List of empires

This is an alphabetical list of empires. The table may be resorted by other columns if your browser supports this function.

Empires and dynasties

Empire Origin Capital From To Duration Note
Achaemenid EmpirePersiaVarious, including Pasargadae, Ecbatana, Persepolis, Susa, Babylon550 BC330 BC220The first Persian Empire, and the largest one in Classical Antiquity, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Afsharid DynastyPersiaMashhad1736179660
Ahom DynastyNorth East IndiaCharaideo, Garhgaon, Rangpur (Ahom capital), Jorhat12281838600It is well known for maintaining its sovereignty for nearly 600 years and successfully resisting Mughal expansion in Northeast India.
Akkadian EmpireSumerAkkad2300 BC2200 BC100
Aksumite EmpireEthiopiaAxum150940790Succeeded by the Ethiopian Empire.
AkwamuWest AfricaAkwamufie, Nyanoase15051867362
Almohad DynastyMoroccoMarrakech, Seville11211269148
Almoravid DynastyMoroccoAghmat (1040–1062), Marrakech (1062–1147)10401147107
Angevin EmpireEngland, FranceNo official capital. Court was generally held at Angers and Chinon1154124288
Armenian EmpireArmeniaTigranakert190 BC428618Tigranes the Great took the title king of kings.
AssyriaMesopotamiaAssur, later Nineveh2025 BC609 BC1119
Ashanti EmpireWest AfricaKumasi16701902232
Austrian EmpireAustriaVienna1804186763Preceded by the Holy Roman Empire.
Austria-HungaryAustria, HungaryVienna, Budapest1867191851Often referred to as the "Austro-Hungarian Empire". Formed out of the Austrian Empire as a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. Officially a real union of the rump Austrian Empire (Cisleithania) and the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen/Transleithania. Ruler was therefore referred to as Kaiser und König ("Emperor-King", literally "Emperor and King")
Ayyubid DynastyMiddle EastCairo, Damascus, Hama11711341170Founded by Saladin, See also List of Muslim empires and dynasties.
Aztec EmpireMesoamericaTenochtitlan1428152193The capital of Mexico, Mexico City, is built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan.
Babylonian EmpireMesopotamiaBabylon1900 BC1600 BC300See also Neo-Babylonian Empire.
BalhaeNorth Korea, ManchuriaSanggyeong698926228Successor of Goguryeo.
Bamana EmpireWest AfricaSégou17121861149Also known as the Bambara Empire or Ségou Empire
Belgian Colonial EmpireBelgiumBrussels1901196261Overseas possessions were referred to as "the colonies" rather than an empire.
Benin EmpireNigeriaBenin City14401897457
Bornu EmpireNigeriaNgazargamu13871893506The continuation of the Kanem Empire.
Empire of BrazilBrazilRio de Janeiro1822188967Established after Pedro I of Brazil declared the independence of Brazil from Portugal.
Britannic EmpireBritainLondinium28629610Was a break-away state of the Roman Empire. See also Carausian Revolt.
British Colonial EmpireUnited KingdomLondon16031997415 as of 2018The largest Empire in world history. Precursor to the modern Commonwealth of Nations. Empire still continues in the form of British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II remains as sovereign.
British RajIndian SubcontinentCalcutta (1858–1912), New Delhi (1912–1947)1858194789Governed by the Crown and part of the British Empire. Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India in 1876.
Bruneian EmpireBorneoNot specified, possibly Kota Batu13681888520Lasted until it became a British protectorate in 1888.
First Bulgarian EmpireBalkansPliska (680–893), Preslav (893–972), Skopie (972–992), Ohrid (992–1018)6801018338Founded by Khan Asparukh. Under Tsar Simeon I became the first powerful Slavic Empire. Falls to the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Basil II.
Second Bulgarian EmpireBalkansTarnovo11851422237Successor of the First Bulgarian Empire. Under the Tsars Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II became the most powerful state in the Balkans.
Buyid DynastyPersiaShiraz9341055121
Byzantine EmpireEastern Roman Empire (Greece, Anatolia, Africa, Palestine, Syria, Italy)Constantinople39514531058The eastern half of the Roman Empire. Term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.
Caliphate of CórdobaIberian PeninsulaCórdoba7561031275See also Islamic Empire.
Carthaginian EmpireNorth AfricaCarthage650 BC146 BC504
Chagatai KhanateTransoxaniaAlmaliq, Qarshi12251687462Division of the Mongol Empire.
Chalukya DynastyIndiaBadami543753210
Chera DynastyIndiaVanchi Muthur300 BC300600A Tamil Empire.
Chola DynastyIndiaVarious, including Poompuhar, Urayur, Pazhaiyaarai, Thanjavur, Gangaikonda Cholapuram350 BC12791629A Tamil Empire.
Danish Colonial EmpireDenmark (as Denmark-Norway 1536 - 1814)Copenhagen13501953603See also List of former Danish colonies.
Delhi SultanateIndiaDelhi12061527321
Durrani EmpireAfghanistanKandahar, Kabul1747182375
Dutch EmpireNetherlandsAmsterdam15681975407See also Dutch East India Company and Dutch West India Company.
Egyptian EmpireEgyptVarious, including Thebes, Akhetaten, Pi-Ramesses, Memphis1550 BC1077 BC473See also 18th Dynasty, 19th Dynasty & 20th Dynasty.
Ethiopian EmpireEthiopiaAddis Ababa11371974837
Fatimid CaliphateEgyptMahdia (909–969), Cairo (969–1171)9091171262See also Islamic Empire.
First French empireFranceParis18041814/181510
Second French EmpireFranceParis1852187018
French colonial empiresFranceParis15341980446End of Empire was formally recognized with the end of French presence in condominium of Vanuatu (see New Hebrides).
Frankish EmpireWestern EuropeVarious, including Soissons, Paris, Reims, Orléans, Metz & Aachen250950700
Gallic EmpireRhineland-PalatinateColonia Agrippina26027414Broke off from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
Gaza EmpireSouthern AfricaNot specified1824189571
Georgian EmpireGeorgiaKutaisi, Tbilisi10081490482Established in 1008 as an unified kingdom. Georgian kings took title "King of Kings" and ruled over large territory consisting of Georgian, Armenian and Muslim areas, as well as numerous client states. Officially dissolved at 1490.
German EmpireGermanyBerlin1871191847See also German Colonial Empire.
Ghana EmpireMauritania, and Western MaliKoumbi Saleh7901240450The Empire became known in Europe and Arabia as the "Ghana Empire" by the title of its ruler (meaning "Warrior King").
Ghaznavid DynastyAfghanistanGhazni later Lahore9631187224
Ghurid DynastyAfghanistanFiruzkuh1148121567
GoguryeoKoreaJolbon, Gungnae City, Pyongyang37 BC668705Predecessor of Balhae and Goryeo.
GoryeoKoreaGaegyeong, Ganghwa9181392474Successor of Goguryeo. Unification of the Korean Peninsula. State maintained as an empire between 918 and 1274.
Gorkha EmpireGreater Nepal16001850250Unification of Greater Nepal. State maintained as an empire between 1600 and 1840.
Göktürk KhaganateInner AsiaÖtüken552747195552–603 First empire, 603–658 Double empire, 658–681 Dark age, 681–747 Second empire.
Golden HordeCentral AsiaSarai Batu12401502260Break-away state of the Mongol Empire.
Empire of Great FuloSenegalTekrur15141776262
Great Moravian EmpireCentral EuropeMikulčice-Valy83390067The word "Moravia" did not refer only to present-day Moravia.
Great Seljuq EmpireAral Sea, Asia Minor, PersiaNishapur and later on Rey10371194157Turkish empire, Predecessor of the Sultanate of Rum.
Gurjara-Pratihara IndiaKannauj6001136660Founded by great king of Gujjars
Gupta EmpireIndiaPataliputra320550230Founded by Sri Gupta
Han DynastyChinaChang'an, Luoyang, Xuchang206 BC220426Founded by Liu Bang the High Ancestor
Empire of HarshaNorthern IndiaKannauj60664741Founded by Harshavardhana; collapsed after his death.
Hephthalite EmpireAfghanistanKabul420567147
Hittite EmpireAnatoliaHattusa1460 BC1180 BC280See also Neo-Hittite.
Holy Roman EmpireCentral Europeno capital city9621806844Referred to simply as the Roman Empire (not to be confused with the actual Roman Empire) before 1157, when it became the Holy Empire. Holy Roman Empire is attested from 1254. Was officially known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after 1512, although this designation had fallen out of use again by the 18th century. See Holy Roman Empire § Name
Hotaki DynastyPersiaIsfahan1709173829
Hoysala EmpireIndiaBelur, Halebidu10261343317
Hunnic EmpireEurasiaNot specified37046999
Idrisid dynastyMoroccoFes788974186Founders of the first Moroccan state.
IlkhanatePersiaMaragheh, Tabriz, Soltaniyeh1256133579Division of the Mongol Empire.
Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)IsraelJerusalem1050 BC586 BC486Considers the Start of Saul's reign, through the dual kingdoms of the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) and Kingdom of Judah, until the Babylonian conquest of Judah.
Imperial State of IranPersiaTehran1925197953The last Imperial dynasty of Iran.
Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyo)Andes (Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, parts of Chile, Argentina and Colombia)Cusco1438153395The largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
Italian Colonial EmpireItalyRome1885194358See also Imperial Italy (fascist).
Empire of JapanJapanTokyo1868194779Emperor's government took control of the country in 1868. Regional hegemony in East Asia ended in 1945. The new constitution of 1947 formally abolished the empire.[1]
Jin dynasty (265–420)ChinaLuoyang (265–311), Chang'an (312–316), Jiankang (317–420)265420155Subdivided into two dynasties. Western Jìn Dynasty, (265–316) Eastern Jìn Dynasty (317–420).
Jin dynasty (1115–1234)Northern China, ManchuriaHuining, Zhongdu, Kaifeng11151234119Also known as the Jurchens, were the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty.
Jolof EmpireWest AfricaLinguère13501549199Also known as the Wollof Empire. Succeeded by the Kingdom of Jolof (1549–1875).
Kaabu EmpireWest AfricaKansala15371867330Also written Gabu, Ngabou, and N’Gabu'.
Kanem EmpireChadNjimi7001387687
Kara-Khanid KhanateTurkistanKashgar8401212372First Turkic dynasty to embrace Islam.
Khazar KhaganatePontic steppe, North CaucasusBalanjar, later Atil7001000300Founded by Western Turks, the members of the royal family embraced Judaism.
Khmer EmpireCambodiaHariharalaya (802–889), Angkor (889–1431)8021431629Succeeded from the kingdom of Chenla.
Khilji DynastyAfghanistanKabul, Delhi1290132030
Khwarezmid DynastyPersiaUrgench10771221144
Kong EmpireWest AfricaKong17101898298Also known as the Wattara Empire or Ouattara Empire.
Korean EmpireKorean PeninsulaHanseong1897191013Was the last ruling Korean dynasties.
Kushan EmpireAfghanistanVarious, including Mathura, Peshawar, Begram, Taxila30345315
Kushite EmpireEgypt, NubiaNot specified760 BC656 BC104
Latin EmpireThrace, Asia MinorConstantinople1204126157See also Latinokratia.
Later Lê dynastyVietnamĐông Kinh14281789361
Liao DynastyChinaShangjing9151125210
Lodi SultanateAfghanistanDelhi1451152675
Macedonian EmpireMacedonian KingdomPella334 BC323 BC11Founded by Alexander the Great.
Majapahit EmpireIndonesian ArchipelagoMajapahit, Wilwatikta12931527234
Mali EmpireWest AfricaNiani, later Ka-ba12351610375A Mandinka empire founded by Sundiata Keita.
Mamluk SultanateEgypt, SyriaCairo12501517267See also Islamic Empire.
ManchukuoManchuriaHsinking1932194513Created as a Puppet state of the Japanese Empire, with Emperor Puyi (the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty) installed as nominal regent and emperor.
Maratha EmpireIndiaRaigad, later Satara16741818144Founded by Shivaji Maharaj, also known as the Maratha Confederacy.
Marinid dynastyMoroccoFes12441465221
Massina EmpireWest AfricaHamdullahi1820186242
Mauryan EmpireAncient IndiaPataliputra321 BC185 BC136Founded by Chandragupta Maurya.
Median EmpirePersiaEcbatana625 BC549 BC76First Persian Empire, Founded by Deioces.
First Mexican EmpireMexicoMexico City182118232Preceded the Second Mexican Empire which was short lived (1864–1867). See also Mexican Imperial Orders.
Second Mexican EmpireMexicoMexico City186418673Succeeded the First Mexican Empire which was short lived (1821–1823). See also Mexican Imperial Orders.
Ming DynastyChinaNanjing (1368–1421), Beijing (1421–1644) 13681644276Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang the Great Marshal.
Mongol EmpireMongoliaKarakorum12061368162Split into four empires (Yuan Dynasty, Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde). Largest contiguous land empire.
Mughal EmpirepreBritish IndiaAgra, Delhi15261758232Founded by Babur. "Mughal" is a Persian word for the Mongols.
Nanda EmpireIndiaPataliputra450 BC350 BC100
Neo-Babylonian EmpireMesopotamiaBabylon626 BC539 BC87See also Babylonian Empire.
Nguyễn DynastyVietnamPhú Xuân18021945143Was the last ruling Vietnamese Dynasty.
North Sea EmpireDenmarkRibe1016103519As one historian put it: "When the 11th century began its fourth decade, Canute was, with the single exception of the Emperor, the most imposing ruler in Latin Christendom. ... [H]e was lord of four important realms and the overlord of other kingdoms. Though technically Canute was counted among the kings, his position among his fellow-monarchs was truly imperial. Apparently he held in his hands the destinies of two great regions: the British Isles and the Scandinavian peninsulas. His fleet all but controlled two important seas, the North and the Baltic. He had built an Empire."[2]
Empire of NicaeaBithyniaNicaea1204126157Successor state of the Byzantine Empire.
Northern Yuan DynastyMongoliaShangdu, Yingchang, Karakorum13681635267Created after the expulsion of the Yuan Dynasty from China in 1368.
Omani EmpireOmanMuscat16981958260See Oman.
Ottoman EmpireAnatoliaSöğüt, Bursa, Edirne, İstanbul 12991922623Predecessor of the Republic of Turkey.
Oyo EmpireSouthwestern NigeriaOyo-Ile14001905505
Pala EmpireBengal, British East IndiaPataliputra7501174424
Palmyrene EmpireSyriaPalmyra26027313Broke off from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
Pandyan EmpireIndiaMadurai . Also Tirunelveli, Korkai for few years500 BC13501850A Tamil Empire.'
Parthian EmpirePersiaVarious, including Asaak, Hecatompylos, Ecbatana, Ctesiphon, Nisa247 BC224471Third Persian Empire, Founded by Arsaces I.
Pontic EmpirePontusAmaseia, Sinope120 BC47 BC73Mithridates VI had the title: King of Kings.
Portuguese EmpirePortugalLisbon, Rio de Janeiro (1815–1821)14151999584Was the first global empire and the earliest and longest lived of the colonial Western European empires. See also United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Ptolemaic EmpireEgyptAlexandria305 BC30 BC275See also Diadochi.
Qajar DynastyPersiaTehran17941925131
Qin DynastyChinaXianyang221 BC206 BC15First dynasty of the Imperial Period.
Qing DynastyChinaShenyang, Beijing16441912268Last dynasty of the Imperial Period.
Rashidun CaliphateSaudi ArabiaMedina, Kufa63266129Predecessor of the Umayyad Caliphate, See also Islamic Empire.
Rashtrakuta DynastyIndiaManyakheta753982229
Roman EmpireItalyRome, Constantinople27 BC14531480Together with The Roman Kingdom, The Roman Republic and the Byzantine Empire, direct Roman states lasted from 753 BC until 1453 AD, 2206 years.
Rouran KhaganateInner ChinaNot specified330555225
Rozwi EmpireSouthern AfricaDanangombe16601866206
Russian Empire (Romanov)RussiaSaint Petersburg17211917196Successor state of the Tsardom of Russia.
Saadi dynastyMoroccoMarrakech15541659105Destroyed and colonized the Songhai Empire.
Safavid DynastyPersiaTabriz, Qazvin, Esfahan15011736235
Saffarid DynastyPersiaZaranj8671002135
Sassanid DynastyPersiaCtesiphon224651427Fourth Persian Empire.
Satavahana DynastyIndiaAmaravathi village, Guntur district Dharanikota230 BC220450An Andhra Dynasty which preceded the Vengi Dynasty of Andhra.
Samanid DynastyPersiaBalkh, Bukhara819999180
Seleucid EmpirePersia, Mesopotamia, SyriaSeleucia, Antioch312 BC63 BC249See also Diadochi.
Serbian EmpireSerbiaSkopje, Prizren1346137125Founded by Stephen Uroš IV (Dušan the Mighty), fell into feudal disarray after his death.
Shu HanChinaChengdu22126342See also Three Kingdoms.
Siam EmpireThailandBangkok17821932150
Sikh EmpirePunjab region, IndiaAmritsar17331849116Preceded the British Empire in the Indian subcontinent.
Sokoto CaliphateWest AfricaSokoto (1804-1850), (1851-1902), Gudu (1804), Birnin Konni (1850, 1903)1804190399
Song DynastyChinaBianjing (960–1127), Lin'an (1127–1279) 9601279319Founded by Zhao Kuangyi the Great Ancestor.
Songhai EmpireWest AfricaGao13401591251Former vassal of the Mali Empire which became one of the largest African empires in history.
Spanish EmpireIberian PeninsulaMadrid14021975573Was founded with the conquest of the Canary Islands. It was one of the first global empires.
Srivijaya EmpireIndonesian ArchipelagoPalembang, Mataram6831293610was a powerful ancient thalassocratic Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra,Indonesia, then based on Mataram (Medang Kingdom) under Sailendra's Dynasty
Sui DynastyChinaChang'an58161837
Shunga EmpireIndiaPataliputra, Vidisa185 BC73 BC112Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India.
Swedish EmpireSwedenStockholm16111718107See also Swedish overseas colonies.
Tahirid DynastyPersiaNishapur82187352
Tang DynastyChinaChang'an (618–904), Luoyang (904–907) 618907289Founded By Li Yuan (aka. Emperor Gaozu of Tang).
Tay Son DynastyVietnamPhú Xuân1778180224
Empire of ThessalonicaEpirus, Kingdom of ThessalonicaThessaloniki1224124642Evolved from the Despotate of Epirus.
Third ReichGermanyBerlin (1933–1945), Flensburg (1945)1933194512Nazi Germany signed a treaty (Tripartite Pact) with the Japanese and Italian Empires.
Tibetan EmpireTibetLhasa755870115
Tondo DynastyPhilippinesTondo9001587687
Timurid EmpirePersia and Central AsiaSamarkand, Herat13701526156Persianized form of the Mongolian word kürügän, Turko-Mongol Empire.
TlemcenAlgeriaTlemcen12351556321Zayyanid dynasty
Empire of TrebizondPontusTrebizond12041461257Successor state of the Byzantine Empire and client state of Kingdom of Georgia
Toltec EmpireMesoamericaTollan-Xicocotitlan4961122626
Toucouleur EmpireWest AfricaSégou1848189345
Tu'i Tonga EmpireTonga, Pacific OceanMu'a9501865915See History of Tonga.
Turgesh KhaganateTurkistanBalasagun69976667Founded as a successor of West Turkish empire.
Umayyad CaliphateSyriaDamascus, Córdoba (Capital-in-exile)66175089Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate, See also Islamic Empire.
Uyunid dynastyArabianAl-Hasa, Qatif10761253163The Uyunids, were a Sunni Arab dynasty that ruled Bahrain for 163 years, from the 11th to the 13th centuries.
Uyghur KhaganateCentral AsiaOrdubaliq742848106742–848 Founded as a successor of Göktürk Khaganate, 848–1036 Gansu state, 856–1209 Turfan state.
Vijayanagara EmpireSouth IndiaVijayanagara13361646310The founding of the original kingdom was based on the principality of Anegondi.
Wari EmpirePeru, BoliviaHuari/Tiwanaku5001100600It is a matter of conflict as to whether it was a real organized state that could be called an empire. If so, it would be considered the first empire in the Americas.
Wassoulou EmpireWest AfricaBissandugu1878189545Also known as the Mandinka Empire.
Wei EmpireChinaLuoyang22026545See also Three Kingdoms.
Western Chalukya EmpireSouth IndiaManyakheta, Basavakalyan9731189216
Western Roman EmpireItalyMediolanum, Ravenna39547681The western half of the Roman Empire.
Eastern WuChinaWuchang, Jianye22928051See also Three Kingdoms.
Western Xia DynastyChinaXingqing10381227189Also called the Tangut Dynasty.
Xin DynastyChinaChang'an92314The Xin Dynasty had only one ruling Emperor.
Yuan DynastyChina, MongoliaDadu1271136897Division of the Mongol Empire. The Yuan emperors had nominal supremacy over western khanates.
Zand DynastyPersiaShiraz1750179444
Zhou DynastyChinaFenghao, Wangcheng, Chengzhou1046 BC256 BC794Zenith of bronze age in China
Zulu EmpireSouth AfricaKwaBulawayo, Ulundi1818189779

Possible and informal empires

These governments, confederations and other entities have sometimes been informally referred to as "empires". Some did not fit the modern definition of empire (e.g. the Delian League), some were self-proclaimed by their first and often last ruler, others were short-lived attempts to turn an existing government into an empire, and there are also instances of the word "empire" being used to refer to unofficial spheres of influence which do not consider themselves empires.

"Empire" Origin Capital From To Duration Note
American EmpireUnited StatesWashington, D.C.1776Present242The concept of an American Empire was first popularized during the presidency of James K. Polk who led the United States into the Mexican–American War of 1846. In recent times the concept has been revived to refer to the sphere of influence of the United States by critics of the United States.
Athenian Empire (Delian League)Ancient GreeceDelos island478 BC404 BC74Also known as Delian League. It was an association of Greek city-states.
Second Athenian LeagueAncient GreeceAthens378 BC355 BC23Second Athenian League, headed by Athens primarily for self-defense against the growth of Sparta and the Persian Empire.
Central African EmpireCentral African RepublicBangui197619793President Jean-Bédel Bokassa declared himself Emperor Bokassa I.
Empire of ChinaChinaBeijing191519161Was a short-lived attempt by Yuan Shikai to reinstate the Imperial Monarchy.
First Empire of HaitiNorth AmericaPort-au-Prince180418062

First Haitian Empire, Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared himself Emperor Jacques I.

Second Empire of HaitiNorth AmericaPort-au-Prince1849185910

Second Haitian Empire, Faustin Soulouque is proclaimed Emperor Faustin I.

Grand Duchy of LithuaniaLithuaniaVilnius12001569369It was the largest state in Europe in the 15th century.
Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthPoland, LithuaniaKraków15691795226It was formed by the Union of Lublin in 1569, between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and one of the most populous countries of 16th and 17th-century Europe, with some 390,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million at its peak in the early 17th century.[3][4][5][6][7][8]
Roman RepublicItalyRome509 BC27 BC482Predecessor of the Roman Empire. Technically a Republic, had imperial holdings throughout its existence.
Soviet EmpireSoviet UnionMoscow1922199169A political term for the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union used by its critics.

See also

References

  1. "Chronological table 5 1 December 1946 – 23 June 1947". National Diet Library. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
  2. Larson, Laurence M (1912). Canute the Great, 995(circ)-1035, and the rise of Danish imperialism during the Viking age. Putnam.
  3. Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: a history. Oxford: Oxford University 5555Press. p. 554. ISBN 9780198201717. Poland-Lithuania was another country which experienced its 'Golden Age' during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The realm of the last Jagiellons was absolutely the largest state in Europe.
  4. Wandycz, Piotr Stefan (2001). The price of freedom: a history of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to the present (2nd ed.). London [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-415-25491-5. The multinational character of the Habsburg monarchy was comparable to that of the Commonwealth [...]
  5. McKenna, Amy, ed. (2014). Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. Britannica guide to countries of the European Union. Chicago: Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 203. ISBN 9781615309917. Lithuania was also a powerful empire and dominated much of eastern Europe in the 14th–16th centuries in close alignment with Poland; then, from 1569, it was part of a confederation with Poland [...]
  6. Lozny, Ludomir (2005). "Poland". In Skutsch, Carl. Encyclopedia of the world's minorities. 3. New York [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 963. ISBN 9781135193881. It was indeed an Eastern European empire, a multiethnic and multicultural state with great economic strength and strong military power, controlling most of central and eastern European politics.
  7. Kupisz, Dariusz (2012). "The Polish-Lithuanian army in the reign of King Stefan Bathory (1576–1586)". In Davies, Brian L. Warfare in Eastern Europe, 1500-1800. History of warfare. 72. Boston: Brill. p. 63. ISBN 9789004221963. In terms of territorial expanse in Europe the Polish-Lithuanian state was surpassed only by Russia and the Ottoman Empire and in respect to population was behind only France, Spain, and the German Empire.
  8. Davies, Brian L. (2011). Empire and military revolution in Eastern Europe: Russia's Turkish wars in the eighteenth century. Continuum studies in military history. London [u.a.]: Continuum. p. 29. ISBN 9781441170040. Poland-Lithuania had entered the seventeenth century as one of the great powers in Eastern Europe.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.