List of ethnic groups of Africa

The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture. The ethnolinguistic groups include various Afroasiatic, Khoisan, Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan populations.

The official population count of the various ethnic groups in Africa is highly uncertain, both due to limited infrastructure to perform censuses and due to the rapid population growth. There have also been accusations of deliberate misreporting in order to give selected ethnicities numerical superiority (as in the case of Nigeria's Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba and Igbo people).[1][2][3]

A 2009 genetic clustering study, which genotyped 1327 polymorphic markers in various African populations, identified six ancestral clusters. The clustering corresponded closely with ethnicity, culture and language.[4] A 2018 whole genome sequencing study of the world's populations observed similar clusters among the populations in Africa. At K=9, distinct ancestral components defined the Afrosiatic-speaking populations inhabiting North Africa and Northeast Africa; the Nilo-Saharan-speaking populations in Northeast Africa and East Africa; the Ari populations in Northeast Africa; the Niger-Congo-speaking populations in West-Central Africa, West Africa, East Africa and Southern Africa; the Pygmy populations in Central Africa; and the Khoisan populations in Southern Africa.[5]

Lists

By linguistic phylum

As a first overview, the following table lists major groups by ethno-linguistic affiliation, with rough population estimates (as of 1016) :

Phylum Region Major groups Pop. (millions)
(2016)
Number of groups
Afro-AsiaticNorth Africa, Horn of Africa, SahelAmhara, Hausa, Oromo, Somali, Tachelhit Berber100200-300[6]
Niger-CongoWest Africa, Central Africa, Southern Africa, East AfricaBambara, Fula, Igbo, Mooré, Swahili, Yoruba, Zulu1001650[6]
Nilo-SaharanNile Valley, Sahel, East AfricaDinka, Kanuri, Luo, Maasai, Nuer6080[6]
KhoisanSouthern Africa, TanzaniaNama, San, Sandawe, Kung ǃXóõ140-70[6]
AustronesianMadagascarMalagasy201[7]
Indo-EuropeanCentral Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West AfricaAfrikaners, British, French63[8]
Total Africa 1.2 billion (UN 2016)c. 2,000[9]

Major ethnic groups

The following is a table of major ethnic groups (10 million people or more):

Major ethnic groups Region Countries Language family Pop. (millions)
(year)
AkanWest AfricaGhana, Ivory CoastNiger–Congo, Kwa20
AbyssiniansHorn of AfricaEthiopia, EritreaAfro-Asiatic, Semitic
AmharaHorn of AfricaEthiopiaAfro-Asiatic, Semitic22 (2007)
BantuCentral Africa, East Africa, Southern Africamost of Equatorial AfricaNiger-Congo, Bantu[10]
BerbersMaghreb, Nile ValleyMorocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania, Libya, Egypt, Mali, Niger, Burkina FasoAfro-Asiatic, Berber
ChewaCentral AfricaMalawi, ZambiaNiger–Congo, Bantu12 (2007)
Egyptians[11]North AfricaEgypt, SudanAfro-Asiatic, Semitic & Coptic93 (2017)
FulaniWest AfricaMauritania, Gambia. Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Nigeria, Cameroon, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin, Niger, Chad, Sudan, CAR, Ghana, Togo, Sierra LeoneNiger–Congo, Senegambian20
HausaWest AfricaNigeria, Niger, Benin, Ghana, Cameroon, Chad, SudanAfro-Asiatic, Chadic43
HutuCentral AfricaRwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of CongoNiger–Congo, Bantu15
IgboWest AfricaNigeriaNiger–Congo, Volta–Niger34 (2017)
KanuriCentral AfricaNigeria,[12] Niger,[13] Chad[14] and Cameroon[15]Nilo-Saharan, Saharan10
KhoisanSouthern AfricaSouth Africa, NamibiaKhoisan
KongoCentral AfricaDemocratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Republic of the CongoNiger–Congo, Bantu10
LubaCentral AfricaDemocratic Republic of the CongoNiger–Congo, Bantu15
Maghrebis (Arab-Berber)North AfricaMaghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Western Sahara), Algeria, Tunisia, and LibyaAfro-Asiatic, Semitic100
MongoCentral AfricaDemocratic Republic of the CongoNiger–Congo, Bantu15
NilotesNile Valley, East Africa, Central AfricaSouth Sudan, Sudan, Chad, Central African Republic, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, EthiopiaNilo-Saharan, Nilotic22 (2007)
North African ArabsNorth Africa, SahelMorocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania, Libya, Egypt, Chad, Sudan, Mali, Niger, NigeriaAfro-Asiatic, Semitic[16]
NubiansNile ValleySudan, EgyptNilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic
OromoHorn of AfricaEthiopiaAfro-Asiatic, Cushitic35 (2016)
ShonaEast AfricaZimbabwe and MozambiqueNiger–Congo, Bantoid15 (2000)
SomaliHorn of AfricaSomalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia, KenyaAfro-Asiatic, Cushitic20 (2009)
WolofWest AfricaSenegal, Gambia, MauritaniaNiger-Congo, Atlantic
YorubaWest AfricaNigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Sierra LeoneNiger–Congo, Volta–Niger40
ZuluSouthern AfricaSouth AfricaNiger–Congo, Bantu12 (2016)

Ethnic groups by region

Central Africa

Name Family Language Region Country Population (million) Notes
AkaNilo-Saharan, PygmyAkaCentral/NorthernWestern Central African Republic, Northwest CongoThe Aka are one of three groups of pygmies, collectively called BaMbuti, of the Ituri Rainforest.
BakaPygmyBakaCentral/NorthernWestern Equatoria in South Sudan0.25There is also another ethnic group called Baka living across West Africa.
BandaNiger-Congo, UbangianBanda languageChad BasinCentral African Republic[17]1.5
ChewaNiger–Congo, BantuChichewaCentral/SouthernBotswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe9
ChokweNiger–Congo, BantuChokweCentralAngola, Congo (Kinshasa), Zambia1.1
EféNilo-Saharan, PygmyEfeCentral/NorthernIturi Rainforest of CongoThe Efe are one of three groups of pygmies, collectively called BaMbuti, of the Ituri Rainforest.
GbayaNiger-Congo, UbangianGbaya languageChad BasinCentral African Republic[17]1.5
KongoNiger–Congo, BantuKongoCentralDemocratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Republic of the Congo10
KanuriNilo-Saharan, Western SaharanKanuriChad BasinNigeria,[12] Niger,[13] Cameroon,[15] Chad[14]10
LingalaNiger–Congo, BantuLingalaCentralDemocratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola, Central African Republic
LubaNiger–Congo, BantuLuba-Kasai, Luba-KatangaCentralDemocratic Republic of the Congo13
KotokoAfro-Asiatic, ChadicLagwanChad BasinCameroon, Chad< 1
MbundaNiger–Congo, BantuMbúùnda, Chimbúùnda, MpuonoCentralAngola, Zambia0.5
MbunduNiger–Congo, BantuKimbunduCentralAngola2.4
MoghamoNiger-Congo, Southern BantoidMoghamoCentral/WestCameroon0.018
MongoNiger–Congo, BantuMongoCentralDemocratic Republic of the Congo12
NgamamboNiger-Congo, Southern BantoidNgamamboCentral/WestCameroon0.011
OvimbunduNiger–Congo, BantuUmbunduCentralAngola4.6
SaraNilo-Saharan, Central SudanicSaraChad BasinChad,[14] Cameroon,[18] Central African Republic[19]3.5
SuaNilo-Saharan, PygmySuaCentral/NorthernIturi Rainforest of CongoThe Sua are one of three groups of pygmies, collectively called BaMbuti, of the Ituri Rainforest.
ZandeNiger–Congo, UbangianZandeChad BasinSouth Sudan,[20] Central African Republic[17]1-4
ZaghawaNilo-Saharan, Eastern SaharanZaghawaChad BasinChad, Sudan< 1

Horn of Africa

Name Family Language Region Country Population (million) Notes
AfarAfro-Asiatic, CushiticAfarHorn of AfricaEthiopia, Djibouti, Eritrea2.5
AgawAfro-Asiatic, CushiticAgawHorn of AfricaEthiopia, Eritrea1
AmharaAfro-Asiatic, SemiticAmharicHorn of AfricaEthiopia24
BejaAfro-Asiatic, CushiticBejaHorn of AfricaSudan, Eritrea2
BilenAfro-Asiatic, CushiticBilenHorn of AfricaEritrea0.2
GurageAfro-Asiatic, SemiticGurageHorn of AfricaEthiopia1.9
OromoAfro-Asiatic, CushiticOromoHorn of AfricaEthiopia, Sudan, Kenya40
RashaidaAfro-Asiatic, SemiticArabicHorn of AfricaEritrea, Sudan0.2
SahoAfro-Asiatic, CushiticSahoHorn of AfricaEritrea, Ethiopia0.2
SidamaAfro-Asiatic, CushiticSidamaHorn of AfricaEthiopia3
SomaliAfro-Asiatic, CushiticSomaliHorn of AfricaSomalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya21
TigrayanAfro-Asiatic, SemiticTigrinyaHorn of AfricaEthiopia, Eritrea9.3
TigreAfro-Asiatic, SemiticTigreHorn of AfricaEritrea, Sudan1.5
TigrinyaAfro-Asiatic, SemiticTigrinyaHorn of AfricaEritrea3.4
WelaytaAfro-Asiatic, OmoticWolayttaHorn of AfricaEthiopia2

North Africa

Name Family Language Region Country Population (million) Notes
BaggaraAfro-Asiatic, SemiticSudanese ArabicChad BasinSudan, Chad6
BerbersAfro-Asiatic, BerberBerberMaghrebMorocco, Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Tunisia, Egypt27Berber speakers
CoptsAfro-Asiatic, EgyptianCopticNile ValleyEgypt, Sudan10
EgyptiansAfro-Asiatic, SemiticEgyptian ArabicNile ValleyEgypt85excl. Copts
Fur[21]Nilo-Saharan, Eastern SudanicFurNile ValleySudan1.0
HaratinAfro-Asiatic, SemiticHassaniya ArabicMaghrebMauritania, Morocco2
MaghrebisAfro-Asiatic, SemiticMaghrebi ArabicMaghrebMorocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya72Arabic speakers only
MoorsAfro-Asiatic, SemiticHassaniya ArabicMaghrebMauritania, Morocco2
NubiansNilo-Saharan, Eastern SudanicNobiinNile ValleySudan, Egypt1.0[21]
Sudanese ArabsAfro-Asiatic, SemiticSudanese ArabicNile ValleySudan28
ToubouNilo-SaharanTebuTibestiLibya, Chad, Niger, Sudan0.35
TuaregAfro-Asiatic, BerberTuaregMaghreb/SaharaAlgeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso1.2
ZaghawaNilo-Saharan, Eastern SaharanZaghawaChad BasinChad, Sudan0.2

Southeast Africa

Name Family Language Region Country Population (million) Notes
AlurNilo-Saharan, Nilotic, LuoAlurEast/CentralUganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo
AnuakNilo-Saharan, Nilotic, LuoAnuakSoutheast/HornSouth Sudan, Ethiopia
AcholiNilo-Saharan, Nilotic, LuoAcholiEastUganda, South Sudan
BanyoroNiger–Congo, BantuNyoro (Runyakitara)EastUganda1.4
BasogaNiger-Congo, BantuSogaEastUganda2.9
ChaggaNiger-Congo, BantuBantuKilimanjaroTanzania8
DinkaNilo-Saharan, Eastern SudanicDinkaNile ValleySouth Sudan[20]5
GandaNiger–Congo, BantuGandaEastUganda5.5
LangiNilo-Saharan, Nilotic, LuoLangoEastUganda2.2
HutuNiger–Congo, BantuRwanda-RundiEast, CentralRwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda16
KambaNiger–Congo, BantuKambaEastKenya
KalenjinNilo-Saharan, Nilotic, HighlandKalenjinEastKenya, Uganda3
KikuyuNiger–Congo, BantuGikuyuEastKenya5.3
KwamaNilo-SaharanKwamaEast/HornSouth Sudan, Ethiopia
Lugbara peopleNilo-Saharan, Central SudanicLugbaraEastUganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo11
LuoNilo-Saharan, Luo, River-LakeLuoEastKenya, Uganda
LuhyaNiger–Congo, BantuLuhyaEastKenya, Uganda5.4
MaasaiNilo-Saharan, Nilotic, PlainsMaasaiEastKenya, Tanzania0.9
MakondeNiger–Congo, BantuMakondeSoutheastTanzania, Mozambique1.3
AmeruNiger–Congo, BantuMeruEastKenya
NuerNilo-Saharan, Eastern SudanicNuerNile ValleySouth Sudan[20]3
SamburuNilo-Saharan, Nilotic, PlainsSamburuEastKenya0.1
ShillukNilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, LuoShillukNile ValleySouth Sudan[20]1.5
SwahiliNiger-Congo, BantuSwahiliEastTanzania, Kenya, Mozambique0.1
TutsiNiger–Congo, BantuRwanda-RundiEast, CentralRwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda3
TwaPygmyRundi, KigaEast, CentralRwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo0.8

Southern Africa

Name Family Language Region Country Population (million) Notes
AfrikanerIndo-EuropeanAfrikaansSouthSouth Africa, Namibia3.5
BembaNiger–Congo, BantuBembaSouthZambia5.0
Cape ColouredIndo-EuropeanAfrikaansSouthSouth Africa4.7
HereroNiger–Congo, BantuHereroSouthNamibia, Botswana, Angola0.2
HimbaNiger–Congo, BantuOtjihimbo (Herero dialect)SouthNamibia0.05
GoffalIndo-EuropeanZimbabwean EnglishSouthZimbabwe0.03
KalangaNiger–Congo, BantuShonaSouthZimbabwe, Botswana0.1
KhoikhoiKhoisanKhoekhoegowabSouth-
LembaNiger-Congo, BantuVendaSouthZimbabwe, South Africa, Malawi, Mozambique0.05
MakuaNiger–Congo, BantuMakuaSouth/EastMozambique, Tanzania1.1
NambyaNiger–Congo, BantuShonaSouthZimbabwe0.1
North NdebeleNiger-Congo, Bantu, NguniSindebeleSouthZimbabwe1.5
Ovambo (Ambo, Owambo)Niger–Congo, BantuOvamboSouthNamibia0.9
SanKhoisanKhoisanSouthSouth Africa, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia, Angola0.09
South NdebeleNiger–Congo, BantuSouthern NdebeleSouthSouth Africa0.7
ShonaNiger–Congo, BantuShonaSouthMozambique, Zimbabwe10.6
SothoNiger–Congo, BantuSothoSouthLesotho, South Africa, Zimbabwe (Gwanda District)5.3
SwaziNiger-Congo, Bantu, NguniSwaziSouthSwaziland, South Africa, Mozambique3.5
TongaNiger–Congo, BantuShonaSouthZimbabwe, Zambia2
TsongaNiger-Congo, Bantu, NguniTsongaSouthSwaziland, South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe (Chiredzi and Mwenezi Districts)5.5
TswanaNiger–Congo, BantuTswanaSouthBotswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe6
VendaNiger–Congo, BantuVendaSouthSouth Africa, Zimbabwe1
XhosaNiger-Congo, Bantu, NguniXhosaSouthSouth Africa7.9
YeyiNiger–Congo, BantuShiyeyiSouthNamibia, Botswana, Angola0.3
ZuluNiger-Congo, Bantu, NguniZuluSouthSouth Africa12
KwangaliNiger–Congo, Bantu Angola Central AfricaRukwangaliSouthNamibia, Botswana, Angola0.7

West Africa

Name Family Language Region Country Population (million) Notes
AdeleNiger–Congo, GbeAdeleWestGhanaian-Togo Borderlands.05[22]
AkanNiger–Congo, KwaAkanWestSouth Ghana, Ivory Coast20An ethnic group of related sub-groups. The largest subgroups are the Ashanti and the Fante
Aku(Creole)AkuWestGambia0.01
BakaNiger Congo, UbangianBakaWest/CentralSoutheastern Cameroon, Northern Congo, Northern Gabon0.3-0.4The Baka are also known as Bebayaka, Bebayaga, or Bibaya, or (along with the other Mbenga peoples) the derogatory Babinga.
BambaraNiger–Congo, MandeBambaraWestMali3
BasaaNiger–Congo, BantuBasaaWestCameroon0.2
BassaNiger–Congo, KruBassaWestLiberia0.3
Beti-PahuinNiger–Congo, BantuEwondo, Fang, BuluWestCameroon, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, São Tomé and Príncipe3.3group of 20 sub-ethnicities
BiafadaNiger–CongoBiafadaWestSenegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau0.04
Mole-DagbaniNiger–Congo, GurDagbaniWestGhana, Burkina Faso8.6Dagomba, Mamprusi, Nanumba, Mossi, Gurma
DendiNiger–CongoDendiWestBenin0.1
Edo (also called Bini, or Benin)Niger–Congo, Volta-NigerEdoWestNigeria1.6
EfikNiger–Congo, Cross RiverIbibio-EfikWestNigeria, Cameroon0.9
EketNiger–Congo, Cross RiverEket (Ibibio dialect)WestNigeria, Cameroon0.3
EsanNiger–Congo, Volta-NigerEsanWestNigeria0.5
EweNiger–Congo, GbeEweWestTogo, Benin, Nigeria, Volta Region (British Togoland), Togoland6.0
FonNiger–CongoFonWestBenin, Nigeria3.5
FulɓeNiger–Congo, SenegambianPular/FulfuldeWestGuinea, Nigeria, Cameroon, Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin, Niger, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Chad, Togo, Ivory Coast20
GaNiger–Congo, KwaGa, Ga-AdangmeWestTogo, Greater Accra2
Gwari, NupeNiger-Congo, Volta-NigerWestNigeria1
HausaAfro-Asiatic, ChadicHausaWest/NorthernNigeria, Niger, Ghana, Benin, Chad, Cameroon, Sudan37
Igbo (Ibo)Niger–Congo, Volta–NigerIgboWestNigeria, Equatorial Guinea34[23]Includes various subgroups.
IjawNiger–Congo, IjoidIjawWestNigeria14[12]Sub-groups include Andoni, Ibani, Kalabari, Nembe, Ogbia and Okrika.
JolaNiger–Congo, SenegambianJola, KriolWestSenegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau0.5
KanuriNilo-Saharan, Western SaharanKanuriChad BasinNigeria,[12] Niger,[13] Cameroon,[15] Chad[14]10
MandinkaNiger–Congo, MandeMandingoWest/CentralThe Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Guinea Bissau, Ghana, Benin, Niger, Nigeria, Mauritania, Chad13
Mande SouthNiger–Congo, MandeDan, Mano and KpelleWestGuinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia,3.5
MarkaNiger–Congo, MandeMarkaWest/NorthernMali0.4
MendeNiger–Congo, MandeMendeWestSierra Leone2
PapelNiger–CongoPapelWestSenegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau0.1
SererNiger–Congo, SenegambianSerer, CanginWestFound mostly in Senegal and The Gambia. Small number in Mauritania. Also found in the West.1.9[24][25]The Serer people include: Serer-Sine, Serer-Safene, Serer-Ndut, Serer-Palor, Serer-Niominka, Serer-Laalaa, Serer-Noon. Apart from the Serer-Sine, they speak Cangin languages rather than Serer.
Songhai[13]Nilo-SaharanSonghaiWestMali5
TivNiger–Congo, BantuTivWestNigeria, Cameroon2
UrhoboNiger–Congo, Volta–NigerUrhobo, Isoko, Uvwie, Erhowa, OkpeWestNigeria2
WolofNiger–Congo, AtlanticWolofWestSenegal, Gambia, Mauritania4
Yoruba, ItsekiriNiger–Congo, Volta–NigerYorubaWestNigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast[26] Sierra Leone[27] 45
Zarma[13][28]Nilo-SaharanZarmaWestNiger5

See also

References

  1. Onuah, Felix (29 December 2006). "Nigeria gives census result, avoids risky details". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
  2. Lewis, Peter (2007). Growing Apart: Oil, Politics, and Economic Change in Indonesia and Nigeria. University of Michigan Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-472-06980-2. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
  3. Suberu, Rotimi T. (2001). Federalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria. US Institute of Peace Press. p. 154. ISBN 1-929223-28-5. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  4. Tishkoff, SA; et al. (2009). "The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans" (PDF). Science. 324 (5930): 1037–39. Bibcode:2009Sci...324.1035T. doi:10.1126/science.1172257. PMC 2947357. PMID 19407144. We incorporated geographic data into a Bayesian clustering analysis, assuming no admixture (TESS software) (25) and distinguished six clusters within continental Africa (Fig. 5A). The most geographically widespread cluster (orange) extends from far Western Africa (the Mandinka) through central Africa to the Bantu speakers of South Africa (the Venda and Xhosa) and corresponds to the distribution of the Niger-Kordofanian language family, possibly reflecting the spread of Bantu-speaking populations from near the Nigerian/Cameroon highlands across eastern and southern Africa within the past 5000 to 3000 years (26,27). Another inferred cluster includes the Pygmy and SAK populations (green), with a noncontiguous geographic distribution in central and southeastern Africa, consistent with the STRUCTURE (Fig. 3) and phylogenetic analyses (Fig. 1). Another geographically contiguous cluster extends across northern Africa (blue) into Mali (the Dogon), Ethiopia, and northern Kenya. With the exception of the Dogon, these populations speak an Afroasiatic language. Chadic-speaking and Nilo-Saharan–speaking populations from Nigeria, Cameroon, and central Chad, as well as several Nilo-Saharan–speaking populations from southern Sudan, constitute another cluster (red). Nilo-Saharan and Cushitic speakers from the Sudan, Kenya, and Tanzania, as well as some of the Bantu speakers from Kenya, Tanzania, and Rwanda (Hutu/Tutsi), constitute another cluster (purple), reflecting linguistic evidence for gene flow among these populations over the past ~5000 years (28,29). Finally, the Hadza are the sole constituents of a sixth cluster (yellow), consistent with their distinctive genetic structure identified by PCA and STRUCTURE.
  5. Schlebusch, Carina M.; Jakobsson, Mattias (2018). "Tales of Human Migration, Admixture, and Selection in Africa". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 0: 10.9–10.10; Figure 3.3 Population structure analysis and inferred ancestry components for selected choices of assumed number of ancestries. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Childs, G. Tucker (2003). An Introduction to African Languages. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 9027295883. Retrieved 31 May 2018.: c. 1,650 Niger-Congo, c. 200-300 Afro-Asiatic, 80 Nilo-Saharan, 40-70 Khoisan.
  7. Childs, G. Tucker (2003). An Introduction to African Languages. John Benjamins Publishing. p. x. ISBN 9027295883. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  8. Childs, G. Tucker (2003). An Introduction to African Languages. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. x, 206, 211. ISBN 9027295883. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  9. The total number of languages natively spoken in Africa is variously estimated (depending on the delineation of language vs. dialect) at between 1,250 and 2,100. Heine, Bernd; Heine, Bernd, eds. (2000). African Languages: an Introduction. Cambridge University Press. Some counts estimate "over 3,000", e.g. Epstein, Edmund L.; Kole, Robert, eds. (1998). The Language of African Literature. Africa World Press. p. ix. ISBN 0-86543-534-0. Retrieved 2011-06-23. over 3,000 indigenous languages by some counts, and many creoles, pidgins, and lingua francas.. Niger-Congo alone accounts for the majority of languages (and the majority of population), estimated at 1,560 languages by SIL Ethnologue) ("Ethnologue report for Nigeria". Ethnologue Languages of the World.)
  10. Bantu peoples: 350M population, 450-650 groups: "Guthrie (1967-71) names some 440 Bantu 'varieties', Grimes (2000) has 501 (minus a few 'extinct' or 'almost extinct', Bastin et al. (1999) have 542, Maho (this volume) has some 660, and Mann et al. (1987) have c. 680." Derek Nurse, 2006, "Bantu Languages", in the Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, p. 2. Ethnologue report for Southern Bantoid lists a total of 535 languages. The count includes 13 Mbam languages which are not always included under "Narrow Bantu".
  11. including Copts in Egypt and Sudan (c. 15 million) and tribes such as the two largest in North Sinai, the al-Tarabin tribe and the al-Sawarka tribe. Sakr, Taha (16 May 2017). "North Sinai's second largest tribe al-Sawarka declares war against Sinai Province". Egypt Independent.
  12. 1 2 3 4 "The World Factbook: Nigeria". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 "The World Factbook: Niger". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  14. 1 2 3 4 "The World Factbook: Chad". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  15. 1 2 3 Peter Austin, One Thousand Languages (2008), p. 75, https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0520255607:"Kanuri is a major Saharan language spoken in the Lake Chad Basin in the Borno area of northeastern Nigeria, as well as in Niger, Cameroon, and Chad (where the variety is known as Kanembul[)]."
  16. "Ethnicity" of Arabic-speaking groups either "Arab" or "Berber-Arab", or by nationality, with "Arabs" having numerous subgroups, usually named clans or tribes (Libyans, Algerians, Tunisians, Moroccans, Badawi, Juba, Nubi, Egyptians, Sudanese, Shuwa/Baggara, Chadians), see dialects of Arabic
  17. 1 2 3 "The World Factbook: Central African Republic". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  18. Stefan Goodwin, Africas Legacies Of Urbanization (2006),p. 191, https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0739133489:"...and further west the even more numerous Sara [western Central African Republic, southern Chad, and northern Cameroon."
  19. Peoples of Africa: Burkina Faso-Comoros - Volume 2 (2001), p. 86, https://books.google.com/books?isbn=076147160X:"The Central African Republic is a land of many different peoples... The Sara (SAHR) live in the grain-growing lands of the north as well as across the border in Chad."
  20. 1 2 3 4 "The World Factbook: South Sudan". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  21. 1 2 "The World Factbook: Sudan". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  22. "People Cluster: Guinean". joshuaproject.net. The Joshua Project. 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  23. Nigeria at CIA World Factbook: "Igbo 18%" out of a population of 177 million (2014 estimate)
  24. Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la Démographie. In Senegal alone, estimated figure for 2007 is 1,840,712.1
  25. Gambia keep poor records of its ethnic minorities. Estimated Gambian figure is 31,900 (2006) Ethnologue.com
  26. Joshua Project. "Yoruba". United States Center for World Mission. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  27. National African Language Resource Center. "Yoruba" (pdf). Indiana University. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  28. "The World Factbook: Sudan". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
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