List of ethnic groups in China and Taiwan

Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The Chinese people refers to the Han 漢 people which is often misunderstood as Han Chinese, are the largest ethnic group, where (as of 2010) some 91.51%[1] of the population was classified as Han (~1.2 billion). Han is the name the Chinese have used for themselves since the Han Dynasty BC 202, whereas the name "Chinese" (used in the West) is of uncertain origin, but possibly derives ultimately from Sanskrit Cina-s "the Chinese," perhaps from the Qin dynasty. Besides the Han-Chinese majority of 92%, 55 other ethnic (minority) groups are categorized in present China, numbering approximately 105 million people (8%), mostly concentrated in the bordering northwest, north, northeast, south, and southwest but with some in central interior areas.

The major minority ethnic groups in China are Zhuang (16.9 million), Hui (10.5 million), Manchu (10.3 million), Uyghur (10 million), Miao (9.4 million), Yi (8.7 million), Tujia (8.3 million), Tibetan (6.2 million), Mongol (5.9 million), Dong (2.8 million), Buyei (2.8 million), Yao (2.7 million), Bai (1.9 million), Korean (1.8 million), Hani (1.6 million), Li (1.4 million), Kazakh (1.4 million), and Dai (1.2 million).[2]

Ethnic groups recognized by the People's Republic of China

Here are the 56 ethnic groups (listed by population) officially recognized by the People's Republic of China (39 in 1954; 54 by 1964; with the addition of the Jino people in 1979).[3]

English Name
Standard Romanization
CodeA
Mandarin Pinyin
Simplified Chinese
2010 National Shares 2010 PopulationB
2000 PopulationB
1990 PopulationB
Year of recognitionC
Han Chinese1HanHAHàn Zú汉族91.6474%1,220,844,5201,139,773,0081,042,482,1871954
ZhuangZhuangZHZhuàng Zú壮族1.2700%16,926,38116,187,16315,489,6301954
Hui2HuiHUHuí Zú回族0.7943%10,586,0879,828,1268,602,9781954
ManchuManMAMǎn Zú满族0.7794%10,387,95810,708,4649,821,1801954
UyghurUygurUGWéiwú'ěr Zú维吾尔族0.7555%10,069,3468,405,4167,214,4311954
Miao (includes Hmong)3MiaoMHMiáo Zú苗族0.7072%9,426,0078,945,5387,398,0351954
YiYiYIYí Zú彝族0.6538%8,714,3937,765,8586,572,1731954
TujiaTujiaTJTǔjiā Zú土家族0.6268%8,353,9128,037,0145,704,2231964
Tibetan4ZangZAZàng Zú藏族0.4713%6,282,1875,422,9544,593,3301954
MongolMongolMGMěnggǔ Zú蒙古族0.4488%5,981,8405,827,8084,806,8491954
Dong5DongDODòng Zú侗族0.2161%2,879,9742,962,9112,514,0141954
BouyeiBouyeiBYBùyī Zú布依族0.2153%2,870,0342,973,2172,545,0591954
YaoYaoYAYáo Zú瑶族0.2098%2,796,0032,638,8782,134,0131954
BaiBaiBABái Zú白族0.1451%1,933,5101,861,8951,594,8271954
KoreanChosŏnCSCháoxiǎn Zú朝鲜族0.1374%1,830,9291,929,6961,920,5971954
Hani6HaniHNHāní Zú哈尼族0.1246%1,660,9321,440,0291,253,9521954
LiLiLILí Zú黎族0.1098%1,463,0641,248,0221,110,9001954
KazakhKazakKZHāsàkè Zú哈萨克族0.1097%1,462,5881,251,0231,111,7181954
Dai7DaiDADǎi Zú傣族0.0946%1,261,3111,159,2311,025,1281954
SheSheSHShē Zú畲族0.0532%708,651710,039630,3781964
LisuLisuLSLìsù Zú傈僳族0.0527%702,839635,101574,8561954
DongxiangDongxiangDXDōngxiāng Zú东乡族0.0466%621,500513,826373,8721954
GelaoGelaoGLGēlǎo Zú仡佬族0.0413%550,746579,744437,9971964
LahuLahuLHLāhù Zú拉祜族0.0365%485,966453,765411,4761954
WaWaWAWǎ Zú佤族0.0322%429,709396,709351,9741954
SuiSuiSUShuǐ Zú水族0.0309%411,847407,000345,9931954
Nakhi8NaxiNXNàxī Zú纳西族0.0245%326,295309,477278,0091954
QiangQiangQIQiāng Zú羌族0.0232%309,576306,476198,2521954
TuTuTUTǔ Zú土族0.0217%289,565241,593191,6241954
Mulao9MulaoMLMùlǎo Zú仫佬族0.0162%216,257207,464159,3281964
XibeXibeXBXībó Zú锡伯族0.0143%190,481189,357172,8471954
KyrgyzKirgizKGKē'ěrkèzī Zú柯尔克孜族0.0140%186,708160,875141,5491954
Jingpo10JingpoJPJǐngpō Zú景颇族0.0111%147,828132,158119,2091954
DaurDaurDUDáwò'ěr Zú达斡尔族0.0099%131,992132,747121,3571964
SalarSalarSLSālā Zú撒拉族0.0098%130,607104,52187,6971954
BlangBlangBLBùlǎng Zú布朗族0.0090%119,63991,89182,2801964
Maonan11MaonanMNMáonán Zú毛南族0.0076%101,192107,18471,9681964
Tajik12TajikTATǎjíkè Zú塔吉克族0.0038%51,06941,05633,5381954
PumiPumiPMPǔmǐ Zú普米族0.0032%42,86133,62829,6571964
AchangAchangACĀchāng Zú阿昌族0.0030%39,55533,95427,7081964
NuNuNUNù Zú怒族0.0028%37,52328,77027,1231964
EvenkiEwenkiEWÈwēnkè Zú鄂温克族0.0023%30,87530,54526,3151954
Gin13GinGIJīng Zú京族0.0021%28,19922,58418,9151964
JinoJinoJNJīnuò Zú基诺族0.0017%23,14320,89918,0211979
De'ang14DeangDEDé'áng Zú德昂族0.0015%20,55617,93515,4621964
BonanBonanBOBǎo'ān Zú保安族0.0015%20,07416,50512,2121954
RussianRussRSÉluósī Zú俄罗斯族0.0012%15,39315,63113,5041954
YugurYugurYGYùgù Zú裕固族0.0011%14,37813,74712,2971954
UzbekUzbekUZWūzībiékè Zú乌孜别克族0.0008%10,56912,42314,5021954
MonbaMonbaMBMénbā Zú门巴族0.0008%10,5618,9287,4751964
OroqenOroqenORÈlúnchūn Zú鄂伦春族0.0006%8,6598,2166,9651954
DerungDerungDRDúlóng Zú独龙族0.0005%6,9307,4315,8161964
Hezhen15HezhenHZHèzhé Zú赫哲族0.0004%5,3544,6644,2451964
Gaoshan16GaoshanGSGāoshān Zú高山族0.0003%4,0094,4882,9091954
LhobaLhobaLBLuòbā Zú珞巴族0.0003%3,6822,9702,3121965
TatarsTatarTTTǎtǎ'ěr Zú塔塔尔族0.0003%3,5564,8954,8731954
UndistinguishednoneWèi Shìbié Mínzú未识别民族0.0480%640,101734,438749,341-
Naturalized CitizennoneWàiguórén Jiārù Zhōngguójí外国人加入中国籍0.0001%1,4489413,421-

AGB 3304-91 "Names of nationalities of China in romanization with codes";[4]
BThe population only includes China and the Republic of China (Taiwan);
CFor ethnic groups officially recognised in 1964 or earlier, this is the year of first inclusion in the national census, which were in 1954[5] and 1964;[6]
1Also included are the Chuanqing;
2Also includes Utsuls of Hainan, descended from Cham refugees;
3A subset of which is also known as Hmong;
4including Amdowa and Khampa, as well as roughly half of Pumi speakers, the remainder of whom are classified as a separate Pumi ethnicity;
5Also known as Kam;
6Also included are the Sangkong;
7This category includes several different Tai-speaking groups historically referred to as Bai-yi;
8Also included are the Mosuo;
9Also included are the 木佬人 (Qago);
10Known as Kachin in Myanmar;
11Also included are the Then;
12Actually not Tajik people but Pamiri people;
13The same group as Vietnamese or Kinh people in Sino-Vietnamese;
14Known as Palaung in Myanmar;
15The same group as Nanai on the Russian side of the border;
16A collective name for all Taiwanese aborigine groups in Taiwan.

Taiwanese aborigines

The People's Republic of China government officially refers to all Taiwanese aborigines (Chinese: 原住民族; pinyin: Yuánzhùmínzú), as Gaoshan (Chinese: 高山族; pinyin: Gāoshānzú), whereas the Republic of China (Taiwan) recognizes 16 groups of Taiwanese aborigines. The term Gaoshan has a different connotation in Taiwan than it does in mainland China. While several thousands of these aborigines have migrated to Fujian province in mainland China, most remain in Taiwan.[7] Due to the contested political status and legal status of Taiwan, the PRC classification of Taiwanese aborigines may be controversial.

Taiwanese Han "blood nationalists" have in the past claimed that they have Plains Aboriginal (Chinese: 平埔族; pinyin: Píngpuzú), ancestry in order to promote Taiwan independence, claiming an identity different from that of mainland Chinese. However, genetic tests showed differences between them and plains aborigines, and given that they usually were recent migrants, their claims were rejected by descendants of Taiwanese Plains Aborigines.[8]

"Undistinguished" ethnic minority groups

This is a list of ethnic groups in China that are not officially recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China.

  • Äynu people (艾努人 Àinǔ rén)
  • Gejia (家人 Gèjiā rén)
  • Bajia (八甲人 Bājiǎ rén)
  • Deng (僜人 Dèng rén)
  • Hu (户人 Hù rén)
  • Khmu (克木人 Kèmù rén)
  • Kucong (Yellow Lahu / Lahu Shi; 苦聪人 / 苦聰人 Kǔcōng rén)
  • Mang (芒人 Máng rén)
  • Sherpas (夏尔巴人 / 夏爾巴人 Xià'ěrbā rén)
  • Tankas (疍家人 / 蜑家人 Dànjiā rén) including Fuzhou Tanka
  • Tebbu people (迭部人 Diébù rén)
  • Tuvans (图瓦人 Túwǎ rén)
  • Waxiang (瓦乡人 Wǎxiāng rén)
  • Yi (羿人 Yì rén)
  • Jews (犹太人 / 猶太人 Yóutài rén) (Jewish people of China and Jews in general)
  • Yamatos (大和民族 Dàhé mínzú) and Ryukyuans (琉球民族 Liúqiú mínzú) living as permanent residents in Taiwan and Northeast China
  • Macanese (土生葡人 Tǔshēng pú rén), mixed race Catholic Portuguese speakers who lived in Macau since 16th century of various ethnic origins
  • Utsuls (回辉人 Huíhuī rén), descendants of Cham Muslims who fled Vietnamese invasions of Champa

During the Fifth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2000), 734,438 persons in the Chinese mainland, 97% of them in Guizhou, were specifically recorded as belonging to "Undistinguished ethnic groups".[9] Presumably, other members of such groups may have been counted within larger "recognized" groups.

The various Han Chinese subgroups, such as Hakka people and Cantonese people are all considered just Han by the PRC government.

Ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong and Macau are special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China. The governments of Hong Kong and Macau do not use the official PRC ethnic classification system, nor does the PRC's official classification system take ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau into account. As a result, minority groups such as Europeans (mainly English), and South or Southeast Asians (mainly Filipinos, Indians, Indonesians, Nepalese, and Pakistanis) live in Hong Kong.

See also

References

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