 25 August 2017, ARSA claimed responsibility for coordinated attacks on police posts that reportedly killed twelve security forces. Myanmar's military forces immediately launched a series of retaliatory attacks against Rohingya civilians, and were joined by local Buddhist extremists. Together they burnt down hundreds of Rohingya villages, killed thousands of Rohingya men, women, and children, tortured countless others, and sexually assaulted countless Rohingya women and girls. Several Rohingya refugees say they were forced to witness soldiers throwing their babies into burning houses to die in the fire. Numerous Rohingya refugee women and girls have provided accounts of being brutally gang raped. The violence has resulted in a refugee crisis, with an estimated 693,000 Rohingya fleeing to overcrowded refugee camps in the neighboring country of Bangladesh.
  30. The Bosnian genocide comprises localized, in time and place, massacres like in Srebrenica[205] and in Žepa committed by Bosnian Serb forces in 1995, as well as the scattered ethnic cleansing campaign throughout areas controlled by the Army of Republika Srpska[206] during the 1992–95 Bosnian War.[207] Srebrenica marked the most recent act of genocide committed in Europe and was the only theater of that war that fulfilled the definition of genocide as set by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). On 31 March 2010, the Serbian Parliament passed a resolution condemning the Srebrenica massacre and apologizing to the families of Srebrenica for the deaths of Bosniaks ("Bosnian Muslims").[208]
  31. The Selk'nam Genocide was the genocide of the Selk'nam people, indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego in South America, from the second half of the 19th to the early 20th century. Spanning a period of between ten and fifteen years the Selk'nam, which had an estimated population of some three thousand, saw their numbers reduced to 500.[212]
  32. The Genocide of Yazidis ' by ISIS includes mass killing, rape and enslavement of girls and women, forced abduction, indoctrination and recruitment of Yazidis boys (aged 7 to 15) to be used in armed conflicts, forced conversion to Islam and expulsion from their ancestral land. The United Nations' Commission of Inquiry on Syria officially declared in its report that ISIS is committing genocide against the Yazidis population.[215] It is difficult to assess a precise figure for the killings[216] but it is known that some thousand of Yazidis men and boys are still unaccounted for and ISIS genocidal actions against Yazidis people are still ongoing, as stated by the International Commission in June 2016.
  33. The extinction of Aboriginal Tasmanians was called an archetypal case of genocide by Rafael Lemkin[219] (coiner of the word genocide) among other historians, a view supported by more recent genocide scholars like Ben Kiernan who covered it in his book Blood and Soil: A History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. This extinction also includes the Black War, which would make the war an act of genocide.[220] Historians like Keith Windschuttle among other historians disagree with this interpretation in discourse known as the History wars.

Images of the genocides

See also

Political extermination campaigns


  1. "Analysis Framework: Legal definition of genocide" (PDF). Office of the UN Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide (OSAPG). Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  2. For a listing of the number of murdered Jews, detailed by country, see Dawidowicz, Lucy (2010). The War Against the Jews: 1933-1945. Open Road Media. Appendix A. ISBN 978-1453203064.
  3. Reitlinger, Gerald (1953). The Final Solution. The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939–1945. New York City: Beechhurst Press.
  4. Early efforts by scholars to determine the number of Jews murdered by the Nazis were limited by a lack of access to pertinent records. The genocide seldom entered Western discourse, both due to ignorance and to the Cold-War politics which made West Germany a new ally of the United States.The first significant work on the subject published in English was Gerald Reitlinger's Final Solution (1953), which, relying almost exclusively on German documentation, estimated 4.9 million dead. This figure is now considered extremely conservative. Raul Hilberg's 1961 The Destruction of the European Jews became a classic in the field of Holocaust literature and made the genocide of the Jews known to the wider public, Hilberg estimated its victims to be 5.1 million lives, or 4.9 - 5.4 million broadly construed. The trial of Adolph Eichmann further raised awareness of the genocide, Eichmann also provided documentation and testimony which revised the number of the dead.The first work to arrive at a figure comparable to modern estimates was Lucy Dawidowicz's The War Against the Jews, published in 1975, the book provided detailed listings by country of the number of Jews killed in the Holocaust which are still used as a reference in modern Holocaust studies. Dawidowicz researched birth and death records in many cities of prewar Europe to come up with a death toll of 5,933,900 Jews. After the opening of Soviet records, scholarship arrived at a death toll of about 6 million Jews. Gutman and Rozett's Encyclopedia of the Holocaust was published in 1990 and estimated slightly over 5.9 million Jews were murdered.Wolfgang Benz's The Holocaust: A German Historian Examines the Genocide, published 1995, gave a toll of 6.2 million.
  5. 1 2 Using wider definition that includes non Jewish victims
  6. "36 Questions About the Holocaust". Museum of Tolerance Online Learning Center. Simon Wiesenthal Center. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  7. Davies, Norman (2012). God's Playground [Boże igrzysko]. Otwarte (publishing). p. 956. ISBN 8324015566. Polish edition, second volume. To, co robili Sowieci, było szczególnie mylące. Same liczby byłSacramentsie wiarygodne, ale pozbawione komentarza, sprytnie ukrywały fakt, że ofiary w przeważającej liczbie nie były Rosjanami, że owe miliony obejmowały ofiary nie tylko Hitlera, ale i Stalina, oraz że wśród ludności cywilnej największe grupy stanowili Ukraińcy, Polacy, Białorusini i Żydzi. Translation: The Soviet methods were particularly misleading. The numbers were correct, but the victims were overwhelmingly not Russian, and came from either one of the two regimes.
  8. Niewyk, Donald (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press.
  9. Schwatrz, Terese Pencak (2012). Holocaust Forgotten: Five Million Non-Jewish Victims. ISBN 9781475282498.
  10. Gerlach, Christian (2016). The Extermination of the European Jews. Cambridge University Press. p. 8.
  11. Works related to Joint Statement on Holodomor at Wikisource.
  12. European Parliament resolution on the commemoration of the Holodomor, the Ukraine artificial famine (1932–1933)
  13. "The Artificial Famine/Genocide (Holodomor) in Ukraine 1932-33". InfoUkes. April 26, 2009.
  14. "Foreign Affairs: Ukrainian Famine (No. 680)" (PDF). Journals of the Senate. 114: 2652–53. 30 October 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 December 2004.
  15. "Journals of the Senate No.72, 2nd Session, 37th Parliament" (PDF). 19 June 2003: 994–995. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  16. "Columbia declares Holodomor an act of genocide". Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union. 25 December 2007. Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2008.
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  169. Straus, Scott (2015-03-24). Making and Unmaking Nations: The Origins and Dynamics of Genocide in Contemporary Africa. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801455674.
  170. "Investigating genocide in Somaliland". Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  171. Totten, Samuel; Bartrop, Paul R. (2007). Dictionary of Genocide. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 252. ISBN 978-0313346422. Kurdish Genocide in Northern Iraq, (U.S. Response to). Well aware of the genocidal Al-Anfal campaign waged against the Kurds in northern Iraq by Iraqi president Saddam Hussein.
  172. 1 2 Black, George (July 1993). Genocide in Iraq: the Anfal campaign against the Kurds (PDF). New York: Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-108-8. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  173. Wong, Edward (5 April 2006). "Hussein Charged With Genocide in 50,000 Deaths". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 August 2016. (Subscription required (help)).
  174. Ochsenwald, William; Nettleton Fisher, Sydney (2003). The Middle East: A History (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education. p. 659. ISBN 978-0072442335.
  175. McDowall, David (2004). A Modern History of the Kurds: Third Edition (3rd ed.). I.B.Tauris. p. 359. ISBN 978-1-85043-416-0.
  176. "Press Briefing: Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations. 1 March 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  177. "Guatemala Memory of Silence" (PDF). Commission for Historical Clarification Conclusions and Recommendations. Guatemala City. 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  178. CEH 1999, p. 20.
  179. CEH 1999, p. 23.
  180. Namely the 83% of the "fully identified" 42,275 civilians killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War. See CEH 1999, p. 17, and "Press Briefing: Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations. 1 March 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  181. Applying the same proportion as for the fully identified victims to the estimated total amount of person killed or disappeared during the Guatemalan civil war (at least 200.000). See CEH 1999, p. 17.
  182. 1 2 3 Nuhn, Walter (1989). Sturm über Südwest. Der Hereroaufstand von 1904 (in German). Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 3-7637-5852-6.
  183. According to the 1985 United Nations' Whitaker Report, some 65,000 Herero (80 percent of the total Herero population), and 10,000 Nama (50% of the total Nama population) were killed between 1904 and 1907.
  184. Moses 2008, p. 296.
    Sarkin-Hughes, Jeremy (2008). Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904-1908. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International. p. 142. ISBN 978-0313362569.
    Schaller, Dominik J. (2008). From Conquest to Genocide: Colonial Rule in German Southwest Africa and German East Africa. NY: Berghahn Books. p. 296. ISBN 1-8454-5452-9.
    Friedrichsmeyer, Sara L.; Lennox, Sara; Zantop, Susanne M. (1998). The Imperialist Imagination: German Colonialism and Its Legacy. University of Michigan Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0472096824.
    Nuhn 1989.
    Hoffmann, Anette (2007). Marie-Aude Baronian; Stephan Besser; Yolande Jansen, eds. Diaspora and Memory: Figures of Displacement in Contemporary Literature, Arts and Politics. Amsterdam: Rodopi. p. 33. ISBN 90-420-2129-2. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  185. "Germany admits Namibia genocide". BBC. August 14, 2004. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  186. "German minister says sorry for genocide in Namibia". The Guardian. August 16, 2004. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  187. UN Whitaker Report on Genocide, 1985, paragraphs 14 to 24, pages 5 to 10 Prevent Genocide International
  188. Werth, Nicolas (20 May 2010). "The NKVD Mass Secret National Operations (August 1937 - November 1938)" (PDF). Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. pp. 4 of 10. ISSN 1961-9898. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  189. Werth, Nicolas (May 20, 2010). "The NKVD Mass Secret National Operations (August 1937 - November 1938)" (PDF). Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. pp. 4 of 10. ISSN 1961-9898. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  190. 1 2 Benjamin Madley
    An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe,1846-1873
  191. 1 2 3
  192. Blood and Soil A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur
    Chapter 8 Genocide in the United States
    Ben Kiernan pages: 310 - 363
  193. Heizer 1993, Crescent City Herald, quoted in Sacramento newspaper pages: 35 - 36
  194. Only the range of deaths caused by massacred
  195. The total population decline of the period overall
  196. R.C. (23 May 2018). "The Rohingya crisis bears all the hallmarks of a genocide". The Economist Newspaper. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  197. Camilla Siazon (8 May 2018). "The Rohingya Crisis and the Meaning of Genocide". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  198. Associated Press (1 February 2018). "UN official says Rohingya crisis has 'hallmarks of genocide'". Associated Press. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  199. Azeem Ibrahim (23 October 2017). "There's only one conclusion on the Rohingya in Myanmar: It's genocide". Cable News Network. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  200. BBC (24 April 2018). "Myanmar Rohingya: What you need to know about the crisis". BBC. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  201. BenarNews (23 August 2017). "Southeast Asia's Newest Rebel Group Calls Bangladesh 'Great Neighbor'". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  202. James Bennett (14 December 2017). "Rohingya death toll likely above 10,000, MSF says amid exodus". ABC. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  203. Laignee Barron (8 March 2018). "More Than 43,000 Rohingya Parents May Be Missing. Experts Fear They Are Dead". Time. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  204. Irwin, Rachel (13 December 2012). "Genocide Conviction for Serb General Tolimir". Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  205. Gutman, Roy (1993). A Witness to Genocide. Lisa Drew Books. ISBN 978-0020329954.
  206. Thackrah, John Richard (2008). Routledge Companion to Military Conflict since 1945. Taylor & Francis. pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-0-203-01470-7.
  207. "Serbian MPs offer apology for Srebrenica massacre". BBC News. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  208. The figure considers only the estimated number of killed people in Srebrenica massacre based on the list of missing persons."Preliminary List of Missing Persons from Srebrenica 1995". Potočari Memorial Center. Archived from the original on 18 April 2014. The International Commission on Missing Persons recovered and identified 6,930 remains."Facts and Figures on Srebrenica". 31 July 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  209. Calic, Marie–Janine (2012). "Ethnic Cleansing and War Crimes, 1991–1995". In Ingrao, Charles W.; Emmert, Thomas A. Confronting the Yugoslav Controversies: A Scholars' Initiative. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. pp. 139–40. ISBN 978-1-55753-617-4. Footnotes in source identify numbers as June 2012.
  210. The two figures consider all Bosniak civilians killed during the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. For the second figure, see: Ball, Patrick; Tabeau, Ewa; Verwimp, Philip (17 June 2007). "The Bosnian Book of Dead: Assessment of the Database" (PDF). Falmer: The Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  211. 1 2 Chapman, Anne (2010). European Encounters with the Yamana People of Cape Horn, Before and After Darwin (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-052151379-1.
  212. 1 2 Gardini, Walter (1984). "Restoring the Honour of an Indian Tribe-Rescate de una tribu". Anthropos (in German). 79 (4/6): 645–7.
  213. Ray, Leslie (2007). Language of the Land: The Mapuche in Argentina and Chile. Copenhagen: IWGIA (International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs). p. 95. ISBN 978-879156337-9.
  214. "UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria: ISIS is committing genocide against the Yazidis". United Nations - Office of the High Commissioner. 16 June 2016.
  215. HRC (2016). They came to destroy: ISIS Crimes Against the Yazidis (PDF). Human Rights Council Thirty-second session Agenda item 4. pp. 8–9, 21, 36.
  216. 1 2 Cetorelli, Valeria (9 May 2017). "Mortality and kidnapping estimates for the Yazidi population in the area of Mount Sinjar, Iraq, in August 2014: A retrospective household survey". PLOS Medicine. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002297. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  217. It is impossible to ascertain a precise figure which anyway is higher than some thousands (HRC 2016).
  218. Henry Reynolds, "Genocide in Tasmania?",in A. Dirk Moses (ed.) Genocide and settler society:frontier violence and stolen indigenous children in Australian History. Berghan Books, 2004 p.128
  219. Clements 2014, p. 4
  220. Clements 2013, pp. 329-331
  221. Clements 2013, pp. 329-331
  222. König, Ulrich (1989). Sinti und Roma unter dem Nationalsozialismus. Bochum: Brockmeyer. The count of half a million Sinti and Roma murdered between 1939 and 1945 is too low to be tenable.
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